Archwire Materials And
Application Of Newer Materials
in Begg Appliance.

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Introduction


Advancements in orthodontic materials have
been progressing by leaps and bounds.



Plethora of archwires...
Evolution of Archwire Materials


Availability of archwire materials – determined
mechanotherapy.



Requirements change...


Variable Modulus Orthodontics.



TMA , Nitinol etc.





Varying modulus of elasticity.

Lower moduli – initial st...
Desirable Properties of Archwire

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Yield Strength
Proportional
limit
Force
(stress)

Deflection ( Strain)
www.indiandentalacademy.c...


Spring back.( Range of Activation or Working
range)






Measure of how far a material can be deformed
without exce...


Stiffness ( Load Deflection Rate ).


Measure of resistance to any kind of mechanical
deformation,



Proportional to...


Strength.


It is the measure of the max. possible load, the
greatest force which the wire or arch arrangement
can sus...


Modulus of Resilience or Stored energy.





Work available to move the teeth.
Area – elastic portion of the stress-...


Poor Biohostability.


Neither actively nurture nor passively act as a
substrate for microorganisms.
Cause foul smell
...


Friction,


Excessive amount





Loss of anchorage
Less tooth movement.

Esthetics.





Color stability
Incons...
Classification.


Based on material constituent:



Metals.
Gold Alloys.
Stainless Steel.
Cobalt – Chromium Alloys.
Nick...


Beta Ti



Alpha Ti



Non Metals.



Polymeric materials.



Composite / Coated Archwires.


Optiflex.

www.india...
Gold Alloys.


Pure gold – too soft for orthodontic purpose.



Initial round wire, Begg - .020 platinised gold.



Har...
Stainless Steel


Developed b/w 1903 & 1921



Harry Brearley of Sheffield, F.M. Beckett of the
U.S, Edward Maurer of Ge...


Composition.



Steels – iron based alloys – contains < 1.2% C



SS



Types.

Cr. ( 12 – 30%) + steel.



Ferriti...


Ferritic.



AISI series 400.





Body Centered Cubic Str.
Low sth. & not hardenable by heat trt.

Martensitic.

...


Austenitic.


Most corrosion resistant.



AISI 302 basic type.


18% - Cr., 8% - Ni., 0.15% C.





AISI 304 – C...
A J Wilcock Archwires.


Early 1940’s – acquainted – Mr. Arthur J
Wilcock.- Metallurgist – Whittlesea, Victoria.



Year...


Wilcock wires mainstay of Begg Technique.



Grades of wire used initially




Special Plus
Extra Special plus – ca...


Pulse Straightening Vs Spinner Straightening.



Spinner Straightening.


Straightening resistant materials – cold dr...


Pulse Straightening.


Pulsed in a special machine.



High tensile wires – straightened.



Lower dia. wires



Yi...


Types of A J Wilcock Archwires.



Regular Grade.( Pink label )


Dia – 0.012 – 0.024

Regular plus (Green label )

...


Premium Plus ( Gold label ).






Size – 0.010 – 0.018
In early trt. – alignment & levelling.
Mollenhauer recommen...


Substituted Titanium Alloys.



Ti – used as Structural metal – 1952 .



Became available – Orthodontics – 1970’s.

...





Trends in SS Metallurgy.
Eliminate or minimize Nickel content.
Nearly Ni free SS
Steel Din 1.4456 – one of them
C...
Nickel – Titanium alloys


Developed by William F Beuhler – Naval
Ordinance laboratory – 1960.



1970 - Dr. George Andr...


Andreasen – 2 types.





Elastic Nitinol.
Thermal Nitinol.

Thermal Nitinol.





1:1 atomic ratio of Ni and Ti...


Elastic Nitinol.


Alloy of Ni & Ti without Co,



Elasticity , Flexibility



Lighter continuous forces.



Austen...
Classification ( Kusy )


Conventional Nitinol.



Pseudoelastic Nitinol.



Thermoelastic nitinol.



Conventional – ...


Pseudoelastic Nitinol.



Active.



Capable of undergoing anticipated phase
transformation.



Undergo some form of...


Austenitic Active alloy.


Martensite – low stiffness phase.( E = 31 -35 GPa)



Austenite – high stiffness phase. ( ...


On loading – Austenitic alloy – Stiffness 3x,
conventional martensitic stabilised alloy.



Plateau like area – Stress...


Thermoelastic Nitinol.



Martensitic active alloy.



