Managing Indiana’s Air Resources


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Slides from presentation given by Richard M. Van Frank from Improving Kids' Environment, at Indiana Sustainable Natural Resources Task Force 1/25/12 meeting.

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Managing Indiana’s Air Resources

  1. 1. Managing Indiana’s Air Resources Presentation to Indiana Sustainable Natural Resources Task Force Richard M. Van Frank January 25, 2012
  2. 2. About Improving Kids’ Environment IKE is a non-profit advocacy organization that works to reduce and remove environmental threats to children’s health so they can succeed Our mission is to:  identify environmental threats to children  ensure parents and others have access to accurate information about threats & how to prevent them  work with others to remove, reduce and communicate recognized, serious threats 2
  3. 3. Air Pollution Sources in Indiana Electric generating plants  Coal-fired  Gas & other fuels Industrial facilities  Coal-& gas-fired boilers  Manufacturing processes  Steel mills  Coke plants 3
  4. 4. Air Pollution Sources in Indiana Industrial facilities cont.  Refineries  Chemical and pharmaceutical plants Mobile sources  Cars, trucks, buses, locomotives Other, fireplaces, wood boilers, trash burning, lawnmowers, etc. etc. 4
  5. 5. Pollution Emitted As… Vapor or gas Particulates  Some vapors form particulates after leaving the stack 5
  6. 6. Significant Public Health Risks Particulates : aggravated asthma, reduced lung growth, allergies, Cardiac arrest. Ozone: inflammation of linking of lungs, reduced lung function, cough, wheezing, chest pain, shortness of breath, difficulty exercising Sulfur Dioxide: wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath Nitrogen Dioxide: Increased respiratory illnesses, more severe asthma, plus irritation of eyes, nose and throat 6
  7. 7. Pollutants Criteria pollutants  Particulate matter, ground-level ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, and lead  hazardous air pollutants are linked to respiratory, cardiovascular disease and cancer 7
  8. 8. Traffic-related Pollution Health Effects Traffic creates a mix of hazardous air pollutants, such as benzene, and criteria air pollutants: fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Living near busy roads is a risk factor for the onset of childhood asthma 8
  9. 9. Pregnant Women & Unborn Children A child’s brain & nervous system is vulnerable because of long developmental process: just after conception through adolescence Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke may increase risk of asthma in the child, or lead to reduced lung function Mercury exposure found to cause lower intelligence in children and problems with language, attention and memory Exposure to lead is associated with impaired memory, lower IQ and difficulty following directions, planning, and processing speech 9
  10. 10. Damages to Other Natural Resources Crops and Trees  Soybeans  Evergreens The use of additional resources brings a global economic loss of 10-12 percent of the total value of crop production The U.S. soybean crop suffers nearly $2 billion in damage a year due to rising surface ozone concentrations 10 Source:
  11. 11. Effects of Ozone on Crop Yields 11Source:
  12. 12. The Clean Air Act Control effort was originally driven by increasing signs of environmental damage in the northeastern US. Acidified lakes  Leaching minerals, some toxic from soil and rock  Health effects from air pollution began to be recognized 12
  13. 13. Clean Air Act-Indiana Experience State had no SO2 SIP. Complete denial of problem  Claimed economic effect  2x or more increase in utility rates  Coal mines close  Industry leave state  Acid rain did not exist! 13
  14. 14. Clean Air Act Protection of Public Health and the Environment Sets standards for air pollution  EPA sets regulations based on advice from the Science Advisory Committee. There is no “bright line”  The standard is based on the best scientific judgment of the committee The standard continues to be lowered as more is learned about health risks  Effects of non-attainment  Economic consequences 14
  15. 15. Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Fine Particulate 15Source: U.S. EPA
  16. 16. Fine ParticulateFine Particulate & Our Lungs 16
  17. 17. Current & Proposed Standards for Fine Particulate Current:  Annual standard: 15.0 ug/m3  24-Hour standard: 35 ug/m3 New Recommended Standard:  Annual: 24 to 14 ug/m3  24-Hour: 25 to 35 ug/m3 Indiana could have trouble meeting new standard 17
  18. 18. Fine Particulate 24-Hour Highs for Indianapolis PM 2.5 24 HR HIGHS FOR INDIANAPOLIS 70.0 60.0 50.0 Site 2 Southw est Street 40.0 Site 11 English Ave. ug/m3 Site 41 Washington Park 30.0 Site 43 W. 18th St. Site 44 E. Michigan 20.0 10.0 0.0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Year 18
  19. 19. Fine Particle Health Effects Fine Particles Linked to Daily Mortality  Positive associations were observed with all-cause mortality, as well as mortality from respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, and deaths in persons over age 65  Ischemic Strokes increase as PM levels increase 19
  20. 20. Fine Particle Health Effects  Low Levels of PM Trigger Hospital Admissions for Congestive Heart Failure  Children’s Hospital Admissions Spike with Increases in Outdoor Air Pollution  Children living near interstate highways have lower lung function than those living farther away. 20
