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Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching
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Anatomical landmarks /Fixed orthodontics teaching

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  • Anatomical landmarks and their clinical significance in complete Denture Impressions.
    Dr N.S.Azhagarasan.
    Dept of prosthodontics
    Ragas dental college and hospital.
  • Labial frenum:
    Fold of mucous membrane at the median line.
    Moves with muscles of lip.
    Adequate relief for muscle activity.
    Proper denture seal.
    Excessive relief weakens denture base.
  • Single or double folds of mucous membrane.
    Broad and fan shaped.
    Moves with muscles of cheek during speech and mastication.
    Adequate relief for muscle activity-more clearence.
  • Labial vestibule
    Labial-buccal frenum.
    Muco-gingival line-limits upper border.
    Record adequate depth/width.
    Overextension causes instability/soreness.
    Proper contouring gives optimal esthetics.
  • Buccal frenum to hamular notch.
    Record adequate depth/width.
    Improper extension causes instability/soreness.
  • Distal end of denture must have Coverage-stability/retention.
    Gross enlargement(fibrous or bony –surgical correction.
  • Distal to maxillary tuberosity
    Aids in locating posterior palatal seal.
    Overextension causes soreness.
  • Vibrating line:
    Junction of movable and immovable part of soft palate.
    2mm ant to fovea palatinae.
    Aids to establish PPS.
    Distal end of denture at least to vibrating line.
    Post palatal seal area.
    From hamular notch to hamular notch.
    Anterior to vibrating line.
    Aids in retention.
  • Bilateral indentations near the midline of palate.
    Formed by coalescence of several mucous gland ducts.
    Posterior to junction of hard and soft palate.
    Aids in determining vibrating line.
  • Support for the maxillary denture.
    Primary stress bearing area- horizontal portion of hard palate lateral to midline.
    Secondary stress bearing area –rugae.
  • Residual bone with mucous membrane.
    Primary stress bearing area.
  • Elevation of soft tissue over the incisive foramen or nasopalatine canal.
    Location : on or labial to ridge.
    Impingement –burning sensation, parasthesia and pain.
    Relief necessary.
  • Irregular shaped rolls of soft tissue.
    Secondary stress bearing area.
    Should not be distorted in the impression.
  • Extends from incisive papilla to distal end of hard palate.
    Thin mucosal covering and non-resilient..
    Relieve adequately to avoid trauma from denture base.
  • Labial frenum.
    Shorter and wider than the maxillary frenum.
    Adequate relief for muscle activity (mentalis).
    Proper fit around it maintains seal without soreness.
  • Adequate relief for muscle activity.
    Proper denture seal.
  • Labial vestibule.
    Labial-buccal frenum.
    Overextension causes instability/soreness.
    Muscles attachment close to the crest of the ridge- limits the denture flange extension.
    Mucolabial fold limits the depth of the flange.
    Record adequate depth and width.
    Proper contouring gives optimal esthetics.
  • Buccal frenum-retromolar pad.
    Impression is widest in this area.
    Record adequate depth and width.
  • Extends from buccal frenum to retromolar pad.
    Between external oblique ridge and crest of alveolar ridge.
    Primary stress bearing area- lies at right angles to vertical occlusal forces.
  • A bony ridge runs antero-posteriorly outside the buccal shelf.
    Denture border 1-2 mm beyond this ridge.
    Shows as Groove in impression.
  • Residual bone with mucous membrane.
    Crest to be relieved.
    Buccal and lingual slopes are secondary stress bearing areas.
  • Triangular soft pad of tissue.
    Posterior end of lower edentulous ridge.
    Limiting landmark of distal extension of complete denture upto ant 2/3 rd of retro molar pad.
    Determines height and width of the occlusal table.
  • Between lingual frenum to retromylohyoid curtain.
    Anterior region- lingual frenum to mylohyoid ridge.
    Premylohyoid fossa- premylohyoid eminence in impression.
    Border of Impression to make contact with the mucosa of the floor of the mouth when tongue touches the upper incisor.
    Overextension causes soreness and instability.
  • Middle region.
