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Mental Models

                Sparking Creativity
                Through Empathy




Indi Young
What does                   Why would
                           it look like?               I use one?      Can it resolv...
What is a mental model?




What is a mental model?


   Underlying reasons that drive people's behavior




     Ways you...
What is a mental model?




What does a mental model look like?
What is a mental model?




Courtesy of Mary Piontkowski, for Macy’s
What is a mental model?




Courtesy of Richard Dalton, Vanguard
What is a mental model?




http://www.adaptivepath.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/management_diagram.pdf
What is a mental model?
What is a mental model?
What is a mental model?
What is a mental model?
What is a mental model?




Behavior, Philosophy,
      Feeling
What is a mental model?




                   (a.k.a. “Tower”)


Conceptual Group
Who is America’s top mental model?




Mental Space
What is a mental model?




Ways to support this
       tower
What is a mental model?


                            Interviews   Customer Feedback
Diaries      Field Data




         ...
What is a mental model?
Why would I use a mental model?




Why would I use a mental model?



                  Ulterior Motives
Why would I use a mental model?




Show people they need to develop separate applications
Why would I use a mental model?
Why would I use a mental model?
Why would I use a mental model?




Actually get to the things slated for the mythical Phase 2
Why would I use a mental model?




Image courtesy of Chiara Fox
Why would I use a mental model?




Image courtesy of Chiara Fox
Why would I use a mental model?




Focus on customers, not internal organizations/categories
Why would I use a mental model?




Courtesy of WayBackMachine.org
Why would I use a mental model?




www.dowcorning.com
Why would I use a mental model?




Get rid of stuff that doesn’t help
Why would I use a mental model?




Interactions, Jan+Feb 2008, “The Business of Customer Experience: Lessons Learned at W...
Why would I use a mental model?




Interactions, Jan+Feb 2008, “The Business of Customer Experience: Lessons Learned at W...
Why would I use a mental model?




Give stakeholders something that feels actionable
Why would I use a mental model?




Photo from Ernie (Ann Arbor, MI) Flickr photostream (EAHIV)
Why would I use a mental model?
Can it resolve some of the problems my team has?




Can it resolve some of the problems my team has?

      We struggle t...
Can it resolve some of the problems my team has?




                     We have difficulty taking off our employee hat

...
Can it resolve some of the problems my team has?




             We cross our fingers that the design will be successful
...
Can it resolve some of the problems my team has?




               We worry we might have missed some part of the
       ...
Can it resolve some of the problems my team has?




                            We wish we could attract loyal, adoring f...
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?




This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?




Data exploration by Stamen Design – stamen.com, available at http://www.mysociety.o...
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?




Data exploration by Stamen Design – stamen.com, available at http://www.mysociety.o...
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?




Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?




Hear Stories   Feel Empathy   Know How to Support People
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?




Figure Out How to Handle an Attraction
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?




Get a Better Sense of a Person
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?




Go Out With a Person for the First Time
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?


Find People
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
How do I decide to make a mental model, or not?




How do I decide to make a mental model, or not?
How do I decide to make a mental model, or not?


                                    Techniques                       Use...
How do I decide to make a mental model, or not?




Mental Models Are Not Used For:


•   Evaluating usability
•   Showing...
What do I put in a mental model?




What do I put in a mental model?




         Behavior                  Direct
      ...
What do I put in a mental model?
What do I put in a mental model?




Photos on Flickr by counterclockwise, Mussels, cackhanded, and Andrew Feinberg
What do I put in a mental model?
What do I put in a mental model?


                           The Hallway
                              Test

            ...
How can I do this by myself?




How can I do this by myself?
How can I do this by myself?



                  Yak, yak,
                  yak, yak,
                    yak.
Rough Ske...
How can I do this by myself?




Runners Mental Model
How can I do this by myself?
How can I do this by myself?




Ascending tone
    Start

                 Descending tone
                      Stop
How can I do this by myself?




LED lit when stopwatch on
How can I do this by myself?
How can I do this by myself?