  21. 21. 21U.S. satellite-derived map of PM2.5 averaged over 2001-2006. Credit: Dalhousie University, Aaron van Donkelaar
  22. 22. Ozone and Smog Formation 22
  23. 23. Ozone Very complex reaction that is yet to be completely understood Transport problem  Emissions in Indianapolis, ozone in Noblesville  Transported long distances.  Regional solution needed 23
  24. 24. Ozone Short-term exposure to ground-level ozone can cause inflammation of the lining of the lungs, reduced lung function, and respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheezing, chest pain, burning in the chest, and shortness of breath Exposure to ozone can increase susceptibility to respiratory infection; long- term exposure can permanently damage lung tissue, and short-term exposure is associated with increased mortality 24
  25. 25. Ozone Monitoring Data – Indpls. 8 HR Ozone July 2011 90 80 70 60 Fairland 50 Washington PK INDYconc. Harding St. Indy Monrovia 40 70 60 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Date Ozone Standard 75 ppb 8-hour average. Recommended new standard is between 60 and 70 ppb 25
  26. 26. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Industrial sources  Volatile solvents Mobile sources  Gasoline combustion  Lawn mowers, weed trimmers, jet skies 26
  27. 27. Nitrogen Oxides Health Effects Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an odorless gas that can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat, and can cause shortness of breath NO2 can lead to increased respiratory illnesses and symptoms, more severe asthma symptoms, and an increase in the number of emergency department visits and hospital admissions for respiratory causes, especially asthma 27
  28. 28. Nitrogen Oxides In people with asthma, exposure to low levels of NO2 may cause increased bronchial reactivity and make young children more susceptible to respiratory infections NOx can also produce many of the same symptoms in adults especially those with preexisting respiratory or cardiovascular conditions. 28
  29. 29. Sulfur Dioxide Short-term Health Effects  Breathing difficulties and asthma-related hospitalizations, particularly for children  Short-term exposures to SO2 have also been associated with respiratory-related emergency department visits and hospital admissions, particularly for children 29
  30. 30. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Nine Indiana counties don’t meet the new federal 1-hour sulfur dioxide standard 73 percent of SO2 emissions come from power plants that burn fossil fuels, such as coal. Another 20 percent comes from other industries. 30Source: IDEM
  31. 31. Mercury Major Source: Coal combustion from power plants Deposited near source  Much deposited near power plant source Elemental mercury in soil and water converted to highly toxic methyl mercury Persists in environment for 100s of years Accumulates in food chain 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Mercury in Indianapolis Area Soils I-465 I-70 IPL Harding Street Station 102 kg Hg emitted/yr 34 Source: Dr. Gabriel Filippelli, Director, Center for Urban Health, IUPUI
  35. 35. Health Affects of Mercury Proven link between levels of mercury in women’s bodies and neurological effects on their children Studies have found associations between neurodevelopment effects and mercury body burdens in U.S. women that are within the range of typical U.S. exposures Mercury causes heart attacks in adults 35
  36. 36. How We Compare - of Unhealthy Air Days - 2010 Number 2010 Illinois, Indiana and Michigan Counties with >3 Unhealthy Air Days Indiana, Illinois & Michigan Counties >2 Unhealthy Days IN-Pike 49 IL-Tazewell 36 IL-Cook 23 MI-Wayne 20 IN-Floyd 16 IN-Daviess 16 IL-Madison 16 IN-Vigo 14 Indiana 154 IN-Wayne 11 IN-Marion 10 Illinois 92 IN-Lake 7 Michigan 51 MI-St. Clair 6 MI-Macomb 6 IN-Morgan 6 IN-St. Joseph 5 MI-Muskegon 4 IN-Porter 4 IN-Clark 4 IL-Lake 4 MI-Schoolcraft 3 IN-Warrick 3 36 IN-LaPorte 3
  37. 37. How Can Indiana Improve Air Quality? Support public transit to reduce traffic congestion and mobile source pollution Reduce power plant emissions through energy efficiency Encourage shift to cleaner energy sources Need for improved compliance monitoring and enforcement by IDEM 37
  38. 38. How Can Indiana Improve Air Quality? Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR)  This rule, known as the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR), requires states to significantly improve air quality by reducing power plant emissions that cross state lines and contribute to ozone and fine particle pollution in other states 38
  39. 39. How Can Indiana Improve Air Quality? MATS--the mercury rule  The final rule establishes power plant emission standards for mercury, acid gases, and non‐mercury metallic toxic pollutants that will: prevent 90 percent of the mercury in coal burned in power plants from being emitted to the air; reduce 88 percent of acid gas emissions from power plants; and cut 41 percent of sulfur dioxide emissions from power plants beyond the reductions expected from the Cross State Air Pollution Rule. State has three years to comply 39
  40. 40. How Can Indiana Improve Air Quality? Global warming  EPA has released a Greenhouse Gas Database. The database shows known emissions and data from states that have done greenhouse gas inventories.  Indiana is one of six states that have done nothing. Bloomington has done a greenhouse gas inventory 40
  41. 41. Contact Information Richard M. Van Frank, IKE Board of Directors  (317) 442-2531  IKE website: 41