Classification of malocclusion in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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  • 1. CLASSIFICATION OF MALOCCLUSION INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMYwww.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 2. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM• IS A GROUPING OF CLINICAL CASES OF SIMILAR APPEARANCE FOR EASE IN HANDLING AND DISCUSSION,IT IS NOT A SYSTEM FOR DIAGNOSIS ,METHOD FOR DETERMINING PROGNOSIS OR A WAY OF DEFINING TREATMENT www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 3. OC UPCLUSION CLOSING “CLOSING UP” www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 4. DEFINITIONTHE RELATIONSHIP OF THE MAXILLARYAND MANDIBULAR TEETH WHEN THE JAWSARE CLOSED IN CENTRIC RELATIONWITHOUT STRAIN OF MUSCULATURE ORDISPLACEMENT OF CONDYLES IN THEIRFOSSAE. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 5. NORMAL AND IDEAL OCCLUSION “NORMAL” IMPLIES TO THE VARIATIONS AROUND AN AVERAGE OR MEAN VALUE.“IDEAL” IS A HYPOTHETICAL CONCEPT OR A STANDARDIZED GOAL. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 6. SIX KEYS OF NORMAL OCCLUSION 1.MOLAR INTER-ARCHRELATIONSHIP 2.MESIODISTAL CROWN ANGULATION 3.LABIOLINGUAL CROWN INCLINATION 4.ABSENCE OF ROTATION 5.TIGHT CONTACTS 6.CURVE OF SPEE www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 7. L I N E OF O C C L U S I Owww.indiandentalacademy.co N
  • 8. C A T E R N A R Y C U R V Ewww.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 9. ANY DEVIATION IN NORMAL OCCLUSION. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 10. WHY TO CLASSIFY? www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 11. REASONS FOR CLASSIFYING TO GROUP CERTAIN MALOCCLUSIONS TOGETHER WHICH MAY OR MAY NOT HAVE THE SAME ETIOLOGY. EASE OF REFERENCE, COMPARISON AND COMMUNICATION. THINKING OF THE POSSIBLE TREATMENT MODALITIES THAT MAY BE NEEDED IN A PARTICULAR CASE. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 12. VARIOUS SYSTEMS OF CLASSIFICATION ANGLE SYSTEM AND ITS MODIFICATIONS SIMONS SYSTEM AETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATIONBAUME CLASSIFICATION OF PRIMARY TEETHACKERMANN AND PROFITT CLASSIFICATION BALLARDS CLASSIFICATION WHO CLASSIFICATION www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 13. ANGLE SYSTEM BY EDWARD HARTLEY ANGLE WAS CONSIDERED THE FATHER OF MODERN ORTHODONTICS BASED ON THE ANTERO POSTERIOR RELATIONSHIP OF THE JAWS WITH EACH OTHER CONSIDERS MAXILLARY FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 14. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 15. CLASS II DIVISION I DIVISION II TYPE A TYPE B TYPE CCLASS II SUB DIV TRUECLASS III PSUEDOCLASS III SUB DIV www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 16. Angle’s classification of malocclusion• It was given by Edward Angle in 1899• Based on the mesio-distal relation of the teeth, dental arches and jaws• Maxillary 1st permanent molar- key to occlusion www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 17. Class I malocclusionClass I molar relationship Mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the buccal groove of the mandibular 1st permanent molar www.indiandentalacademy.co
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  • 20. • Crowding, spacing, rotations missing tooth etc.• Normal skeletal and normal muscle relationship• Class I bimaxillary protrusion– normal class I relationship but dentition of both the arches are forwardly placed in relation to facial profile www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 21. Angle’s class II malocclusion• Class II molar relationship- disto buccal cusp of the upper first permanent molar occludes in the buccal groove of the lower 1st molar• It is sub classified into class II division 1 class II division 2 class II subdivision www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 22. Class II div 1• Class II molar relation• Proclined upper incisors –increased overjet• Presence of abnormal muscle activity- characterstic feature• Altered tongue positon- accentuates• narrowing of upper arch• Lip trap- lower lip cushions the palatal aspect of the upper teeth www.indiandentalacademy.co
