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Antibiotics pre3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy
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Antibiotics pre3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Antibiotics pre3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Antibiotics pre3 /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy Presentation Transcript

  • NEW GENERATION INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • INTRODUCTION    “against life”. Produced by microorganisms. BUT www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •         Beta Lactams Penicillins (PCN) Cephalosporins Carbapenems Monobactams Vancomycin Bacitracin Polymyxin www.indiandentalacademy.com View slide
  •      Macrolides Aminoglycosides Sulfonamides Flouroquinolones Other” antibiotics www.indiandentalacademy.com View slide
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  • GLYCYLCYCLINE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TIGECYCLINE       Glycylcline FDA – 2005,june17. Similar – Tc & minocycline.(D-9). Action : inhibits 30 s ribosome Indication : GPV & GNV & anaerobes. MRSA,VRE,ESBL-Klebsiella & E-coli SST infection, Intra-abdominal NOT – pseudomonas or proteus Dose : 100 mg than 50 mg BD liver –lower kidney-not www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •     NOT – children , HS Pregnancy, lactating mother, geriatrics ? No oral forms Ad – effects: GIT, TEETH & BONE Tgc;first of a new class of antimicrobial agent:eugene Applebaun, USA: pharmacotherapy -2006 aug 26 (18) . Tgc; a new glycylcycline antibiotics :kasbekan,pennsylvania,usa:Amj health syst pharm 2006 1;63 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • KETOLIDE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TELITHROMYCIN       Ketolide (macro) Semi-synthetic erythromycin. FDA -2004 April Action : 50 s ribosome & 30 s – propagation. carried - phagocytes . Indication : RTI( pneumonia.strep), H.Inf . Dose : 800 mg OD. 7 days. Ad – eff : GIT, Blurring of vision, Jaundice. FDA – WARNING – NOT – acute bacterial sinusitis and bronchitis. - myasthenia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • OXAZOLIDINONES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • LINEZOLID        Oxazolidinones FDA - 2001 Action: 30 s & 50 s – initiation . Indication: MR strep, MRSA SSSI, Nasocomial pneu. No action on GN . Cont-ind; HS, Platelet Disorders . Pregnancy , child , lactating mother & geriatrics ? www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •     Ad – eff : GIT, platelets. Interaction : MAO,SSRI - seratonin syn. Dose : 600 mg BD.(100 Rs) Light sensitive. Ranbezolid. Tsiodras s.gold HS – Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of stap..aureus. Lancet.2006 jul (21). Vonder lipper: efficacy & safety of Linezolid in MDR – TB 2006: J infection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • LIPOPEPITIDE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •       DAPTOMYCIN Sep-2003 Sapaotroph streptomyces reseosporus. Action – rapid depolarization. - inhibition of protein, DNA, RNA Indication – SSSI, Stap.aureus bacterimia , Not in pneumonia – surfactants Dose – 4 mg/kg iv OD Ad – eff – myopathy & rhabdomyolysis Lin, dap, tig – supplement for vancomycin resistant MRSA & VRE update on antibiotic resistance in hospital – June 2006 - Medline www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • LINCOSAMIDE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • STREPTOGRAMINS        Lincosamide FDA – 1999 Pristinamycin – quinupristin/dalfopristin (30:70). Action : early step protein & bond formation. Dual mechanism Indicated : MRSA, VRE- faecum, SSSI. AD – Eff : myalgia , arthralgia – 30% Quinupristin/Dalfopristin : med lett drugs ther 1999: 41 Nadler et al . quinupristin/dalfopristin: a novel selective spectrum antibiotic for MRSA & GP. Clin. Microbial news 1999;130 www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • GLYCOPEPTIDE (MACROLIDE) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • vancomycin    1956 Workhorse . VRE, VISSA, VRSA www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • FOSFOMYCIN         Phosphonic acid - glycopeptides Action – enolpyruvyltransferase – cell wall - attachment Indicated – UTI E-coli, entero- faecalis. Dose – 1 sachet – 4 ou. No cross reaction with beta lactam. Child, geriatrics, nursing mother - ? pregnancy – Not Fosfomycin- 70% Vs Cipro % www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TEICOPLANIN          Glycopeptide Actinoplanes teicomyceticus . More lipophilic ( vancomycin) Lesser toxicity. Action : inhibits peptidoglycan syn. Indication : MRSA, PRS, Entero. AD-Eff : Granulocytopenia Dose : 400 mg – 1 st then 200 mg iv or im Other s under investigation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • RAMOPLANIN     Glycolipodepeptide – macrocyclic 10 time > vanco. Broad spectrum. Clinical trial. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • SPECTINOMYCIN     Structurally different from aminoglycosides. Indication : penicillin HS, gonorrhoea. Ad – Eff : GIT. Dose : 2 g deep im www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •        ROKITAMYCIN – borrelia RU 28965 – sterp. Pneu. TE – 0381 – legionnaires. EVEROLIMUS -rapamycin –psoriasis. ORITAVANCIN. TELAVANCIN. ALBAVANCIN. Severe psoriasis Tx with new macrolid –everolimus: BJD ; 2007 vol 156 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • AMINOGLYCOSIDES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • DIBEKACIN       Analog – kanamycin Broad spectrum. E-Coli, pseudomonas . Dose : 100 mg im or iv. Indication : RTI, UTI, Burns Ad – Eff : Nepro, Oto toxicity . ISEPAMICIN – diaminocyclitol derivatives www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • NEW use of OLDER ones www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • CARBAPENEMS www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • ERTAPENEM      Similar to meropenem Indication : GN & anaerobic CA infection – 1st line (FDA) HA infection – NOT – ESBL Dose : 1gm iv – 30 min. Highly protein bound Ad – Eff : no clinical study( child, pregnant, lactating mother) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • Faropenem        Effective – GP & GN. PBPS 2&1A. Indication : L & U RTI, ENT, UTI. AD-Eff : GIT. Dose : 150 – 300 mg – TID. Caution : pregnant. No study – child, geriatrics . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • CEPHALOSPORINS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • CEFTOBIPROLE    FDA – 2003 – clinical trial. Indicated : MRSA, SSSI, Nasocomial Injectable. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • CEFEPINE HCL       Semisynthetic 4th gen. Indication : pneumonia, UTI, SSSI. Caution : Child, pregnancy, geriatrics. Dose : 0.5 to 1gm. BD. AD – Eff : GIT, Injectable site, C-Ind : pseudomembranous colitis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • QUINOLONES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TROVAFLOXACIN         1997 4 – gen. Broadest spectrum. Action : DNA gyrus, ty 4 topoisomerase (dormant) Indication :CAP, nosocomial, pneumonia, bronchitis NOT – UTI, pyelonephrites Meningitis Dose : 100mg to 200 mg/day ; oral or iv Ad – Eff : hepatic FDA – WARNING 1999,JUNE-LIVER TOXICITY.RESERVED FOR LIFE THREATING . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • GEMIFLOXACIN-MESYLATE        4 gen. Action : similar. GP & GN . Indication : MRSA, MDR, H.inf, klebsella pneu. Ad –Eff : GIT. Dose : 320 mg OD – po or iv. Only FQ – therapeutic level. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • MOXIFLOXCIN       3rd gen. 2000 – FDA. Indication : penicillin resistant pneu, sinusitis, bronchitis & CAP. Cont-ind : QT interval, HS. Ad – Eff : GIT,QT prolonged. Dose : 400mg /day. www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  PRULIFLOXACIN  RUFLOXACIN  TEMOFLOXACIN  SITAFLOXACIN  GREPAFLOXACIN (1999torsedes de pointes) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • SULFONAMIDES   No new (drotrecogin – alfa) Upjohn – presence of sulfo with antiviral drug . www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TEMOCILLIN        MR – GN (klebsella , H.Inf, e-coli) Action : same pen Narrow spectrum BLRP. Indication : renal impaired pt . Dose : 1gm iv or im 12 hrs. Ad – Eff : angioedema, HS. Pregnancy, child, geriatrics ? Liver more et al : 2005 activity of temocilline Vs prevalent ESBL enterobacterecia : SE England FIS medline nov 2005. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  PIPERACILLIN & TAZOBACTAM  SULBACTAM www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • ANTIFUNGAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • VORICONAZOLE      Triazole Indication : Serious fungal infection. 