Rough Draft




 1 Day, 1 Conference Room, Lots of Coffee & Chocolate
How can I do this by myself?




Rough Notes
How can I do this by myself?




Fly Under the Radar
How can I do this by myself?




Piggyback on Other Research




                Usability Testing
How do mental models fit with agile principles?




     How do mental models fit with agile principles?


     1. Synchro...
How do mental models fit with agile principles?
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




How can I use a mental model to innovate?
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




Innovation Is:

        not forced              understandable change
      ...
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




Look at the Mental Model for Possibilities
1.   Find a Gap Below the Line to...
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




Identify with a Film
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




Follow the Industry
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




Releases

Earnings

Press
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




                                       Airplane II
 Releases
1982 25-Jun – T...
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




     1. Synchronize UX with development
     2. Separate modeling from desig...
How can I use a mental model to innovate?
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




     1. Synchronize UX with development
     2. Separate modeling from desig...
How can I use a mental model to innovate?
How can I use a mental model to innovate?
How can I use a mental model to innovate?




                                       Airplane II
 Releases
1982 25-Jun – T...
Book: Mental Models
Code: ATMEDIA (10% discount)
Blog: www.rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mental-models/
RSS: feeds.rosenfeldmed...
Sparking Creativity Through Empathy
Sparking Creativity Through Empathy
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Sparking Creativity Through Empathy

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Presentation answering questions about the use of mental models, first presented at the @Media conference in London, May 2008

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Transcript of "Sparking Creativity Through Empathy"