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  • 24. Class II div 2• Class II molar relation• Lingually inclined upper central incisors• Labially tipped lateral incisors overlapping the centrals• Normal perioral muscle activity• Abnormal backward path of closure www.indiandentalacademy.co
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  • 27. Class II subdivision » Class II molar relation on one side and class I on other www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 28. Class III MALOCCLUSIONCLASS III MOLAR RELATIONSHIP-MESIOBUCCAL CUSP OF MAXILLARY FIRSTMOLAR OCCLUDES IN THE INTERDENTALSPACE BETWEEN THE DISTAL CUSP OFMANDIBULAR FIRST MOLAR AND SECOND MOLAR.• CLASSIFIED INTO- TRUE CLASS III PSEUDO CLASS III www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 29. Class III MALOCCLUSION www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 30. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 31. TRUE CLASS III• Class III molar relation• LOWER INCISORS LINGUALLY INCLINED• LOWER TONGUE POSTURE- NARROW UPPER ARCH www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 32. PSEUDO CLASS III• CAUSED BY FORWARD MOVEMENT OF THE MANDIBLE- POSTURAL OR HABITUAL CLASS III• CAUSES OF PSEUDO CLASS III:- OCCLUSAL PREMATURITY LOSS OF DECIDUOUS MOLARS LARGE ADENOIDS www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 33. CLASS III SUBDIVISION• CLASS III MOLAR RELATION ON ONE SIDE AND CLASS I RELATION ON THE OTHER www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 34. DRAWBACKS OF ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATION• FIRST PERMANENT MOLAR NOT A FIXED POINT• CLASSIFICATION IS NOT POSSIBLE IF FIRST MOLARS ARE MISSING• MALOCCLUSION IS CONSIDERED ONLY IN A-P DIRECTION• INDIVIDUAL TOOTH MALOCCLUSION IS NOT CONSIDERED www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 35. SHORT COMINGS OF ANGLE’S CLASSIFICATIONDOES NOT CONSIDER MALOCCLUSION IN VERTICALAND TRANSVERSE PLANE.CANNOT BE APPLIED IF FIRST PERMANENT MOLARSARE MISSING.CANNOT BE USED IN DECIDUOUS DENTITION.DOES NOT INDICATE THE ETIOLOGY OFMALOCCLUSION.NO SKELETAL RELATIONSHIP IS CONSIDEREDMALFUNCTIONS OF MUSCLES AND BONES AREOVERLOOKED.DOES NOT INDICATE THE COMPLEXITY OF THEPROBLEM. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 36. MODIFICATIONS LISCHERS DEWEYS HOWARDS TAYALORSwww.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 37. LISHERS MODIFICATION  NEUTROCCLUSION  DISTOCCLUSION  MESIOCCLUSION  BUCCOCCLUSION  LINGUOCCLUSION  SUPRAOCCLUSION  INFRAOCCLUSION  MESIOVERSION  DISTOVERSION  TRANSVERSION  AXIVERSION  TORSIVERSION www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 38. DEWEYS MODIFICA TION ANGLES CLASS ITYPE I CROWDED ANTERIORSTYPE 2 MAXILLARY INCISORS ARE PROCLINED ANDSPACEDTYPE 3 ANTERIOR CROSS BITETYPE 4 POSTERIOR CROSSBITETYPE 5 IS SIMILAR TO TYPE 1 BUT IS DUE TO DRIFTINGOF TEETH www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 39. ANGLES CLASS II NO MODIFICATIONS ANGLES CLASS IIITYPE I OVERLAPED BY MAXILLARY MANDIBULAR INCISORS ARE CROWDED AND INCISORS TYPE II UPPER AND LOWER ANTERIORS ARE IN EDGE TO EDGE RELATION TYPE III ANTERIOR CROSS BITE www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 40. HOWARDS MODIFICATION ANGLES CLASS II GROWTH PROBLEMANGLES CLASS I NON GROWTH PROBLEM TAYLORS MODIFICATION BIMAXILLARY PROTRUSION CLASS IV www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 41. SIMON CLASSIFICATION ATTRACTIONFRANKFORT HORIZONTAL PLANE ABTRACTION PROTRACTION ORBITAL PLANE RETRACTION CONTRACTION MID SAGITAL PLANE www.indiandentalacademy.co DISTRACTION
