ACID/BASE BALANCE
INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandenta...
ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CAN BE
PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS
PROTON DONORS ARE ACIDS
PROTON ACCEPTORS ARE B...
ACID/BASE REACTIONS
HCl + NaOH

NaCl + H2O

ACID + BASE

SALT + WATER

www.indiandentalacademy.com
ACID/BASE BALANCE AND
THE BLOOD
[OH -]
[H+]
Acidic

Alkaline (Basic)
Neutral

pH

0

Venous Blood

Acidosis
6.8

7
7.4
Nor...
CHEMICAL BUFFER
SYSTEMS
Unbuffered Salt Solution

Na+

Add
HCl

ClCl-

Protons taken up as Carbonic Acid

H2CO3: HCO3- Buf...
CHEMICAL BUFFER
SYSTEMS
Weak acid/salt systems act as a “sponge”
for protons
As acidity tends to increase they take
proton...
CHEMICAL BUFFER
SYSTEMS
Carbonic acid/Bicarbonate: Primary buffer
against non-carbonic acid changes
Proteins: Primary ICF ...
ROLE OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN
ACID/BASE BALANCE

Alterations in ventilation alter the rate of
excretion of carbon dioxide
...
Sources of acidosis
Metabolic: Severe diarrhea, Diabetes
mellitus, strenuous exercise, uremia
Respiratory: hypoventilation...
Sources of alkalosis
Metabolic: Vomiting, ingestion of alkaline
drugs
Respiratory: hyperventilation

www.indiandentalacade...
Renal regulation of blood
acidity
Proton excretion
Bicarbonate excretion
Ammonia secretion

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Thank you

For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Acid base /dental courses

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.


Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
00919248678078

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Acid base /dental courses

  1. 1. ACID/BASE BALANCE INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CAN BE PROTON DONORS OR ACCEPTORS PROTON DONORS ARE ACIDS PROTON ACCEPTORS ARE BASES ACIDS AND BASES REACT TO NEUTRALIZE EACH OTHER FORMING SALTS www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. ACID/BASE REACTIONS HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O ACID + BASE SALT + WATER www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. ACID/BASE BALANCE AND THE BLOOD [OH -] [H+] Acidic Alkaline (Basic) Neutral pH 0 Venous Blood Acidosis 6.8 7 7.4 Normal 7.35-7.45 www.indiandentalacademy.com 14 Arterial Blood Alkalosis 8.0
  5. 5. CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Unbuffered Salt Solution Na+ Add HCl ClCl- Protons taken up as Carbonic Acid H2CO3: HCO3- Buffer HCO3H+ H+ Na+ Cl- H2CO3 All protons are free H2CO3 Add HCl HCO3www.indiandentalacademy.com + H+
  6. 6. CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Weak acid/salt systems act as a “sponge” for protons As acidity tends to increase they take protons up As acidity tends to decrease they release protons www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. CHEMICAL BUFFER SYSTEMS Carbonic acid/Bicarbonate: Primary buffer against non-carbonic acid changes Proteins: Primary ICF buffer, also ECF Hemoglobin: Primary buffer against carbonic acid changes Phosphate: Urinary buffer, also ICF www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. ROLE OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM IN ACID/BASE BALANCE Alterations in ventilation alter the rate of excretion of carbon dioxide Alterations in the rate of carbon dioxide excretion cause alterations in pH through carbonic acid This way the respiratory system can help control non-respiratory acidosis and alkalosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Sources of acidosis Metabolic: Severe diarrhea, Diabetes mellitus, strenuous exercise, uremia Respiratory: hypoventilation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. Sources of alkalosis Metabolic: Vomiting, ingestion of alkaline drugs Respiratory: hyperventilation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. Renal regulation of blood acidity Proton excretion Bicarbonate excretion Ammonia secretion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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