Exhibits thermally induced SME.



Transition temp.- ambient ...
www.indiandentalacademy.com


Chinese NiTi.



Developed by Dr. Tien Hua Cheng & AssociatesGeneral research institute of Non – Ferrous Metals,
Beiji...


Springback.



Diff. b/w deflection of 80º & residual deformation
after unloading.
Chinese Niti > Nitinol > SS

SS
Nit...


Stiffness






Steel and Nitinol – average unloading stiffness – same
regardless of amount of activation.
Chinese N...


Applications.


Low stiffness & large deflections are needed.



No time dependent deformation in mouth.



High sti...


Japanese Niti



1978 – Furukawa electric company.



Fujio Miura – studied mech. Properties.




Excellent springb...


Continous force – long period during
deactivation of the wire.



Physiologic tooth movement.



Possible to modify –...


Introduced in 1994 – Rohit Sachdeva & Suchio
Miyasaki 1994.



Major advance – Variable transformation
temperature ort...


Compositon.




LDR charecteristics.




Low hysteresis.

Surface.




Austenitic structure.

Elements
Ti
Ni
Cr
C...


Type I – high force levels – not used clinically.



Type II – Highest force & best used.



Normal periodontal heal...


Type IV –


Sensitive to pain.



Compromised periodontal conditions.



Tooth movement – deliberately slowed down.
...


CV NiTi.



Copper free NiTi.



In the same types as CuNiTi.



Similar mechanical properties.



Slower recovery ...
Beta – Titanium Alloys.
Charles J Burstone – 1980 ( TMA).
Composition.





Titanium79%
Molybdenum – 11%
Zirconium –
6%...


Advantages.








Force levels less than half of stainless steel.
Highly ductile – complicated configurations –
...
Alpha Titanium Alloy:




AJ Wilcock Jr. – 1988 – near α phase Titanium
alloy – Orthodontic purpose.

Composition.
Titan...


Near α phase Ti alloy – certain amount β phase retained at room temp.



Stiffer with passage of time


Absorption of...





Non metallic archwires.
Esthetic arch wires – Optiflex
Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymeric
archwire – ( UFRP...


UFRP compared to NiTi.






Elastic until failure occurs.
Resilience and springback are comparable.

Parlene : poly...


Applications of newer materials in Begg
technique.
Stage I :







Pulse straightened SS wires and Super elastic N...


Stage III :

Mini uprighting springs – 0.008 – 0.010 supreme
P.S wires.



Finishing :

