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Cementum /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Welcome to Indian Dental Academy …

Welcome to Indian Dental Academy
The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy has a unique training program & curriculum that provides students with exceptional clinical skills and enabling them to return to their office with high level confidence and start treating patients

State of the art comprehensive training-Faculty of world wide repute &Very affordable.

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  • 1. CEMENTUM INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in Continuing Dental Educationwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Cementum is the mineralized dental tissue covering the anatomic roots of the humanCC teeth. It was first demonstrated microscopically in 1835 by two pupils ofAC Purkinjee.DP It Begins at cervical portion of the tooth at the CEJ and continuous to the apex.E It furnishes a medium for attachment of the fibers that bind the tooth to the surrounding structure.
  • 3. DEFINITIONCementum is a specialized, calcified tissue of mesodermal origin covering anatomic Root of human tooth.
  • 4. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS• Cementum is less harder than dentin.• Cementum is light yellowish in color and lighterthan dentin. It can be distinguished from enamel byits lack of luster and darker hue.• Under some experimental conditions cementumhas been shown to be permeable to a variety ofmaterials.
  • 5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONINORGANIC SUBSTANCES 45-50%ORGANIC MATERISLS AND WATER 50-55%The inorganic portion consists mainly of calcium andphosphate in the form if hydroxapatite. Cementum hashighest fluoride content of all the mineralized tissues.The organic portion of cementum consists primarily oftype 1 collagen and proteinpolysaccharides(proteoglycans)
  • 6. CEMENTOGENESISPULP Cementum formation inEPI .SHEATH the developing tooth is BROKEN preceded by the depositionSEPERATEDFROM ROOT of dentin along the inner aspect of Hertwig’sROOT END epithelial root sheath. EPI.DIAPHRAGM
  • 7. Once dentin formation is underway, breaksoccurs in the epithelial root sheath allowingthe newly formed dentin to come in directcontact with connective tissues of the dentalfollicleCells derived from this connective tissue areresponsible for cementum formation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 8. CEMENTOGENESIS     ENAMEL    (Remnants of epi. Called  “epi. Rests of malassez” )   CEJ Separation of epithelium from        root dentin surface  DENTIN accomplished. CEMENTUM     Cells of  periodontal ligament CEMENTOBLAST comes into contact with root  surface.& PERIODONTAL C.T.                                                        FORM CEMENTUM  
  • 9. CEMENTOBLAST Soon  after  Hertwig’s  sheath  breaks  up,  undifferentiated   mesenchymal  cells  from  adjacent  connective  tissue  differentiate  in  to  cementoblasts.  Cementoblasts  synthesizes  collagen  and  protein  Cementoblast polysaccharides  which  make  up  the organic matrix of cementum.  
  • 10.            These cells produce cementum in two phase                                 1st phase:  Uncalcified tissue called cementoid.                                           2nd phase:  Cementoid tissue transformed into calcified                              cementum.
  • 11.    CEMENTOID TISSUE • Under  normal  condition    growth    of   the cementum is a  rhythmic  process.  As  a  new  layer  of  cementoid  is  formed, cementoblast the old one calcifies. cementum A  thin  layer  of  cementoid  tissue  is  always  seen  on  the cementoid surface  of  cementum.The  cementoid  tissue  is  lined  by  cementoblasts.
  • 12. •Connective tissue fibers from    PDL pass between the Dentin cementoblasts into the  Cementum.CementumFibers of •These fibers are known as  PDL     “ SHARPEY’S FIBERS”Sharpey’s . fiber •They are embedded in the  cementum & serve as an  attachment for the  tooth to  surrounding bone 
  • 13. STRUCTUE OF CEMENTUM AELLULAR CEMENTUM CELLULAR CEMENTUMwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 14.  ACELLULAR CEMENTUM The term acelllular cementum is unfortunate. As a living tissue, cells are an integral part of cementum at all times. However, some layers CC of cementum do not incorporate cells, the spiderlilke cementocytes.   AC Acellular cementum covers the root dentin from CEJ to the apex but often missing on apical third of root. Cementum is thinnest at the CEJ (20-50μm) Cementum is thickest towards root apex.(150- 200μm)
  • 15. CELLULAR CEMENTUM Mostly presents at the apical third of root. Cells included in cellular Fibers of cementum are cementocytes, similar PDL to osteocytes. Cellular They lie in spaces designated as cementum lacunae.Canaliculi of Cell body has shape of plumcementocytes stone,with numerous long processes known as canaliculli. Most of the Lacuna of processes are directed towards thecementocytes periodontal surface of the cementum.
  • 16. Both cellular and acellular cementum are separated byincremental lines into layers, which indicate periodicformation.Incremental lines can be best seen in decalcifiedSpecimen prepared for light microscopic observation..
  • 17. CEMENTOENAMEL Three types JUNCTION1) 30% - meet at sharpline2) 60% - cementumoverlaps the cervicalend of enamel for a shortdistance. Cementum3) 10% - no CEJ but a Meets at overlapszone of root devoid of Sharp line enamelcementum & covered byenamel epi.
  • 18. FUNCTION(1)The primary function of cementum is to furnisha medium for the attachment of collagen fibers thatbind the tooth to alveolar bone. Since collagenfibers of the periodontal ligament cannot beincorporated in to dentin, a connective tissueattachment to the tooth is impossible withoutcementum..
  • 19. (2)To compensate by its growth for loss oftooth substance due to occlusal wear. Incontrast to the alternating resorption and newformation of bone, cementum is not resorbesunder normal conditions. As the mostsuperficial layer of cementum ages, a newlayer of cementum must be deposited to keepthe attachment apparatus intact.(3)Cementum serves as the major reparativetissue for root surface. Damage to root such asfractures and resorption can be repaired by thedeposition of new cementum www.indiandentalacademy.com.
  • 20. HYPERCEMENTOSISAbnormal thickening of thecementumIt may be diffuse or circumscribed.It may affect all teeth of thedentition or may be confound to asingle tooth.If overgrowth improves functionalqualities of Cementum calledhypertrophy.If overgrowth occurs nonfunctionalteeth Called as Hyperplasia. Cemental hyperplasia
  • 21. Localised hypertrophyA spur or prong like projecionof cementum forms in teethexposed to great stress.Provide large surface area forthe attaching fibers.Hyperplasia in nonfunctioningteeth are characterized byAbsence of sharpey’s fibers Prong like extracementosis
  • 22. CLINICAL CONSIDERATION (1)More Resistant to resorption than Boneand it is for this reason that Orthodontictooth movement is possible.When a tooth ismoved by means of an orthodonticappliances, bone is resorbed on the side ofthe pressure, and new bone is formed on theside of the pressure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 23. (2)Cementum resorption due to trauma repaired by ANATOMIC REPAIR FUNCTUNAL REPAIR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 24. Anatomic repair In anatomic repair there is tendency to reestablishformer outline of the root surface. It occurs byformation of acellular and/or cellular CementumAcellular Cellular C AC www.indiandentalacademy.comCementum Cementum
  • 25. Functional repair Dentin Root Repaired outline is not reconstructed Resorption New PDL Alveolar Bone Bay like recess remains Cementum PDLwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  • 26. (3)Transverse fracture of root due to trauma mayheal by formation new cementum(4)Hyperplasia of cementum secondary toinflammation is of practical significance becauseextraction of such teeth may necessitate removal ofbone.(5)In Periodontal pockets, plaque and its by productscauses numerous alterations in the physical, chemical,and structural characteristics of cementum.That is ofimportance while treating the pocket. www.indiandentalacademy.com