INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
AGE RELATED SOFT
www.indiandentalacademy.com

TISSUE

CHANGES
...
ESTHETICS




THE WORD ESTHETICS COMES
FROM THE GREEK WORD
“AISTHETIKOS” MEANING ‘OF
SENSE OF PERCEPTION’
WORD MEANING- ...
THE ESTHETIC HERITAGE






Man, perhaps subconsciously, has
been aware of facial esthetics for a long
time.
35,000 yea...
PREHISTORIC ESTHETIC SENSE

www.indiandentalacademy.com
THE EGYPTIANS


THE EGYPTIAN CULTURE
DEVELOPED IN THE NILE VALLEY
AROUND 5000 YEARS AGO &
DURING THIS ERA A GREAT DEAL
OF...
EGYPTIAN SCLUPTURES

www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
THE GREEKS






The Greeks were the 1st to express sensitivity
to qualities of facial beauty through
philosophy & scul...
GREEK SCULPTURES

www.indiandentalacademy.com
THE ROMANS






The Romans profusely documented beauty by coping
or reworking Greek sculptures & by carving original
s...
RENAISSANCE




In his time
MICHELANGELO
strongly influenced the
direction & spirit of Italian
Renaissance
movement.
His...


IN 1865 AN OBJECTIVE STUDY OF
HUMAN ESTHETICS WAS
INTRODUCED BY A BRTISHER,
WOOLNOTH. ACCORDING TO HIM
PROFILES ARE SEE...
PROFILE CHANGES IN GROWING
FACE


1.
2.

3.

The face of a child is vertically short
because
Nasal part of the face is st...
THE BABY FACE












LARGE APPEARING EYES
DAINTY JAWS
SMALL PUG NOSE
PUFFY CHEEKS
HIGH INTELECTUAL- LIKE
FOR...


The baby’s face appears relatively
smaller than the cranium. This is
because the growth of the brain slows
down conside...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
MALE V/S FEMALE


The overall body size of the male tends
to be larger than that of the female &
the male lungs correspon...
www.indiandentalacademy.com
www.indiandentalacademy.com
FACIAL TYPES
MESOFACIAL
( IDEAL) TYPE
Most often associated with
C I occlusions since these
patients are characterised
by ...
DOLICIFACIAL TYPE
These patients have long &
weak musculature
because of the tendency
for vertical growth. The
molar occlu...
BRACHYFACIAL
TYPE
They have short faces &
wide square mandibles of
these patients are most
often associated with C II
div ...
THE ROLE OF TONGUE






The primary function of facial muscles is
expression
These muscles are also important in
maint...


The tongue posture
in the neonate is
more forward. Many
oral functions in the
neonate are guided
primarily by tactile
s...
DENTAL CHANGES


FINAL OCCLUSION IN
ADULT
CLASS I- 59%
CLASSII- 39%
CLASS III- 2%

www.indiandentalacademy.com




The angulations of
permanent incisors is less
than deciduous teeth ie. The
deciduous are more upright.
The reason fo...
GROWTH CHANGES IN SOFT TISSUE
PROFILE






ANGLE 1997 [ RAM .S. NANADA, SUNIL KAPILA &
JOLANDE]
The relationship b/w n...
NOSE HEIGHT
Upper nose height ( n’ – prn’)
At 7 yrs same for both sexes.
^se in height b/w 7 -8 yrs.
^se slowed down b/w 8...


INCLINATION OF THE
NOSE

THE ANGLE ( prn’ – n’ – prn) IS
SIMILAR IN BOTH SEXES
B/W 8 – 16 YRS OF AGE
AT 18 YRS OF AGE T...
UPPER LIP HEIGHT
Measured from subnasale – upper lip
stomion – at 7 -8 yrs ^sed from
19.1 mm – 20.2 mm in females.
In male...
LOWER LIP HEIGHT
Lower lip stomion to soft tissue
pt B.
^se of 4.2mm in males & 1.5
mm in females


Major ^se occurred b/...
UPPER LIP THICKNESS
At ( Pt A – A’) ^se of 4.7mm in
males & 3.5mm in females


At ( LS – LS’) labrale superius
Males -- ^...
LOWER LIP THICKNESS
AT ( LI – LI’) ^SED 2.4mm IN
MALES. 1.4 mm IN
FEMALES.


