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HTM2118 India culture

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    HTM2118 India culture HTM2118 India culture Presentation Transcript

    • Culture a nd its impacts on hospitality industry Donna Eva Jackie Patty HTM 2118 Hospitality and Culture
    • Background
      • Flag & Emblem
    • Geography
      • Area : 3,287,590 sq km
        • World 7 th largest
      • Land use:
        • arable land: 54.4%
        • permanent crops: 2.74%
        • other: 42.86% (2001)
      • Natural hazards:
        • Droughts
        • flash floods
        • widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains
        • severe thunderstorms
        • earthquakes
    • People
      • Population:1,065,070,607 (July 2004 est.)
        • World second largest
      • Population growth rate:1.44% (2004 est.)
      • Total fertility rate:2.85 children born/woman (2004 est.)
    • People
      • Ethnic groups:
        • Indo-Aryan 72%,
        • Dravidian 25%,
        • Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
      • Religions:
        • Hindu 81.3%
        • Muslim 12%
        • Christian 2.3%
        • Sikh 1.9
        • Buddhist, Jain, Parsi 2.5% (2000)
    • People
      • Languages:
        • English
        • Hindi (the national language )
        • 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit
        • Hindustani
      • Literacy:
        • total population: 59.5%
        • male: 70.2%
        • female: 48.3% (2003 est.)
    • Government
      • Government type: federal republic
      • Capital: New Delhi
      • Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)
      • National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
    • Economy
      • GDP - per capita: $2,900 (2004 est.)
      • GDP - composition by sector:
        • agriculture: 23.6%
        • industry: 28.4%
        • services: 48% (2002 est.)
      • Population below poverty line:
        • 25% (2002 est.)
      • Agricultural products
      • Industries
    • History
      • over 4000 years
      • never seriously took to documenting their history
      • Indian history come from three sources:
        • Literature
        • Archeology
        • Foreigner's Accounts
    • The Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BCE-1600 BCE)
      • Mohen-jodaro
      • Harappa
      • sati (suttee)
    • The Vedic Age: The Aryans and Alexander the Great (1500 BCE-332 BCE)
      • religion
      • classical language of Sanskrit
      • architecture
      • civilization
      • Hinduism
      • Warriors
      • Priests
      • Commoners
        • The caste system
        • Buddhism
        • Jainism
    • The Vedic Age: The Aryans and Alexander the Great (1500 BCE-332 BCE)
      • Alexander the Great defeated Porus in 326 B.C.E
      • boosted trade contacts outside India
    • The Gupta Dynasty: The Golden Age of Indian Classicism (320-647 CE)
      • Chandragupta II
        • Literature
        • Arts
        • Sciences
        • Poetry
        • Romantic comedies
        • Drama
      • Fables
      • Fairy tales
      • e.g. Panchatantra
        • “ A Thousand and One Nights”
        • “ Aesop’s Fables”
    • The South Indian Kingdoms: Dynasties and Temple Culture (100 BCE-1565 CE)
      • Cholas
      • Pandyas
      • Cheras
      • Home to temples
        •  Meenakshi Amman
        • Temple
      Nellaiappar Temple
      • Nellaiappar Temple 
    • The Rajput Era: Clans, Campaigns and Chivalry (647-1296 CE)
      • Warrior Rajput clans
        • chivalry
        • bravery
        • passion
        • devotion to war
      • “ Dark Age of India”
        • rigid caste system
        • child marriage
        • polygamy
        • persecution of Buddhists
        • glorification of sati
    • Turkish Invasion and Rule: The Rise of Islam (997-1526 CE)
      • Mahmud of Ghazni
      • ISLAM
      • Persian
        • new literary genre:
          • Persian literature
      • New architecture:
        • Mosques
        • Mausoleums
      • geometric
      • floral
    • The Moghul Dynasty: Political Ambitious and the Impact of Islam (1526-1858 CE)
      • Taj Mahal
      • Red Fort
      • City of Fatehpur Sikri
      • 7 extraordinary rulers
    • The Moghul Dynasty: Political Ambitious and the Impact of Islam (1526-1858 CE)
      • landscaped gardens, dress, food, and customs based on the teachings of the Koran
        • E.g. pork and alcohol were forbidden
        • surplus food always was to be shared with the poor.