Stiff Rectangular 0.018 x 0....
Conclusion


Recent advances in material science and
technology has resulted in an array of newer
archwire materials, ope...
As Kusy points out, composites will increasingly
encroach the use of metals, ceramics and
polymers as functional and esthe...
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Archwire materials and application of newer materials /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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Archwire materials and application of newer materials /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. Archwire Materials And Application Of Newer Materials in Begg Appliance. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Introduction  Advancements in orthodontic materials have been progressing by leaps and bounds.  Plethora of archwires varying widely – material, geometry, configuration, manufacturing process and physical properties.  Lack of an ideal archwire – clinician – select the best – for the intended use. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Evolution of Archwire Materials  Availability of archwire materials – determined mechanotherapy.  Requirements changes initial stages to finish.  Variable cross section Orthodontics,  Prior to 70’s – only gold & SS – available  Difft. Requirements met – changing cross section – & geometry. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4.  Variable Modulus Orthodontics.   TMA , Nitinol etc.   Varying modulus of elasticity. Lower moduli – initial stages and higher – finish. Varying Transformation Temperature Orthodontics.  NiTi archwires – super elastic & thermodynamic.  Cu NiTi & Neosentalloy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Desirable Properties of Archwire www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. Ultimate Tensile Strength Yield Strength Proportional limit Force (stress) Deflection ( Strain) www.indiandentalacademy.com Failure Point
  7. 7.  Spring back.( Range of Activation or Working range)    Measure of how far a material can be deformed without exceeding the limits of the material. Related to Y.S E Higher spring back – large activations – increase in working time of appl. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8.  Stiffness ( Load Deflection Rate ).  Measure of resistance to any kind of mechanical deformation,  Proportional to Modulus of Elasticity.  Low stiffness or LDR provide  Ability to apply lower forces  A more constant force  Greater ease & accuracy in applying a given force. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9.  Strength.  It is the measure of the max. possible load, the greatest force which the wire or arch arrangement can sustain or deliver if it is loaded to the limit of the material.  Formability.  Ability to bend a wire into desired configurations without failure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10.  Modulus of Resilience or Stored energy.    Work available to move the teeth. Area – elastic portion of the stress- strain curve. Bio compatibility & Environmental stability.  Resistance to corrosion and tissue tolerance to elements in the wire.  Maintenance of desirable properties for extended periods after manufacture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11.  Poor Biohostability.  Neither actively nurture nor passively act as a substrate for microorganisms. Cause foul smell  Color changes – detract from esthetics.  Remove or build up material – compromise mech prop.   Joinability.  Permit welding and soldering www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12.  Friction,  Excessive amount    Loss of anchorage Less tooth movement. Esthetics.    Color stability Inconspicuous Non Ferromagnetic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. Classification.  Based on material constituent:  Metals. Gold Alloys. Stainless Steel. Cobalt – Chromium Alloys. Nickel- Titanium Alloys           NiTinol Chinese Ni Ti Japanese Ni Ti Niobium Ti Copper NiTi Cv NiTi www.indiandentalacademy.com Metal Non metal
  14. 14.  Beta Ti  Alpha Ti  Non Metals.  Polymeric materials.  Composite / Coated Archwires.  Optiflex. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Gold Alloys.  Pure gold – too soft for orthodontic purpose.  Initial round wire, Begg - .020 platinised gold.  Hardened – cold working or hardening heat trt.  Marginal properties & price – obsolete. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. Stainless Steel  Developed b/w 1903 & 1921  Harry Brearley of Sheffield, F.M. Beckett of the U.S, Edward Maurer of Germany.  1933 – Archie Brusse presented table clinic – 1 st Stainless Steel Appliance system.  Displaced Gold alloys.  SS wires - work horse of the orthodontic industry for generations www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17.  Composition.  Steels – iron based alloys – contains < 1.2% C  SS  Types. Cr. ( 12 – 30%) + steel.  Ferritic  Martensitic.  Austenitic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18.  Ferritic.   AISI series 400.   Body Centered Cubic Str. Low sth. & not hardenable by heat trt. Martensitic.  AISI series 400.  Body Centred Tetragonal Structure.  Strength & Hardness  Corrosion Resistance & Ductility www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19.  Austenitic.  Most corrosion resistant.  AISI 302 basic type.  18% - Cr., 8% - Ni., 0.15% C.    AISI 304 – C ltd to 0.08 % 302 & 304 18-8 SS 316 L - <0.03 % C – implants.  Str. – Face Centered Cubic. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. A J Wilcock Archwires.  Early 1940’s – acquainted – Mr. Arthur J Wilcock.- Metallurgist – Whittlesea, Victoria.  Years of research – Develop wire – objectives.  Thin tensile wire – distribute force – optimal level  Considerable period of time.  Over long distances.  Minimal loss of force intensity.  Initially 0.018 wire produced.  Dia. - progressively decreased to 0.014. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21.  Wilcock wires mainstay of Begg Technique.  Grades of wire used initially   Special Plus Extra Special plus – cases resistant to bite opening. 1984 – A J Wilcock Jr. – request of Dr. Mollenhauer of Australia – ultra high tensile strength – round wire  Supreme grade  0.010 & 0.009 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22.  Pulse Straightening Vs Spinner Straightening.  Spinner Straightening.  Straightening resistant materials – cold drawn condition.  Wire pulled – rotating bronze rollers  Dis Adv.  Resultant Deformation.  Decreased Yield stress value.  Strain softened. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.  Pulse Straightening.  Pulsed in a special machine.  High tensile wires – straightened.  Lower dia. wires  Yield Strength – not altered.  Surface – smoother finish. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24.  Types of A J Wilcock Archwires.  Regular Grade.( Pink label )  Dia – 0.012 – 0.024 Regular plus (Green label )    Dia – 0.012 – 0.020 Easily formed & excellent for general use & utlility wires. Special grade ( Blue label )    Dia – 0.012 – 0.020. 0.016 inch – initial stages. Special Plus ( Yellow label )   Dia – 0.012 – 0.024 Premium     ( Purple label ) Dia – 0.012 – 0.020. Ideal for bite opening . Where high resiliency is required www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25.  Premium Plus ( Gold label ).     Size – 0.010 – 0.018 In early trt. – alignment & levelling. Mollenhauer recommends – 0.011 wire – high angle cases, undue molar extrusion. Supreme ( Biege label ).      Size 0.008 – 0.011 Unravelling crowded ant. teeth. Boxed reciprocal torquing aux. Mini uprighting springs. Aligning 2nd molars towards the end of stage II. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.  Substituted Titanium Alloys.  Ti – used as Structural metal – 1952 .  Became available – Orthodontics – 1970’s.  Allotropy – Crystallographic change – 885°C .  Below 885°C – HCP or α lattice.  Above 885°C – BCC or β lattice.  Addn. of Molybdenum or Columbium stabilize this str. At room temp. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27.     Trends in SS Metallurgy. Eliminate or minimize Nickel content. Nearly Ni free SS Steel Din 1.4456 – one of them Composition: 15 – 18 % Cr. 3 – 4 % molybdenum. 10 – 14 % Manganese 0.9 % nitrogen – compensate for nickel.  Trade names – Menzanium, Noninium. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Nickel – Titanium alloys  Developed by William F Beuhler – Naval Ordinance laboratory – 1960.  1970 - Dr. George Andreasen recognized the potential of this alloy.  Largely through his efforts and those of the Unitek Company, the first nitinol alloy was marketed to orthodontists as Nitinol™. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29.  Andreasen – 2 types.    Elastic Nitinol. Thermal Nitinol. Thermal Nitinol.     1:1 atomic ratio of Ni and Ti. Ni – 55% , Ti – 45% Co – 1.6% - brings TTR - 37°C. Unique feature – Shape Memory Phenomenon.   Capability of a wire to return to a previously manufactured shape when it is heated through its TTR. Martensitic Grain Structure www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30.  Elastic Nitinol.  Alloy of Ni & Ti without Co,  Elasticity , Flexibility  Lighter continuous forces.  Austenitic Grain Structure. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. Classification ( Kusy )  Conventional Nitinol.  Pseudoelastic Nitinol.  Thermoelastic nitinol.  Conventional – Martensitic stabilized alloy  Passive – SME suppressed – cold working during wire drawing - >8 – 10%.  Attractive feature – Low Stiffness.  Limitation – lack of formability. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32.  Pseudoelastic Nitinol.  Active.  Capable of undergoing anticipated phase transformation.  Undergo some form of SME + Superelastic.  Two types –  Austenitic active alloy  Martensitic active alloy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33.  Austenitic Active alloy.  Martensite – low stiffness phase.( E = 31 -35 GPa)  Austenite – high stiffness phase. ( E = 84 – 98 GPa) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34.  On loading – Austenitic alloy – Stiffness 3x, conventional martensitic stabilised alloy.  Plateau like area – Stress induced transformation – martensitic phase. + ve slope – stiffness comparable to martensitic nitinol.  Deactivation – reverse occurs.  2nd Plateau – Martensite shape to maintain force Austenite. Changes key attribute – Pseudoelasticity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35.  Thermoelastic Nitinol.  Martensitic active alloy.  Exhibits thermally induced SME.  Transition temp.- ambient oral temperature.  Medical advances – Trt. Of Scliosis.  Desired shape set by heat.  Distortion & insertion into patient’s mouth  Appliance activated – warmth of oral cavity.  Return to its predetermined shape. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37.  Chinese NiTi.  Developed by Dr. Tien Hua Cheng & AssociatesGeneral research institute of Non – Ferrous Metals, Beijing, China.  Little work hardening , parent phase – austenite mech prop. differ from Nitinol.  Burstone, Qin, Morton – compared three prop. with SS and Nitinol.  Springback  Stiffness.  Maximum moment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38.  Springback.  Diff. b/w deflection of 80º & residual deformation after unloading. Chinese Niti > Nitinol > SS SS Nitinol NiTi www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  Stiffness    Steel and Nitinol – average unloading stiffness – same regardless of amount of activation. Chinese Niti – lower stiffness value – value changes with degree of activation. Maximum moment.  Niti ( 805 gm-mm at 1º of permanent deformation)< Nitinol ( 975 gm-mm) < SS( 1400 gm-mm) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40.  Applications.  Low stiffness & large deflections are needed.  