AT ( Pt B) AN INCREASE OF
2.8mm IN MALES & 1...
CHIN ( pg – pg’)
MALES – 2.7mm ^SE
FEMALES – 2mm


www.indiandentalacademy.com
NASOLABIAL ANGLE
B/w 7 – 18 yrs decreased in
both sexes


It was 107 sd 9.4 deg – males &
114.7 sd 9.5 deg – females
It r...
MENTOLABIAL SULCUS
MALES – AT 7 YRS 125.3 SD 8.4 deg.
AT 18 YRS 125.1 SD 12.9 deg
FEMALES – 7 YRS 136.1 SD 11.6 deg
. 18 Y...
PROFILOMETRICS & FACIAL
ESTHETICS






A.J.O. 1978, PAUL LINES, RUSKIN LINES &
CHRISTOPHER LINES.
In the past sexual d...


1.

2.

3.

The diagnostic tools necessary for facial profile
management include
Knowledge of what constitutes esthetic...


1.
2.
3.
4.

The treatment capabilities at the disposal of
the orthodontist include
Conventional orthodontic mechanothe...
INTERLABIAL
PROMINENCE
Most female profile
demonstrated 10 deg more
prominence than the most
popular male profile
 Male 1...
CHIN PROMINENCE
ANGLE
The general preference was
0 deg but +4 deg was also
preferred
RANGE – 0 - +4 DEG


www.indiandenta...
NASAL PROMINENCE IN
RELATION TO CHIN
Most preferred male angle were –
30 deg & 35 deg. The opposite
tendency was noted whi...


NASAL TIP ANGLE
MORE ACUTE ANGLES
WERE PREFERRED FOR
MALE PROFILES

PREFERRED RANGE- 60 – 80
deg

www.indiandentalacade...


INFERIOR LABIAL SULCUS

ANGLE
Preferred angles were 130 –
140 deg
Most pleasing angle was 130
deg or slightly greater.
...
NASO LABIAL ANGLE
PREFERRED RANGEACCORDING TO BROWN & Mc
DOWELL90 – 110 deg



www.indiandentalacademy.com
ARTICLES








A.J.O. 1984, GROWTH OF LIPS IN 2-D: A SERIAL
CEPHALOMETRIC STUDY.
Growth of lips measured b/w 8-18 yr...
A.J.O. 1988, LINEAR CHANGES OF
MAXILLARY
AND MANDIBULAR LIPS




Sample size was 32 untreated male & female
subjects fro...
GROWTH CHANGES IN THE NASAL
PROFILE
FROM 7 – 18 YEARS , A.J.O. 1988







Increments in nose height, depth & inclinat...
A.J.O. 1984, SOFT TISSUE
PREFERENCE






Study showed that C I normal
profiles were the favoured
ones the C I deep pro...
A.J.O. 1992, FACIAL GROWTH IN FEMALES
BETWEEN 14 – 20 YEARS OF AGE
The objective of this study was to determine the magnit...
A.J.O. 1990, FACIAL GROWTH IN MALES
16-20 YRS OF AGE








MANDI. GROWTH WAS FOUND TO BE
STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT F...
A.J.O. 1994, LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN
ADULT FACIAL PROFILE











SUBJECTS WERE B/W THE AGES 18-42 YRS.
Results s...






ISRAEL ( 1973) reported data from women who
were 1st examined at ages ranging from 24 – 48 yrs
& were reexamined ...


BEHERENTS ( 1985 ) found enlargement in
all dimensions of cranial base & mandible
after 30 yrs & growth ceased after 35...
ANGLE 1988, LATE GROWTH
CHANGES
IN CRANIOFACIAL SKELETON








THIS STUDY SHOWED THAT ALL MEASUREMENTS
REACHED PEAK ...