    • Early European Voyages: Leading to British Rule (1500-1885 CE)
      • EUROPEANS
        • Portuguese, French, Dutch, Danish, British
        • Spices
      • The Portuguese king commissioned Francis Xavier to India to christianize Indians and went about converting thousands with zealous evangelism
      •   The East India Company arrived India in 1608
    • The British Raj: From Trade to Dominion
      • Mission schools and hospitals
      • Missionaries study Indian languages
      • Bible printed in Bengali, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Marathi
      • Grammar books and dictionaries in local language flourished
      • official language - English
        • vanishing of local languages
      • Westernization
        • spread of education
          • Schools, universities, museums, libraries
    • The British Raj: From Trade to Dominion
      • Delhi, new capital in 1911, still houses the government today.
      •   Laws regulating inheritance, divorce, marriage and law of contracts were uniformly applied to all citizens of India.
      • Sati was prohibited in 1829
      • Act of 1856 permitted widows to remarry, which was otherwise forbidden by Hindu law
        • These somehow raised the social status of Indian women.
    • The Indian Nationalist Movement: The Road to Freedom and Democracy (1885 CE-PRESENT)
      • The Indian National Congress
        • formed in 1885
        • establish national unity
        • seek economic freedom from the British
      • INDEPENDANCE from Britain in 1947
      • Mahatma Gandhi
    • The Indian Nationalist Movement: The Road to Freedom and Democracy (1885 CE-PRESENT)
      • Hindu-Muslim partition
        • India
        • Pakistan
          • Migration
      • Indo-Pakistani War
      • terrorist attacks
    • India Today: Continuity and Technology
      • Launched space satellites
      • Economic liberalization
      • Democracy has survived
      • A country of unrealized potential
      • Challenges:
        • poverty
        • oppression of women
        • illiteracy
    • Impact on Culture
      • Non-violent Religion
        • never invaded any country in her history
      • The British influence inspired western education and thoughts:
        • Created a new educated class.
        • Created a common language – English
        • Inspired freedom and exchange of ideas
        • Religious tolerance and freedom of worship
    • Impact on Culture
        • Religious tolerance and freedom of worship
          • Hindus and Muslims live side by side but inter-religious marriages are rare
      • Gandhi’s non-violence movement for freedom appealed to the civilized world
      • Caste System
        • almost all Indians are associated--are ranked
    • Introduction of India Culture
      • Clothing
      • Religion
      • Food
      • Customs
      • Family
      • Visual Arts
      • Performing arts
      • Recreation and Sports
    • Clothing
      • related to local culture, religion and climate
      • Men
        • dhoti
        • kurta
        • sherwani
        • Salwar kameez
        • lungi
        • kurta-paijama
        • jeans
      • Women
      • women’s clothing
        • Sari/ Saree/ Shari
        • Salwar kameez
        • Muslim dress
        • wearing pants and tee-shirts (influence of westernization)
    • Religion
      • -Multi-religion
      • Hinduism (80.5%)
      • Islam (13.4%)
      • Christianity (2.3%)
      • Sikhism (1.9%)
      • Buddhism
      • Jainism
      • Varies from region to region
      • Hindus do not eat beef
      • Muslims do not eat pork or drink alcohol
      • Vegetarian cuisine
      • Meat for the non-vegetarians (mainly lamb, chicken, and fish)
      Meal, drink & snack
      • Ingredients: mainly use herbs and spices
      • Curry – “Pan -Asian” dish
      • in favor of tea (most famous: Chai)
      • Snack & appetizers
      Meal, drink& snack
    • Custom
      • respect elderly and touch their feet for blessing
      • Eat with fingers
      • Always use right hand to eat
      • wash their hands immediately after and before eating a meal
      • Believed that food tastes better when eating with one’s hands
      • Full or hungry?
