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Chemotherapy of head & neck region /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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  • 1. Chemotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 3. Introduction 500,000 new cases of squamous cell cancer of the head and neck worldwide per year; 40,00 new cases per year in the United States Despite continuing improvements in diagnosis, local management and chemotherapy, there has been no significant increase in survival rates over the past 30 years www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 4. Chemotherapeutic Agents Alkylating agents Antimetabolites Antitumor Antibiotics Alkaloids Taxanes www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 5. Alkylating Agents Interact with DNA causing substitution reactions, cross-linking reactions or strand breaks Example: cisplatin www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 6. Antimetabolites Cytotoxic effects via similarity in structure or function to naturally occurring metabolites involved in nucleic acid synthesis—either inhibit enzymes involved in nucleic acid synthesis or produce incorrect codes Example: methotrexate www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 7. Antitumor Antibiotics Group of related antimicrobial compounds produced by Streptomyces species in culture Affect structure and function of nucleic acids by: intercalation between base pairs (doxorubicin), DNA strand fragmentation (bleomycin), or cross-linking DNA (mitomycin) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. Alkaloids Bind free tubulin dimers thereby disrupting balance between microtubule polymerization and depolymerization resulting in arrest of cells in metaphase Examples: vincristine, vinblastine www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 9. Taxanes Disrupt equilibrium between free tubulin and microtubules causing stabilization of cytoplasmic microtubules and formation of abnormal bundles of microtubules. Examples: paclitaxel and docetaxel www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 10. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Use of chemotherapy prior to definitive surgery or radiation therapy Intent is to improve both local and distant control of disease in order to provide greater organ preservation and overall survival Chemotherapy in neoadjuvant setting benefits from drug delivery to a tumor with vasculature not damaged by surgery or radiation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 11. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Standard induction chemotherapy is 5fluorouracil and cisplatin Response rate between 68 and 93 percent; complete response as high as 54 percent Must be followed by definitive surgery or radiation No survival advantage even given decreased likelihood of distant metastases www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 12. Neoadjuvant Therapy and Organ Preservation Two large randomized, controlled trials have compared primary surgical management with a laryngeal preservation approach of induction chemotherapy followed by radiation Survival comparable between groups; ½2/3 patients in the chemotherapy plus radiation group retained larynx www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 13. Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy Simultaneous use of chemotherapeutic agent and radiation therapy Intent is systemic control through elimination of micro-metastases and improved local control based on the concepts of additivity and synergy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Chemotherapeutic agents administered after definitive treatment with radiation or chemotherapy The few studies that have been done failed to demonstrate any survival benefit www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 15. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Standard primary treatment is radiation therapy Several studies show increased survival rates with concurrent cisplatin and radiation Further survival benefits shown when this regimen followed by cisplatin and 5fluorouracil www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 16. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor EGFR overexpression in many human cancers including HNSCC EGFR blocking agents include anti-EGFR antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors IM-C225 is a monoclonal antibody targeting EGFR; combined with cisplatin has shown efficacy against HNSCC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 17. RAS Farnesyl transferase inhibitors: class of compounds that inhibit a critical step in the expression of the mutated ras genes Farnesyl transferase inhibitors have been shown to decrease oral cavity tumor bulk; combined with paclitaxel it has shown cytotoxic effects for head and neck cancer cell lines www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 18. p53 Mutations of p53 occur in 45-70% of HNSCC Ad-p53: adenovirus containing wild-type p53 gene Preliminary studies of AD-p53 in patients with advanced recurrent HNSCC showed promising results www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 19. Chemoprevention One of the main reasons for treatment failure in early stage HNSCC is development of a second primary Chemoprevention: the process of field cancerization can be interrupted or reversed through the use of natural or synthetic agents www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 20. Retinoids Retinoids have been shown to cause regression or stabilization of leukoplakia Recent use of 13-cis retinoic acid in patients curatively treated for HNSCC showed that second primary tumors developed in only 4% of patients treated with 13-cis retinoic acid compared with 24% of controls at 32 months www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 21. COX-2 inhibitors Increased levels of COX-2 are found in oral leukoplakia and SCC as well as normal appearing mucosa adjacent to HNSCC Sulindac, an NSAID and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor have been shown to reduce the number of colorectal polyps in patients with FAP www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 22. References Adelstein, DJ. Induction chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. Aug 1999. 13(4): 689695. Al-Sarraf M, Reddy MS. Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma. Current Treatment Options in Oncology. Feb 2002. 3(1): 21-32. Agarwala, S. Adjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. Aug 1999. 14(3): 743751. Argiris, A. Update on chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Current Opinion in Oncology. 2002. 14(3):323-329. Bailey, B. Head and Neck Surgery—Otolaryngology. 3rd edition. 2001. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 1413-1426. Surgery—Otolaryngology. Garden, A. Organ preservation for carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. Apr 2001. 15(2): 243-256. Gillison ML, Forstiere AA. Larynx preservation in head and neck cancers. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. Aug 1999. 13(4):699-718.J Gorsky, M., Epstein J. The effect of retinoids on premalignant oral lesions. Cancer. Sept 2002. 95(6): 1258-1264. Haffty, B. Concurrent chemoradiation in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. Aug 1999. 13(4): 719-739. Khattab, J., Urba, S. Chemotherapy in head and neck cancer. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America. Aug 1999. 13(4): 753-766. Kim ED, Kies M, Herbst RS. Novel therapeutics for head and neck cancer. Current Opinion in Oncology. May 2002. 14(3): 334-342. Lamont EB, Vokes EE. Chemotherapy in the management of squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. The Lancet Oncology. May 2001. 2(): 261-268. Lin JC, Jan JS, Hsu CY, Jiang RS, Wang WY. Outpatient weekly neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: high complete response and low toxicity. British Journal of Cancer. Jan 2003. 88(2): 187-94. Lin, D., Subbaramaiah, K., Shah, J., Dannenberg, A., Boyle, J. Cyclooxygenase-2: a novel molecular target for the prevention and treatment of head and neck cancer. Head and Neck. Aug 2002. 24(8):792-9. Papadimitrakopoulou V. Chemoprevention of head and neck cancer: an update. Current Opinion in Oncology. 2002. 14: 318-322. Pratt, W., Ruddon, R., Ensminger, W., Maybaum, J. The Anticancer Drugs. Second edition. Oxford University Press. 1994 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com