^se in size of nose & ears
Nose- broader, longer &
had downward tip.
Lower third of face
showed ^sed dimension....








In both sexes most of the changes was expressed
ant. ly. Thus the position of the nasion & tip of
nasal bone w...






Persons who had experienced the loss of many
teeth also grew in adulthood.
But these individuals grew less in adu...
CONCLUSION


ON THE BASIS OF THE FINDINGS PRESENTED HERE,
IT MUST BE RECOGNISED THAT GROWTH &
DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRANIOFA...
Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

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Age related soft tissue changes / orthodontic diploma courses / indian dental academy /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
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Age related soft tissue changes / orthodontic diploma courses / indian dental academy /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education AGE RELATED SOFT www.indiandentalacademy.com TISSUE CHANGES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ESTHETICS   THE WORD ESTHETICS COMES FROM THE GREEK WORD “AISTHETIKOS” MEANING ‘OF SENSE OF PERCEPTION’ WORD MEANING- a branch of philosophy dealing with beauty, especially with judgments of taste concerning them- Webster's dictionary www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. THE ESTHETIC HERITAGE    Man, perhaps subconsciously, has been aware of facial esthetics for a long time. 35,000 years ago the early man discovered the mental agility for survival & made life easier. It was probably during this period that men found the time to develop his esthetic awareness & sensitivity. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. PREHISTORIC ESTHETIC SENSE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. THE EGYPTIANS  THE EGYPTIAN CULTURE DEVELOPED IN THE NILE VALLEY AROUND 5000 YEARS AGO & DURING THIS ERA A GREAT DEAL OF ESTHETIC ATTITUDES WERE RECORDED IN ART www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. EGYPTIAN SCLUPTURES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. THE GREEKS    The Greeks were the 1st to express sensitivity to qualities of facial beauty through philosophy & sculpture. While the philosophers formalized the study of beauty, the sculptors implemented the expression of beauty in their art. Greek sculptures blossomed in 4th & 5th century B.C. often called as the “GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. GREEK SCULPTURES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. THE ROMANS    The Romans profusely documented beauty by coping or reworking Greek sculptures & by carving original subjects. Unfortunately, Roman sculptures was never formalized or idealized, no new concepts of facial esthetics are related in these works. Faces of men were represented life so these works showed a range of facial features, harmony & proportions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. RENAISSANCE   In his time MICHELANGELO strongly influenced the direction & spirit of Italian Renaissance movement. His sculptures identified with the classical traditions of Greece & Rome. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12.  IN 1865 AN OBJECTIVE STUDY OF HUMAN ESTHETICS WAS INTRODUCED BY A BRTISHER, WOOLNOTH. ACCORDING TO HIM PROFILES ARE SEEN IN 3 ORDERS – THE STRAIGHT, THE CONVEX & THE CONCAVE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. PROFILE CHANGES IN GROWING FACE  1. 2. 3. The face of a child is vertically short because Nasal part of the face is still small The primary & secondary dentition has not fully established The jaw bones have not grown to the vertical extent that would support the full dentition & the enlarging masticatory muscles & airway www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. THE BABY FACE          LARGE APPEARING EYES DAINTY JAWS SMALL PUG NOSE PUFFY CHEEKS HIGH INTELECTUAL- LIKE FOREHEAD NO COURSE EYE BROW RIDGES LOW NASAL BRIDGE SMALL MOUTH & OVERALL WIDE & SHORT PROPORTIONS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15.  The baby’s face appears relatively smaller than the cranium. This is because the growth of the brain slows down considerably after about the 3 rd or 4th year of child hood, but the facial bones continue to enlarge for many more years. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. MALE V/S FEMALE  The overall body size of the male tends to be larger than that of the female & the male lungs correspondingly more sizable to provide for the relatively more massive muscles & body organs. This calls for a large airway beginning with the nose & the nasopharynx. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. FACIAL TYPES MESOFACIAL ( IDEAL) TYPE Most often associated with C I occlusions since these patients are characterised by relatively normal max. & mandi. relationship resulting in good facial balance.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. DOLICIFACIAL TYPE These patients have long & weak musculature because of the tendency for vertical growth. The molar occlusion is often C II div I variety  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. BRACHYFACIAL TYPE They have short faces & wide square mandibles of these patients are most often associated with C II div II malocclusions. These patients usually they exhibit excessive anterior overbites.  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. THE ROLE OF TONGUE    The primary function of facial muscles is expression These muscles are also important in maintenance of posture of facial structures. According to proffit the lip & buccinator muscles opposed by the tongue contribute to the postural equilibrium of the teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24.  The tongue posture in the neonate is more forward. Many oral functions in the neonate are guided primarily by tactile stimuli from lips & tongue. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. DENTAL CHANGES  FINAL OCCLUSION IN ADULT CLASS I- 59% CLASSII- 39% CLASS III- 2% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.   The angulations of permanent incisors is less than deciduous teeth ie. The deciduous are more upright. The reason for this decreased angulations of the permanent incisor is because the dental lamina of the permanent incisor is located lingual to the primary teeth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. GROWTH CHANGES IN SOFT TISSUE PROFILE    ANGLE 1997 [ RAM .S. NANADA, SUNIL KAPILA & JOLANDE] The relationship b/w nose, lips & chin can be altered by both growth & orthodontic treatment. It is imperative , therefore, that the orthodontist have an understanding not only of the changes incident to orthodontic treatment but also of the amount & direction of growth expected in facial structures SAMPLE SIZE 17 M & 23 F B/W AGE GROUP 7 -18 YEARS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. NOSE HEIGHT Upper nose height ( n’ – prn’) At 7 yrs same for both sexes. ^se in height b/w 7 -8 yrs. ^se slowed down b/w 8 -11 yrs. Height again ^sed at 11yrs & b/w 14 – 17 yrs. Lower nose height (prn’ – ans”) ^sed more in males than females F adult size- 15 yrs, M- still growing at 18 yrs U/N : L/N = 3:1 www.indiandentalacademy.com 
  29. 29.  INCLINATION OF THE NOSE THE ANGLE ( prn’ – n’ – prn) IS SIMILAR IN BOTH SEXES B/W 8 – 16 YRS OF AGE AT 18 YRS OF AGE THE MALE GROUP SHOWED 4.5 deg ^SE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. UPPER LIP HEIGHT Measured from subnasale – upper lip stomion – at 7 -8 yrs ^sed from 19.1 mm – 20.2 mm in females. In males ^sed from 19.8 mm–22.5mm  A major part of this ^se occurred b/w 9 – 13 yrs –females & 9 – 15 yrsmales www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. LOWER LIP HEIGHT Lower lip stomion to soft tissue pt B. ^se of 4.2mm in males & 1.5 mm in females  Major ^se occurred b/w 10 – 11 yrs & 13 – 18 yrs. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. UPPER LIP THICKNESS At ( Pt A – A’) ^se of 4.7mm in males & 3.5mm in females  At ( LS – LS’) labrale superius Males -- ^sed 13.9mm – 17.1mm Females -- ^sed 11.8mm – 12.5mm. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. LOWER LIP THICKNESS AT ( LI – LI’) ^SED 2.4mm IN MALES. 1.4 mm IN FEMALES.  AT ( Pt B) AN INCREASE OF 2.8mm IN MALES & 1.6mm IN FEMALES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. CHIN ( pg – pg’) MALES – 2.7mm ^SE FEMALES – 2mm  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. NASOLABIAL ANGLE B/w 7 – 18 yrs decreased in both sexes  It was 107 sd 9.4 deg – males & 114.7 sd 9.5 deg – females It reduced to 105.8 sd 9 degmales & 110.7 sd 9 deg in females www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. MENTOLABIAL SULCUS MALES – AT 7 YRS 125.3 SD 8.4 deg. AT 18 YRS 125.1 SD 12.9 deg FEMALES – 7 YRS 136.1 SD 11.6 deg . 