1st & only drug – FDA (ampo – B). Ad – Eff : vision, Dose : 3mg/kg iv or 200mg. Walsh T – National institute A & I :Mycosis study group jan2002 /;compared voriconazole Vs ampo-B. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • POSACONAZOLE         Triazole .(NOXAFI) FDA – july- 13- 2004 Action : cytochrome p450 14a – demethylase (sterol) Invasive infection. Dose : oral 600 to 800mg / day. More potent than varico. Zygomycetes. Ad – Eff : GIT, taste. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TERCONAZOLE : -Vaginal  ISAVUCONAZOLE : -Clinical phase. -resistant – fluconazole  RAVUCONAZOLE : -Clinical trial. -related to vari & flu.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • CASPOFUNGINS       FDA & EU Action : cell wall . Indicated : invasive aspergillosis, refractory to ampo – B, oesophagities . Dose : 70 mg iv Ad – Eff ; GIT , skin Caution : hepatic, preg, lactating, www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • MICAFUNGIN      Glucan synthesis. Action : cell wall 1-3 beta- D- glucan. Broad spectrum.( no –zygo) Dose : 150mg/day Indication : stem cell transplant pt. oesophageal candida. ANIDULA – similar aspergilluse nidulans. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • SERATOCONAZOLE     Imidazole Action : cell wall. Indicated : Athletes foot . Ad – Eff : burning, dermatitis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • ANTIVIRAL www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • ATAZANAVIR Protease inhibitor.  Anti-retro viral.  FDA-2003  1st - OD.(2006) -300mg  Ad – Eff : bilirubin, torsades de points,  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • TENOFOVIR:   Blocks reverse transcriptase. FDA – 2001 FOSAMPRENAVIR:    FDA – 2003 Active – amprenavir. Protease inhibitor. FOMIVIRSEN:   Blocks viral mRNA - coding CMV – retinitis ; HIV www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  ADEFOVIR DIPIVOXIL : - Inhibits HBV DNA polymerase. - indication : HBV - Ad – Eff : GIT, Nepro. - dose : 10mg OD.  ENTECAVIR : - Inhibits DNA reverse transcriptase. - Dose : 0.5mg OD. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • NOVEL MODES   Focus – virulence Molecular biology & genomics – NOT Nancy khardori -2006 med clin. N Am 90 www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  •  ANTI-QUORUM SENSING MECHANISM: - Protective biofilm.  ENZYMES: - Damage to DNA . .  PATHOGENICITY ISLAND: - Virulence encoded genes. - VREF. - Virstatin - Cholera toxin gene. Hung DT . Small-molecule inhibitor of vibrio cholerae. science 2005;310 Goldsmith. Plasmid-encoded MucB protein is a DNA polymerase:Natl AcadSci USA www.indiandentalacademy.com 2000;97
  •  CHEMICAL MODIFICATION – Beta – lactamas inhibitors – saturated by ext.spectrum Beta-lactamas . – LY333328 – vancosamine sugar. – L786392 – carbapenem – PBP2a - PBP 5 Waldor MK.a new approch for antibiotics development .N Engl j Med 2006 :354 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  ANTIBIOTICS HYBRIDE – Two in One Hamilton-miller JM .Dual – action antibiotic hybrid. J antimicro chemotherapy 1994;33 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • AMP  NATURAL ANTIBIOTICS: – Innate immunity. – Lipid – peptide interaction. – Defensins. MERD 2007 AMP – SMART BOMBS (frog skin & human lung) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  Designed AMP: – Laboratory synthesized – Anti pneumococcal – peptide analogue www.indiandentalacademy.com
  •  BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT INHIBITORS: – Bacterial receptors Vs oligosaccharide – mucosa – Non cellular oligosaccharides. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • BACTERIOPHAGES (1917) – Intravenous phage – stap.aureus. – Alernative antibiotics. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • METAGENOMICS: - Removal of Plasmid DNA CISRO GENE TECHNOLOGY: - cytokine & interferon - adenovirus - vector www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • PROTIEN INHIBITORS:  Hemocidins  Staphostatins www.indiandentalacademy.com
  • NANOTECNOLOGY    Nanopills - carbon - amino acid - semiconductors - plastic Quantum dot Target antibiotics – bucky ball www.indiandentalacademy.com
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  • Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com