No time dependent deformation in mouth.  High stiffness at small activations - adequate force levels.  Larger cross sections – larger moments – root movement and transalation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41.  Japanese Niti  1978 – Furukawa electric company.  Fujio Miura – studied mech. Properties.   Excellent springback & Super elastic properties. Superelasticity – Stress – fairly constant upto a certain point of deformation - & during rebounding. ( Stress induced martensitic transformation. BCC HCP ) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42.  Continous force – long period during deactivation of the wire.  Physiologic tooth movement.  Possible to modify – force – individualized segment of the arch wire – applying controlled heat. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43.  Introduced in 1994 – Rohit Sachdeva & Suchio Miyasaki 1994.  Major advance – Variable transformation temperature orthodontics.  Stability of Martensite / Austenite at a given temp. – Transformation temp. of the alloy.  Impt. marker Austenite finish temperature.Af.  Working temp. of orthodontic appliance – > Af www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44.  Compositon.   LDR charecteristics.   Low hysteresis. Surface.   Austenitic structure. Elements Ti Ni Cr Cu Rough & porous – comparable to TMA. Alloy types.  Type I – Af = 15°C.  Type II – Af = 27 °C. Type III – Af = 35 °C. Type IV – Af = 40°C   Wt% 42.99 49.87 0.5 5.64 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45.  Type I – high force levels – not used clinically.  Type II – Highest force & best used.   Normal periodontal health.   Average or higher pain threshold. Rapid tooth movement required. Type III wire Low to normal threshold.  Slightly compromised periodontium.  Relatively low forces required. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46.  Type IV –  Sensitive to pain.  Compromised periodontal conditions.  Tooth movement – deliberately slowed down.  Beneficial – initial rectangular wire. Advantages.  Low hysteresis – more constant force levels.  Difft. Types – match archwire force levels – specific early treatment requirements & goals. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47.  CV NiTi.  Copper free NiTi.  In the same types as CuNiTi.  Similar mechanical properties.  Slower recovery pattern. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Beta – Titanium Alloys. Charles J Burstone – 1980 ( TMA). Composition.    Titanium79% Molybdenum – 11% Zirconium – 6% Tin – 4%  Addition of elements - molybdenum or columbium, a titanium-based alloy can maintain its beta structure even when cooled to room temperature. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49.  Advantages.      Force levels less than half of stainless steel. Highly ductile – complicated configurations – formed. Weldable. Good spring back. Disadvantage.  Rough surface – High friction. Ion implantation – Burstone – 1995.  Elements or compounds – ionised and accelerated – to a target. N & O ions from a plasma  Ti oxide and nitride formed  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. Alpha Titanium Alloy:   AJ Wilcock Jr. – 1988 – near α phase Titanium alloy – Orthodontic purpose. Composition. Titanium – 90%. Aluminium – 6% Vanadium – 4%  Crystal structure. – Closely packed hexagonal lattice (HCP).   Only one active slip plane along its base. BCC – two slip planes ( β Titanium ). Less ductile than TMA www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51.  Near α phase Ti alloy – certain amount β phase retained at room temp.  Stiffer with passage of time  Absorption of H+ ions – surface layer – titanium hydride.  Weldable  Dimensions available.   .016 x .022 and .018 x .022. Rectangular finishing wires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52.    Non metallic archwires. Esthetic arch wires – Optiflex Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Polymeric archwire – ( UFRP ) – Composite Archwires. Manufacture.   Photopultrusion Pultrusion - The process of manufacturing components having continuous lengths and a constant cross-sectional shape, such as in archwires. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53.  UFRP compared to NiTi.    Elastic until failure occurs. Resilience and springback are comparable. Parlene : poly ( chloro – p- xylylene) – coating  Risk of glass fiber release during clinical use eliminated. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54.  Applications of newer materials in Begg technique. Stage I :    Pulse straightened SS wires and Super elastic NiTi wires – replaced multi loop archwires. 0.010 or 0.011 supreme PS wires – MAA. Better root control in early stages of trt. 0.014 premium plus – in high angle cases to prevent undue molar extrusion. End of stage II  0.011 – alignment of 2nd molars www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55.  Stage III : Mini uprighting springs – 0.008 – 0.010 supreme P.S wires.  Finishing : Stiff Rectangular 0.018 x 0.022 α Titanium wires www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. Conclusion  Recent advances in material science and technology has resulted in an array of newer archwire materials, opening new vistas in Orthodontic treatment. Materials with widely diverging properties are on the market today and their usage has profound implications on the appliance mechanics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57. As Kusy points out, composites will increasingly encroach the use of metals, ceramics and polymers as functional and esthetically pleasing appliances become popular. The orthodontist therefore has to clearly outline the phases of treatment and select the archwire most suited for attaining specific goals for treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. www.indiandentalacademy.com Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com

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