18 YRS 127.1 SD 12.9 deg  The position of the lips is largely dependent upon incisor inclination. Uprighting the max. & mand. incisors enlarges the nasolabial & mentolabial angles. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. PROFILOMETRICS & FACIAL ESTHETICS    A.J.O. 1978, PAUL LINES, RUSKIN LINES & CHRISTOPHER LINES. In the past sexual differences were largely ignored, partly because no such differences had been demonstrated by a scientific study or validated statistical analysis. Orthodontic treatment plans were based on primarily on the practitioner’s ability to move teeth within the alveolar bone. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38.  1. 2. 3. The diagnostic tools necessary for facial profile management include Knowledge of what constitutes esthetically pleasing facial profile. Knowledge of the effects of hard tissue changes on the soft tissue profile. Ability to accurately predict facial profile changes resulting from treatment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39.  1. 2. 3. 4. The treatment capabilities at the disposal of the orthodontist include Conventional orthodontic mechanotherapy Orthopedic force therapy Orthognathic surgery Rhinoplasty www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. INTERLABIAL PROMINENCE Most female profile demonstrated 10 deg more prominence than the most popular male profile  Male 160-170 deg [mean 170 deg]  Female 150deg [mean 160 deg]  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. CHIN PROMINENCE ANGLE The general preference was 0 deg but +4 deg was also preferred RANGE – 0 - +4 DEG  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. NASAL PROMINENCE IN RELATION TO CHIN Most preferred male angle were – 30 deg & 35 deg. The opposite tendency was noted while selecting female profile 25 deg & 20 deg   PREFERRED RANGE- 20 deg– 35 deg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43.  NASAL TIP ANGLE MORE ACUTE ANGLES WERE PREFERRED FOR MALE PROFILES PREFERRED RANGE- 60 – 80 deg www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44.  INFERIOR LABIAL SULCUS ANGLE Preferred angles were 130 – 140 deg Most pleasing angle was 130 deg or slightly greater. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. NASO LABIAL ANGLE PREFERRED RANGEACCORDING TO BROWN & Mc DOWELL90 – 110 deg  www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. ARTICLES     A.J.O. 1984, GROWTH OF LIPS IN 2-D: A SERIAL CEPHALOMETRIC STUDY. Growth of lips measured b/w 8-18 yrs .largest increment b/w 12-14 yrs with no significant change after16yrs. Males had larger lips at 10,12, 14, 16 & 18 & larger lower lip at 18 yrs Females showed larger lower at 12. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. A.J.O. 1988, LINEAR CHANGES OF MAXILLARY AND MANDIBULAR LIPS   Sample size was 32 untreated male & female subjects from age 8-18 yrs of age. It was observed that the max. & mandi. lips, under the influence of growth increased in length & thickness. The male lips exhibited greater increase than the female lips. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. GROWTH CHANGES IN THE NASAL PROFILE FROM 7 – 18 YEARS , A.J.O. 1988     Increments in nose height, depth & inclination are complete in girls by 16 years of age while continuing to ^se in males even beyond 18 yrs of age. Ratio b/w upper & lower nose heights were 3:1 Ratio b/w nose depth & sagittal depth of the underlying skeleton changed from 1:2 at 7yrs to 1:1.5 in M & 1:1.6 in F Upper nose inclination same for both sexs. lower nose inclination ^sed slightly in F after age 10. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. A.J.O. 1984, SOFT TISSUE PREFERENCE    Study showed that C I normal profiles were the favoured ones the C I deep profiles Open profile types were the least appreciated. This indicated that vertical profile characteristics could be more important than a/p features & lengthening of soft tissue profile were not desired in most cases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. A.J.O. 1992, FACIAL GROWTH IN FEMALES BETWEEN 14 – 20 YEARS OF AGE The objective of this study was to determine the magnitude & the direction of post pubertal mandi. & max. facial growth in females  The overall mandi. growth was approx. twice that of the overall max. growth.  