      • Can't Say No
      • Shaking hands
      • take your footwear off when you enter a private house or temple
      • Indian names vary based upon religion, social class, and region of the country.
      • frangipani and white flowers cannot be the gifts
      • Yellow, green and red are lucky colour  
      • The people in India always
      • respect elders, honor heroes
      • and cherish love everywhere.
      • Here is a custom to respect
      • elders and touch their feet as
      • to request their blessings
    • Family
      • About joy and sharing, love and patience
      • Strong bonds with family members as well as relatives (Respect the elders)
      • Sons are always more preferred than daughters
      • Arranged marriages by parents
      • Extremely low divorce rate with only 1.1%
      • Most Women do not own any property in their own names
      • Women do not get share of parental property
    • Women Status
      • have fraction of freedom
      • ask husband to go to grocers store
      • no freedom to pursue leisure activities
      • little participation in sports, music and arts
      • take care of home (i.e. big family)
    • Visual arts
      • Painting
      • rock paintings
      • Cave paintings
      • a new era of Indian art with Indian classical styles
      • Sculpture
      • Indus Valley civilization
      • some extremely intricate bronzes and temple carvings
      • Gupta period : a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling
      • contributed throughout Southeast Central and East A
      • Architecture
      • a multitude of expressions over space and time, constantly absorbing new ideas.
      • Indo-Islamic architecture
      • dome : to remind people that to gain God's blessing
      • Distinguished
      • others can see
      • Mosques: utilization of kiosks (chhatris), tall towers (minars) and half-domed double portals
      • Mughak Empire in India : Arabic,Persian and Hindu elements. The Mughal Emperor
      • E.g. Taj Mahal
      • one of the Seven Wonders of the world
      • Onion :about 35 meters high and sits on a cylindrical drum about 7 meters high.
      • Maurya and Gupta empires and their successors: Buddhist architectural complexes,
      • Later : South India produced several Hindu temples
      •  strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture
      • eastern and southeastern Asia, due to the spread of Buddhism.
      • temple mound or stupa, temple spire or sikhara, temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana  famous symbols of Asian culture
      • Contemporary Indian
      • Lotus Temple
    • Performing arts
      • Music
      • multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music
      • Carnatic (South India) and Hindusatni music(North India)
      • heavily influenced by Hindu texts
      • the diverse traditions of folk music from different parts of the country
      • remains instrumental to the religious inspiration, cultural expression and pure entertainment
      • Dance
      • Dance and ceremonies  chief mode of entertainment
      • folk and classical forms
      • Folk dance e.g. the bhangra of the Punjab , the bihu of Assam , the chhau of Jharkhand and Orissa
      • Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological, devotional and spiritual elements.
    • Recreation and Sports
      • N ational sport : field hockey
      • N ortheast : football (soccer)
      • Cricket :used recently for diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan
      • Recent : tennis and c hess
      • Traditional : kabaddi, Kho Kho and gilli-danda
      • competed in chariot racing, archery, horsemanship, military tactics, wrestling, weight lifting, hunting, swimming and running races
    • Hospitality Industry
      • Indians all over the world is known for their hospitality and high level of patience. An Indians value is all about living life with a passion and observing the faith that there is one god existing even with so many religions.
    • What is India famous for?