    From pre-mylohyoid fossa to the distal end of the mylohyoid ridge.
    Lingual flange extends below the level of the mylohyoid ridge- tongue rests on the top of flange and aids in stabilizing the lower denture.
  • Posterior region.
    The flange passes into the retromylohyoid fossa.
    Proper recording gives typical S –form of the lingual flange.
  • Distal end of lingual sulcus.
    Area posterior to the mylohyoid muscle.
    Good seal aids in retention and stability.
  • Attachment for the mylohyoid muscle.
    Sharp or irregular covered by the mucous membrane.
    Trauma from denture base –relief necessary.
  • Floor of the mouth is formed by mylohyoid muscle.
    Lies deep to the sublingual gland in the anterior region- does not affect the border of denture.
    Posterior region –affects the lingual border in swallowing and tongue movements.
  • Area of muscle attachment (Genioglossus and Geniohyoid).
    Lies away from the crest of the ridge.
    Prominent in Resorbed ridges.
    Adequate relief to be provided.
  • Fold of mucous membrane.
    Base of tongue to supragenial tubercle.
    Registered in function.
  • Transcript

    1. 11 ANATOMICAL LANDMARKSANATOMICAL LANDMARKS AND THEIR CLINICALAND THEIR CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE.SIGNIFICANCE. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    2. 22 Labial frenum:Labial frenum: • Fold of mucous membrane atFold of mucous membrane at the median line.the median line. • Moves with muscles of lip.Moves with muscles of lip. • Adequate relief for muscleAdequate relief for muscle activity.activity. • Proper denture seal.Proper denture seal. • Excessive relief weakensExcessive relief weakens denture base.denture base. Maxillary arch •A- correct contour •B –incorrect contour. •C- area should have been covered. Labial notch www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    3. 33 Buccal frenum:Buccal frenum:  Single or double folds ofSingle or double folds of mucous membrane.mucous membrane.  Broad and fan shaped.Broad and fan shaped.  Moves with muscles of cheekMoves with muscles of cheek during speech andduring speech and mastication.mastication.  Adequate relief for muscleAdequate relief for muscle activity-more clearence.activity-more clearence. •Maxillary buccal frenum area. •Denture border contour in buccal frenum area. Buccal notch www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    4. 44 Labial vestibuleLabial vestibule • Labial-buccalLabial-buccal frenum.frenum. • Muco-gingival line-Muco-gingival line- limits upper border.limits upper border. • Record adequateRecord adequate depth/width.depth/width. • OverextensionOverextension causescauses instability/soreness.instability/soreness. • Proper contouringProper contouring gives optimalgives optimal •Labial flange www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    5. 55 Buccal vestibuleBuccal vestibule • Buccal frenum toBuccal frenum to hamular notch.hamular notch. • Record adequateRecord adequate depth/width.depth/width. • Improper extensionImproper extension causescauses instability/soreness.instability/soreness. Buccal flange www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    6. 66 Maxillary tuberosity.Maxillary tuberosity. • Distal end of dentureDistal end of denture must have Coverage-must have Coverage- stability/retention.stability/retention. • GrossGross enlargement(fibrousenlargement(fibrous or bony –surgicalor bony –surgical correction.correction.Area of tuberosity www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    7. 77 •Distal to maxillary tuberosity •Aids in locating posterior palatal seal. •Overextension causes soreness. Hamular notch. Area of hamular notch www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    8. 88 Vibrating line:Vibrating line: • Junction of movable andJunction of movable and immovable part of softimmovable part of soft palate.palate. • 2mm ant to fovea2mm ant to fovea palatinae.palatinae. • Aids to establish PPS.Aids to establish PPS. • Distal end of denture atDistal end of denture at least to vibrating line.least to vibrating line. Post palatal sealPost palatal seal area.area. • From hamular notch toFrom hamular notch to hamular notch.hamular notch. • Anterior to vibrating line.Anterior to vibrating line. • Aids in retention.Aids in retention. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    9. 99 Fovea Palatinae.Fovea Palatinae. • Bilateral indentationsBilateral indentations near the midline of palate.near the midline of palate. • Formed by coalescence ofFormed by coalescence of several mucous glandseveral mucous gland ducts.ducts. • Posterior to junction ofPosterior to junction of hard and soft palate.hard and soft palate. • Aids in determiningAids in determining vibrating line.vibrating line. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    10. 1010 Hard palateHard palate • Support for theSupport for the maxillary denture.maxillary denture. • Primary stressPrimary stress bearing area-bearing area- horizontal portion ofhorizontal portion of hard palate lateral tohard palate lateral to midline.midline. • Secondary stressSecondary stress bearing area –bearing area – rugae.rugae. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    11. 1111 Alveloar ridgeAlveloar ridge • Residual bone withResidual bone with mucous membrane.mucous membrane. • Primary stressPrimary stress bearing area.bearing area. Alveolar groove www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    12. 1212 • Elevation of soft tissueElevation of soft tissue over the incisiveover the incisive foramen or nasopalatineforamen or nasopalatine canal.canal. • Location : on or labial toLocation : on or labial to ridge.ridge. • Impingement –burningImpingement –burning sensation, parasthesiasensation, parasthesia and pain.and pain. • Relief necessary.Relief necessary. Incisive papilla. •Incisive fossa www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    13. 1313 Rugae.Rugae. • Irregular shaped rollsIrregular shaped rolls of soft tissue.of soft tissue. • Secondary stressSecondary stress bearing area.bearing area. • Should not beShould not be distorted in thedistorted in the impression.impression. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    14. 1414 • Extends from incisiveExtends from incisive papilla to distal end ofpapilla to distal end of hard palate.hard palate. • Thin mucosal coveringThin mucosal covering and non-resilient..and non-resilient.. • Relieve adequately toRelieve adequately to avoid trauma fromavoid trauma from denture base.denture base. Median palatine raphae. Median palatine groove www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    15. 1515 Labial frenum.Labial frenum. • Shorter and widerShorter and wider than the maxillarythan the maxillary frenum.frenum. • Adequate relief forAdequate relief for muscle activitymuscle activity (mentalis).(mentalis). • Proper fit around itProper fit around it maintains sealmaintains seal without soreness.without soreness. Mandibular arch. Labial notch. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    16. 1616 Buccal frenum.Buccal frenum. • Adequate relief forAdequate relief for muscle activity.muscle activity. • Proper denture seal.Proper denture seal. Buccal notch. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    17. 1717 Labial vestibule.Labial vestibule. • Labial-buccal frenum.Labial-buccal frenum. • Overextension causesOverextension causes instability/soreness.instability/soreness. • Muscles attachmentMuscles attachment close to the crest of theclose to the crest of the ridge- limits the dentureridge- limits the denture flange extension.flange extension. • Mucolabial fold limitsMucolabial fold limits the depth of the flange.the depth of the flange. • Record adequate depthRecord adequate depth and width.and width. • Proper contouring givesProper contouring gives optimal esthetics.optimal esthetics.Labial flange www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    18. 1818 Buccal vestibule.Buccal vestibule. • Buccal frenum-Buccal frenum- retromolar pad.retromolar pad. • Record adequateRecord adequate depth and width.depth and width. • Impression is widestImpression is widest in this area.in this area. Buccal flange www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    19. 1919 Buccal shelfBuccal shelf • Extends from buccal frenumExtends from buccal frenum to retromolar pad.to retromolar pad. • Between external obliqueBetween external oblique ridge and crest of alveolarridge and crest of alveolar ridge.ridge. • Primary stress bearingPrimary stress bearing area(cortical bone)- lies atarea(cortical bone)- lies at right angles to verticalright angles to vertical occlusal forces.occlusal forces. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    20. 2020 External oblique ridge.External oblique ridge. • A bony ridge runsA bony ridge runs antero-posteriorlyantero-posteriorly outside the buccaloutside the buccal shelf.shelf. • Denture border 1-2Denture border 1-2 mm beyond this ridge.mm beyond this ridge. • Shows as Groove inShows as Groove in impression.impression. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    21. 