Mandi. growth rate was found to be between 14-16 yrs of age.  Between 14-20 yrs the Mandibular Plane Angle decreased 1.1 deg showing a closing rotation of the mandible & the mandi. Incisors tipped labially with advancing age. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. A.J.O. 1990, FACIAL GROWTH IN MALES 16-20 YRS OF AGE     MANDI. GROWTH WAS FOUND TO BE STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT FOR THE AGE PERIODS 16-18 YRS & 18-20 YRS GROWTH FROM 16-18 YRS WAS GREATER THAN THAT 18-20YRS OVERALL MANDI. GROWTH WAS APPROX. TWICE THAT OF MAX. GROWTH MANDI. GROWTH WAS FOUND TO INVOLVE AN UPWARD & FORWARD ROTATION & INCISORSWERE FOUND TO TIP LINGUALLY WITH INCRESING AGE www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. A.J.O. 1994, LONGITUDINAL CHANGES IN ADULT FACIAL PROFILE       SUBJECTS WERE B/W THE AGES 18-42 YRS. Results showed that male profiles straightened with age & became more retrusive. The males ^sed in all nose dimensions & in soft tissue thickness at pogonion & decreased in upper lip thickness The female profile did not become straighter with age & lips did not become more retrusive as with males For males most changes in hard tissue measurements had been accomplished by age 25 yrs, whereas soft tissue changes occurred even after 25 yrs For females both hard & soft tissue measurement had more changes after age 25 www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53.    ISRAEL ( 1973) reported data from women who were 1st examined at ages ranging from 24 – 48 yrs & were reexamined 14 – 28 yrs later. He concluded that there was 4 – 5 % overall ^se in size, upper face ^sed by 6 %, frontal sinuses by 914 % & mandible by 5 -7 %. There was significant ^se in Se – Na, Se –Ba, Go – Gn, Co – Gn. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54.  BEHERENTS ( 1985 ) found enlargement in all dimensions of cranial base & mandible after 30 yrs & growth ceased after 35 yre of age. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55. ANGLE 1988, LATE GROWTH CHANGES IN CRANIOFACIAL SKELETON     THIS STUDY SHOWED THAT ALL MEASUREMENTS REACHED PEAK AT 32 YRS EXCEPT FOR Go – Gn AT 40 YRS. The age at which maxi. length occurs in an individual is regarded as the age at which growth has ceased. There were small decreases in the cranial base & mandi. lengths after the maxi. Values were attained (mean decrease 0.62 – 1.33mm) The decrease tended to be larger in men than in women. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56.     ^se in size of nose & ears Nose- broader, longer & had downward tip. Lower third of face showed ^sed dimension. Lip prominence was lessened www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57.     In both sexes most of the changes was expressed ant. ly. Thus the position of the nasion & tip of nasal bone were located in an anterior position with time. The chin continues to get displaced ant .ly during all ages. The mean ^se in total facial height was 2.8mm during adulthood Because of the growth of the nose & the anterior movement of chin, teeth appear less prominent & lip area flattened www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58.    Persons who had experienced the loss of many teeth also grew in adulthood. But these individuals grew less in adulthood. They showed a vertical loss of dimension with time. In a very old individual where the jaws are completely edentulous, the alveolar bone resorbs & vertical facial height is reduced. The lower face becomes concave. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. CONCLUSION  ON THE BASIS OF THE FINDINGS PRESENTED HERE, IT MUST BE RECOGNISED THAT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT OF THE CRANIOFACIAL SKELETON IS A CONTINUING LONGTERM PROCESS THAT APPARENTLY HAS ITS PERIODS OF EXUBERANCE & RELATIVE QUIESCENCE, BUT THE BIOLOGIC MECHANISMS THAT REGULATE THE CHANGES REMAIN INTACT & NEVER REALLY TERMINATE. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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