      • The palatial palaces , fantastic forts, impressive art and architecture, frescoes Havelis, magnificent temples
      • amazing diversified culture
      • Increasing occupancy rates
    • Impact of Culture on India Hotel
      • Attitude towards money  more service charge required
      • Tips : expected and eagerly sought
      • When and how to give are defined by situation
      • Some do ,some don’t
      • Bribing given before service; well done  tip
      • Hotel “volunteered” servants (group)  seeking for tips
    • Architecture of hotel
      • Indo-Islamic architecture
      • Domes
      • Islamic design
      • (arch)
    • Painting in hotels
      • Religious belief
      • Indian color
      • Let more tourists know about Indian arts
      • Attract folk artist
    • Servants in Hotel
      • Wear Sherwani
      • (promote culture in India)
      • Less women-to-men ratio
      • ( women are not fee to work, or may not be permitted to participate in service
      • Industry)
      • Colour Yellow -symbolize richness, golden
      • - a lucky colour
      • Red
      • - Symbolize luck
    • Customers targeting
      • Business travelers * stay in business hotel - crafts, buying cloth - textiles were popular
      • - with lower price - with Indian color and style - great softness, vivid colors and translucent texture
      • Leisure travelers in resort hotel - like their beaches, cruises, diving, golf, romantic escapes, safari and adventure, snow and ski, etc
    • Hotel Spa
      • traditional Indian wellness treatments
      • unfolds a way of life wherein the life force is the bedrock of wellness
      • maintain physical, mental and spiritual equilibrium.
      • Treatment rooms
      • meditation and yoga pavilions, relaxation pools and fully-equipped gym
      • pure Indian herbs, indian aromatherapy oils, natural creams and special ingredients
    • Culture Impact on Tourism
    • Duration
      • A long journey for leisure, usually last for more than ten days
      • People travel to explore the India culture and heritage
      • e.g. visit the temples
      • Mountaineering
      • e.g. The Mighty Himalayan Mountains of India
      • Wildlife in India
      • Camel Safari
      • Join the festivals
      • e.g. the Dussehra Festival
      • Medical Tourism
      • Business traveling
      • Nightlife: cultural shows
      • No alcohol
      • Casino in GOA
      • culture restriction?
      • Dress code of the women travelers: as proper as you can
      • Respect the senior travelers ( India respect the elderly)
    • Impact of Culture on India Food and beverage business
      • What to eat when traveling to India?
      • Spicy
      • combat the flu virus
      • healing and magical qualities
        • more valuable than gold or precious stones
        • trade of spices : an extraordinarily influential factor in history
        • add flavor and nutrients to dishes without fat or calories
        • offer significant health benefits
      • Indian Chai
        • spiced milk tea
        • made up of rich black tea and spices including whole cardamom pods pieces of stick cinnamon ginger cloves and pepper
      • Herb teas
        • the oldest and most reliable
        • form of supplementation soothing
        • liquids provide hydration and
        • a fresh herbal taste
      • Filtered coffee
        • a favorite among South Indians
        • very sweet, milky version of coffee
      • Indian wines
        • good red and a decent pink
        • Prohibition has been imposed in some states like Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana
        • ** refreshing juice instead of wines in hospitality F&B
      • Herbs
        • used for medicines, perfumes and Superstitious rituals
        • eg. Amla:
          • rich in Vitamin C
          • good and black hair
          • has a cooling effect on our body
          •  Medical Tourism
      • Alcohol: not culture of India
      • Bar : serving lower and middle/higher class
      • Large clubs are only found in 5-star hotel
      • Mumbai  travelers went to lively atmosphere and cheap beer
    • Reference
      • Quinn, Brian. (1992-1993). World Travel Guide. : London,Columbus Press. P.403-421
      • Hotel Overseas Jul-Sep 2007
      • BMI India Tourism Report Q4 2009. : Business Monitor International LTD.
      • Carol E.henderson (2002). Culture and Customs of India, : Westport,CT: Greenwood Press.
      • India Chai Recipes, Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.indianfoodsco.com/Recipes/hotbev_images/ChaiRecipes.htm
      • India Chai Recipes, Retrieved October 17, 2009 from http://www.indianfoodsco.com/Recipes/hotbev_images/ChaiRecipes.htm
      • Krannich,ronald L & Krannich, Caryl Rae (2000). Traveling smart. In The treasures and pleasure of India:Best of the Best (pp. 23-56). : Manassas Park, VA. Impact Publication.