Biomechanics of molar distalization appliance /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Biomechanics of molar distalization appliance /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. BIOMECHANICS OF MOLAR DISTALIZATION APPLIANCES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. CONTENTS • • • • INTRODUCTION INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS BIOMECHANICS TYPES OF APPLIANCES -EXTRAORAL -INTRA ORAL • APPLIANCE SELECTION CRITERIA • CONCLUSION • REFERENCES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Correction of class II malocclusion without extractions requires maxillary molar distalization by means of intraoral or extraoral forces. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. • William Kingsley (1892) described for the first time headgear apparatus with which class I molar relationship could be achieved successfully. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. • Oppenheim advocated that position of mandibular teeth as being the most correct for individual and use of occipital anchorage for moving maxillary teeth distally into correct relationship without disturbing mandibular teeth. • In 1944, he treated a case with extra-oral anchorage for distalizing maxillary molar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. • Kloehn in 1947 started a long and beneficial series of investigations and clinical applications of cervical anchorage to the maxillary dentition. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. • The headgears over the years have shown to be effective in maxillary molar distalization with movements in all planes of space. With the recent trend more towards non extraction treatment, several inter/intra arch devices have been advocated to distalize molars in the upper arch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. • Researchers have focused on the simplicity and efficiency of these intra arch devices, which improves the continuity and constancy of forces. Oral hygiene is easier to maintain and the need for patient compliance is eliminated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. • Molar distalization is a technique that has added a new column in the practice of every orthodontist to produce consistent, predictable and high quality results. The goals of practicing with efficiency and profitability are positively affected. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. • Since space is easier to gain in the maxillary arch than in the mandible because of increased trabecular structure of supporting bone and increased anchorage afforded by palatal vault, the distalization of maxillary molar becomes of significant value for the treatment of cases with mild to moderate arch discrepancy and class II molar relationship associated with a normal mandible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. INDICATIONS • Profile - should be acceptable with minimal facial change or straight profile www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. • Functional – Normal TMJ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. • Skeletal - Class I skeletal pattern - Normal, short lower face height - Skeletal closed bite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. Dental • class II / End-on molar relationship www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. • • • Deep overbite Maxillary first molar mesially inclined Maxillary cuspids labially displaced www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. • Loss of arch length due to premature loss of second deciduous molar • Mild to moderate discrepancy arch www.indiandentalacademy.com perimeter
  17. 17. UPPER MOLAR POSITION • This is a linear measurement between the distal surface of the maxillary first permanent molar and the pterygoid vertical line (PTV). • It is an indication of the forward position of the upper molar and illustrates to the clinician whether or not sufficient space is present for the second and third molars. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. • This measurement indicates or contraindicates molar distalization. • An interesting aspect of this measurement is that its mean value is the patient's age in years plus 3mm until growth is complete. • Therefore the mean measurement for nine - year old child is l2mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. TIMING • A favorable time to move molars distally appears to be in mixed dentition, before the eruption of the second molars, and an efficient force system to move molars distally is a continuously acting force. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. CONTRAINDICATIONS • Profile:- convex profile www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. • Functional:-abnormal temporomandibular Joint www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. • Skeletal:- Class II skeletal - Skeletal open bite - Excess lower face height www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. • Dental:-Class I or III molar relation. - Dental open bite/shallow bite www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. BIOMECHANICS D M www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26. D M www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. M D www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  30. 30. P B www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  32. 32. P B www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  34. 34. B M D P www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. B M D P www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. TYPES OF APPLIANCES • EXTRAORAL • INTRA ORAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. EXTRA ORAL • Bilateral molar distalization a) Cervical pull head gear. b) Combi pull head gear. • Unilateral molar distalization with unilateral face bows a) power-arm face bow b) soldered offset face bow c) swivel-offset face bow d) spring-attachment face bow. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. INTRA ORAL • INTER ARCH • INTRA ARCH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. INTER ARCH Atkinson buccal bar Tandem yoke 3d biometric distalizing arch Modified herbst appliance for distalization of molars  Jasper jumper  Sliding jig  Crickett appliance     www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. INTRA ARCH  Sagittal appliance  Magnets  Modified lingual and Nance holding arches  Jones jig  NiTi coil springs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41.        