2121 Alveolar ridgeAlveolar ridge • Residual bone withResidual bone with mucous membrane.mucous membrane. • Crest to be relieved.Crest to be relieved. • Buccal and lingualBuccal and lingual slopes are secondaryslopes are secondary stress bearing areas.stress bearing areas. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    22. 2222 Retromolar padRetromolar pad.. • Triangular soft pad ofTriangular soft pad of tissue.tissue. • Posterior end of lowerPosterior end of lower edentulous ridge.edentulous ridge. • Limiting landmark ofLimiting landmark of distal extension ofdistal extension of complete denture uptocomplete denture upto ant 2/3 rd of retro molarant 2/3 rd of retro molar pad.pad. • Determines height andDetermines height and width of the occlusalwidth of the occlusal table.table.Retromolar fossa www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    23. 2323 Alveolo-Lingual sulcus.Alveolo-Lingual sulcus. • Between lingual frenum toBetween lingual frenum to retromylohyoid curtain.retromylohyoid curtain. • Anterior region- lingualAnterior region- lingual frenum to mylohyoid ridge.frenum to mylohyoid ridge. • Premylohyoid fossa-Premylohyoid fossa- premylohyoid eminence inpremylohyoid eminence in impression.impression. • Border of Impression toBorder of Impression to make contact with themake contact with the mucosa of the floor of themucosa of the floor of the mouth when tonguemouth when tongue touches the upper incisor.touches the upper incisor. • Overextension causesOverextension causes soreness and instability.soreness and instability. Lingual flange Premylohyoid eminence www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    24. 2424 Middle region.Middle region. • From pre-mylohyoidFrom pre-mylohyoid fossa to the distal endfossa to the distal end of the mylohyoid ridge.of the mylohyoid ridge. • Lingual flange extendsLingual flange extends below the level of thebelow the level of the mylohyoid ridge- tonguemylohyoid ridge- tongue rests on the top ofrests on the top of flange and aids inflange and aids in stabilizing the lowerstabilizing the lower denture.denture. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    25. 2525 Posterior region.Posterior region. • The flangeThe flange passes into thepasses into the retromylohyoidretromylohyoid fossa.fossa. • Proper recordingProper recording gives typical S –gives typical S – form of theform of the lingual flange.lingual flange. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    26. 2626 Retromylohyoid space.Retromylohyoid space. • Distal end of lingualDistal end of lingual sulcus.sulcus. • Area posterior to theArea posterior to the mylohyoid muscle.mylohyoid muscle. • Good seal aids inGood seal aids in retention and stability.retention and stability. Retromylohyoid eminence www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    27. 2727 Mylohyoid ridge.Mylohyoid ridge. • Attachment for theAttachment for the mylohyoid muscle.mylohyoid muscle. • Sharp or irregularSharp or irregular covered by thecovered by the mucous membrane.mucous membrane. • Trauma from dentureTrauma from denture base –reliefbase –relief necessary.necessary. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    28. 2828 Mylohyoid muscleMylohyoid muscle.. • Floor of the mouth isFloor of the mouth is formed by mylohyoidformed by mylohyoid muscle.muscle. • Lies deep to theLies deep to the sublingual gland in thesublingual gland in the anterior region- does notanterior region- does not affect the border ofaffect the border of denture.denture. • Posterior region –affectsPosterior region –affects the lingual border inthe lingual border in swallowing and tongueswallowing and tongue movements.movements.www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    29. 2929 Genial tubercle.Genial tubercle. • Area of muscleArea of muscle attachmentattachment (Genioglossus and(Genioglossus and Geniohyoid).Geniohyoid). • Lies away from the crestLies away from the crest of the ridge.of the ridge. • Prominent in ResorbedProminent in Resorbed ridges.ridges. • Adequate relief to beAdequate relief to be provided.provided. www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    30. 3030 Lingual frenum.Lingual frenum. • Fold of mucousFold of mucous membrane.membrane. • Base of tongue toBase of tongue to supragenial tubercle.supragenial tubercle. • Registered inRegistered in function.function. Lingual notch www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com
    31. 3131 Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.comwww.indiandentalacademy.com

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