  • 42. Simon’s classification of malocclusion• Simon in 1930 was the first to relate the dental arches to the face and cranium in the three plane of space i.e• Frankfort Horizontal Plane (vertically)• Orbital plane (anterio-posteriorly)• Raphe or Mid Sagital plane (transversely) www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 43. Frankfort horizontal planeFormed by drawinga straight linethrough the bonymargins of theorbit to the uppermargins of externalauditory meatus www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 44. • This plane is used to classify malocclusion in vertical direction 1. Attraction: when the dental arch or part of it is closed to FHP 2. Abstraction: when a dental arch or a part of it is away from FHP www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 45. Orbital plane• Perpendicular to the FHP• Simon’s law of canine- “this plane should pass through the distal third of the canine” www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 46. • This plane is used to describe malocclusion in saggital or anterio posterior plane• Protraction – when the dental arch or part of it is away from this plane• Retraction - when the arch or part of it is closed or more posteriorly placed www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 47. Mid sagittal plane• This plane is formed by points apprx 1.5 cm apart on the median raphe of the palate• This plane passes at right angle to FHP www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 48. • It classifies malocclusion according to Transeverse deviation from MSP• Contraction : A part or all of the dental arch is contracted towards MSP• Distraction : A part or all of the dental arch is wider or placed at a distance which is normal www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 49. ADVANTAGES1 . 3 DIMENSIONAL - MORE PRECISE2. LAYS EMPHASIS ON THE ORIENTATION OF DENTAL ARCHES TO THE FACIAL SKELETON DISADVANTAGESIT IS TIME CONSUMING AND CUMBERSOME www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 50. BAUME CLASSIFICATION OF PRIMARY TEETH CLASS I STRAIGHT OR FLUSH OR TERMINAL PLANE CLASS II CLASS I MESIAL STEP OR CLASS III DISTAL CLASS II STEP www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 51. BAUME CLASSIFICATIONwww.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 52. ETIOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION BY MOYERS OSSEOUS MUSCULAR DENTALwww.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 53. BALLARDS CLASSIFICATION- Incisor Classification CLASS I CLASS II CLASS III www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 54. Ackermann-profitt system of classification• This classification includes description of malocclusion in all the three spaces• It gives indication towards the severity of malocclusion• The classification is illustrated using venn symbolic logic diagram• It considers five characteristics and their inter relationship is assessed. www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 55. VENN DIAGRAMwww.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 56. ACKERMAN AND PROFIT CLASSIFICATION DIAGRAMATIC CLASSIFICATION OF MALOCCLUSION IN 1960 ALIGNMENT IDEALSTEP 1 AND CROWDING SYMMETRY SPACING STRAIGHT (ORTHOGNATHIC) PROFILE CONVEX CONCAVESTEP 2 AND STRAIGHT ANTERIOR DIVERGENCE POSTERIOR BUCCO LINGUALSTEP 3 TRANSVERSE PLANE RELATIONSHIP OF POST TEETH www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 57. STEP 4 SAGITAL PLANE ANGLES CLASS I ANGLES CLASS II ANGLES CLASS IIISTEP 5 VERTICAL PLANE BITE DEPTH OPEN BITE SKELETAL DEEP BITE DENTAL www.indiandentalacademy.co
  • 58. THANK YOU www.indiandentalacademy.co