Pendulum appliance Super elastic NiTi wires Molar distalizing bow Space regainers K-Loop Fixed piston appliance Distal jet www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.  C-Space Regainer  Palatal orthodontic implants  First class appliance  Fixed palatal expander  Lokar molar distalisation  Transpalatal arch www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43.  Acrylic cervical occipital appliance  Removable molar distalization splint  Compressed springs  Mini distalization appliance  IBMD www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. SPACE REGAINERS  Sling Shot Appliance  Modified Kings Appliance  Removable or fixed lingual arch with spring  Clasp ring www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. MOLAR DISTALIZATION IN LOWER ARCH : • • • • Lip bumper Modified lingual appliance Distal jet for lower molar Franzulum appliance www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. EXTRA ORAL • Bilateral molar distalization a) Cervical pull head gear. b) Combi pull head gear. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. Cervical pull head gear. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Cervical pull Headgear Translation Clockwise Rotation Anti-clockwise Rotation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. COMBI PULL HEAD GEAR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. combi-pull Headgear Translation Clockwise Rotation Anti-clockwise Rotation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Unilateral molar distalization with unilateral face bows power-arm face bow www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. INTRA ORAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. STANDARD PENDULUM APPLIANCE • In 1992, Hilgers • Made of 0.032 TMA wire, • Springs deliver approximately 230 gms of force per side. • Springs have adjustment loop that can be manipulated to increase molar expansion, rotation and distal root tip. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  57. 57. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  60. 60. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. MODIFIED PENDULUM APPLIANCE • • • • M- pendulum Inverted loop Activation - 40-450 Springs deliver approximately 125 gms of force per side. • Springs have adjustment loop www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  66. 66. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  68. 68. D M www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. D M www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. D www.indiandentalacademy.com M
  71. 71. D www.indiandentalacademy.com M
  72. 72. D www.indiandentalacademy.com M
  73. 73. K -LOOP • By Kalra in 1995 • The appliance consists of a K-loop to provide the forces and moments and Nance button to resist anchorage www.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74. K-loop made of .017”x.025”TMA wire with each loop 8mm long and 1.5mm wide www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. Legs of appliance bent down 200 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76. 200 bends in the appliance legs produces moments that counteract the tipping moments created by the force of the appliance, and these moments are reinforced by the moment of activation as the loop squeezed into place. Thus the molar undergoes a translatory moment instead of tipping www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. Wire marked at mesial of molar tube distal of premolar bracket www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78. Bend placed 1 mm distal to distal mark and 1 mm mesial to mesial mark. Stop should be well defined and about 1.5mm long www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. K-loop in place with 2mm activation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. Moments and forces produced by K-loop www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. Reactivation sequence Open loop 1mm at (1); Open loop 1mm at (2); Open at (3) to regain the 200 bent of mesial and distal legs www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. COMPRESSED SPRINGS • Gianelly and co-workers. • Springs made from compressed stainless steel or NiTi. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85. • NiTi coil is activated to about 10 mm to produce 100 gm. • First premolars are anchored by Nance holding arch. • Coil springs can also be compressed by placing a sliding Gurin lock. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89. REPELLING MAGNETIC APPLIANCE • An assembly containing repelling magnets is placed into the molar tubes on maxillary first molar and magnets are placed in a repelling position facing by ligating a sliding yoke to an eyelet on the premolar. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. • Activation every two or four weeks. • Not gained wide acceptance because the magnets tend to be expensive and bulky. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  93. 93. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  94. 94. SLIDING JIG • Auxillary sectional arch wires used to tip or move one or a group of teeth in buccal segments distally without disturbing anteriors. • Have bent in eyelets on each side. • To avoid friction or binding they should be made of 0.022 inch round wire and can also be made of rectangular wire. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  95. 95. • Location of intermaxillary hook on the jig, soldered or bent-in, is on the occlusal area of anterior eyelet of jig. • To move maxillary molar distally, eyelet on distal end of jig must but against molar tube, mesial eyelet is located between cuspid and first premolar bracket at least 2 mm anterior to premolar bracket. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  96. 96. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  97. 97. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  98. 98. BIMETRIC DISTALIZING ARCH • Developed by Wilson and Wilson. • components www.indiandentalacademy.com
  99. 99. • Distalizing force on the molars is produced by compression of push coil spring anchored by pull of class II elastics. The force of the elastics counteracts the forces of the push coil springs so that the anterior segment of the Wilson arch approximates the incisor brackets before ligation to the anterior teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  100. 100. • Posterior ends of Omega loop should contact the face bow tubes on maxillary first molar, and anterior section of arch should approximate brackets on maxillary anterior teeth. 5 mm section of 0.010 x 0.045” open wound coil is placed over end of William’s arch bilaterally. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  101. 101. • Advocated sequential use of elastics with decreasing force values i.e. 5/16” 6-oz in first week, similar size 4-oz in second and and similar size 2-oz in third and subsequent weeks of treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  102. 102. • Appliance is activated by placing loop forming pliers into Omega loop, forcing posterior leg distally. Elastic sequence begins again when reactivated. • Lower arch should have a stiffer rectangular arch wire or lingual arch. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  103. 103. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  104. 104. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  105. 105. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  106. 106. HERBST APPLIANCE • Emil Herbst in 1905. • Original design consisted of placement of bands on maxillary first premolar and molar and mandibular first premolar, which were connected with lingual bar to support anterior teeth. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  107. 107. • The arches are connected with a telescopic adjustable piston mechanism to produce a protrusive force on mandible. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  108. 108. • Class II correction is by equal amounts of dental and skeletal changes. • Dental changes include distalization of maxillary molar and mesial movement of mandibular molar and incisors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  109. 109. • Skeletal changes include inhibition of maxillary antero-posterior growth and to produce an increase in mandibular length and lower face height. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  110. 110. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  111. 111. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  112. 112. MOLAR DISTALIZATION IN LOWER ARCH www.indiandentalacademy.com
  113. 113. LIP BUMPER • used for molar anchorage, prevention of poor lip habits and creation of increased space for mandibular arch. • Made of 0.045” stainless steel that spans the facial structures of mandibular arch without contacting teeth and inserted into molar tubes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  114. 114. • Anteriorly wire is covered by plastic tubing or acrylic shield to hold lip away from incisors. • Force from mentalis muscle is transmitted to molar, enabling them to move to an upright and distal position www.indiandentalacademy.com
  115. 115. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  117. 117. APPLIANCE SELECTION CRITERIA • Regardless of approach, one should ponder several issues before considering any of these appliances for use Side effects Case types Arch length Treatment timing Co-operation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  118. 118. Side Effects • Did incisors flare? • If mandible is used as an anchor unit, did anything occur in that arch? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  119. 119. • Side effects are a fact of life, especially in orthodontics. • There are some side effects that would be favorable in certain cases, while the same effects may be detrimental in others. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  120. 120. • The key to correct appliance selection is to know, and be able to predict these effects. • For this a sound and thorough knowledge of biomechanics is essential. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  121. 121. Case types • Consider an individual case at hand and his/her needs. • If mandibular dentition can be slightly mesialized, if this in the case then Herbst or BDA may be appliance of choice. • If not pendulum and other intra-arch appliances can be used. • If you may not afford flaring of incisors then headgear would be treatment of choice. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  122. 122. Arch length How much distalization is required. TPA has limited application of 2-3 mm, if in need of greater amount of correction then Herbst and headgear are of choice followed by pendulum, Wilson BDA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  123. 123. Treatment timing Perhaps best time to initiate distalization is late mixed dentition and it may be too late after eruption of second molar. Some synergistic effect as dentition transits from primary to permanent as canines and premolars follow molars as they moved distally. Thus appliances that requires some anterior anchorage like pendulum may dilute these results. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  124. 124. Co-operation • Invariably appliances that require least co-operation come with side effects that have to be considered. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  125. 125. CONCLUSION • There are many advantages and disadvantages of both the intra-oral and extra-oral methods. • It should be remembered that patient selection for a particular method of distalization is of utmost importance and should not be overlooked . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  126. 126. • Right appliance should be selected for the right patient and one should not select the patient for the appliance rather the appliance should be for the patient www.indiandentalacademy.com
  127. 127. REFERENCES • McNamara and Brudon, New Edition, Page. 343 to 375 and 199 to 211. • Graber and Vandarsadall, 3rd Eidtion, Page. 760 & 761. • Seminars in Orthodontics, 2000. • Ravindra Nanda : Bio-Mechanics in Orthodontics. Page. 265-281. • AJO, JCO and ANGLE in CD -R www.indiandentalacademy.com
  128. 128. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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