  1. 1. Mental Models Sparking Creativity Through Empathy Indi Young
  2. 2. What does Why would it look like? I use one? Can it resolve What is a some of the mental problems my model? team has? How can I This stuff use one to is intuitive, innovate? isn’t it? How do mental Empathy is models fit with for Betazoids, agile principles? right? What do I Can I do put in a this by model? How do I decide myself? to make a model, or not?
  3. 3. What is a mental model? What is a mental model? Underlying reasons that drive people's behavior Ways you support people with your product
  4. 4. What is a mental model? What does a mental model look like?
  5. 5. What is a mental model? Courtesy of Mary Piontkowski, for Macy’s
  6. 6. What is a mental model? Courtesy of Richard Dalton, Vanguard
  7. 7. What is a mental model? http://www.adaptivepath.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2007/08/management_diagram.pdf
  8. 8. What is a mental model?
  9. 9. What is a mental model?
  10. 10. What is a mental model?
  11. 11. What is a mental model?
  12. 12. What is a mental model? Behavior, Philosophy, Feeling
  13. 13. What is a mental model? (a.k.a. “Tower”) Conceptual Group
  14. 14. Who is America’s top mental model? Mental Space
  15. 15. What is a mental model? Ways to support this tower
  16. 16. What is a mental model? Interviews Customer Feedback Diaries Field Data Voice of the Call Center Customer Recordings Card Sort Data
  17. 17. What is a mental model?
  18. 18. Why would I use a mental model? Why would I use a mental model? Ulterior Motives
  19. 19. Why would I use a mental model? Show people they need to develop separate applications
  20. 20. Why would I use a mental model?
  21. 21. Why would I use a mental model?
  22. 22. Why would I use a mental model? Actually get to the things slated for the mythical Phase 2
  23. 23. Why would I use a mental model? Image courtesy of Chiara Fox
  24. 24. Why would I use a mental model? Image courtesy of Chiara Fox
  25. 25. Why would I use a mental model? Focus on customers, not internal organizations/categories
  26. 26. Why would I use a mental model? Courtesy of WayBackMachine.org
  27. 27. Why would I use a mental model? www.dowcorning.com
  28. 28. Why would I use a mental model? Get rid of stuff that doesn’t help
  29. 29. Why would I use a mental model? Interactions, Jan+Feb 2008, “The Business of Customer Experience: Lessons Learned at Wells Fargo” by Secil Watson
  30. 30. Why would I use a mental model? Interactions, Jan+Feb 2008, “The Business of Customer Experience: Lessons Learned at Wells Fargo” by Secil Watson
  31. 31. Why would I use a mental model? Give stakeholders something that feels actionable
  32. 32. Why would I use a mental model? Photo from Ernie (Ann Arbor, MI) Flickr photostream (EAHIV)
  33. 33. Why would I use a mental model?
  34. 34. Can it resolve some of the problems my team has? Can it resolve some of the problems my team has? We struggle to agree on a common design (everyone has a different opinion)
  35. 35. Can it resolve some of the problems my team has? We have difficulty taking off our employee hat Our customers need to … um … increase satisfaction scores. Images from Flickr by Akira Ohgaki
  36. 36. Can it resolve some of the problems my team has? We cross our fingers that the design will be successful Images from Flickr by poluz
  37. 37. Can it resolve some of the problems my team has? We worry we might have missed some part of the “whole user experience” Images from Flickr by reutC
  38. 38. Can it resolve some of the problems my team has? We wish we could attract loyal, adoring fans Images from Flickr by JL!
  39. 39. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it? This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
  40. 40. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it? Data exploration by Stamen Design – stamen.com, available at http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/
  41. 41. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it? Data exploration by Stamen Design – stamen.com, available at http://www.mysociety.org/2007/more-travel-maps/
  42. 42. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
  43. 43. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
  44. 44. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
  45. 45. This stuff is intuitive, isn’t it?
  46. 46. Empathy is for Betazoids, right? Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  47. 47. Empathy is for Betazoids, right? Hear Stories Feel Empathy Know How to Support People
  48. 48. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  49. 49. Empathy is for Betazoids, right? Figure Out How to Handle an Attraction
  50. 50. Empathy is for Betazoids, right? Get a Better Sense of a Person
  51. 51. Empathy is for Betazoids, right? Go Out With a Person for the First Time
  52. 52. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  53. 53. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  54. 54. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  55. 55. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  56. 56. Empathy is for Betazoids, right? Find People
  57. 57. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  58. 58. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  59. 59. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  60. 60. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  61. 61. Empathy is for Betazoids, right?
  62. 62. How do I decide to make a mental model, or not? How do I decide to make a mental model, or not?
  63. 63. How do I decide to make a mental model, or not? Techniques Uses Preference Survey Visual Design Opinions, likes, desires Focus Group Branding Mood Board Market Analysis Customer Feedback Advertising Campaign Preference Interview Card Sort Evaluative Usability Test Test Interaction What is understood or Log Analysis Functionality accomplished with a tool Search Analytics Test Screen Layout Customer Feedback Test Nomenclature Card Sort Test IA Generative Non-Directed Interview Interaction Design Mental environment in which Contextual Inquiry Information Architecture things get done Mental Model Alignment & Gap Analysis Ethnography Contextual Information Field Study Diary
  64. 64. How do I decide to make a mental model, or not? Mental Models Are Not Used For: • Evaluating usability • Showing cyclic relationships • Depicting detailed process flow • Creating art (composing, painting …)
  65. 65. What do I put in a mental model? What do I put in a mental model? Behavior Direct Philosophy Implied Feeling Third Party
  66. 66. What do I put in a mental model?
  67. 67. What do I put in a mental model? Photos on Flickr by counterclockwise, Mussels, cackhanded, and Andrew Feinberg
  68. 68. What do I put in a mental model?
  69. 69. What do I put in a mental model? The Hallway Test What is she thinking while walking down the hallway? Photo by yksin at Flickr
  70. 70. How can I do this by myself? How can I do this by myself?
  71. 71. How can I do this by myself? Yak, yak, yak, yak, yak. Rough Sketch Yak, yak, yak, yak, yak. Yak, yak, yak, yak, yak.
  72. 72. How can I do this by myself? Runners Mental Model
  73. 73. How can I do this by myself?
  74. 74. How can I do this by myself? Ascending tone Start Descending tone Stop
  75. 75. How can I do this by myself? LED lit when stopwatch on
  76. 76. How can I do this by myself?
  77. 77. How can I do this by myself? Rough Draft 1 Day, 1 Conference Room, Lots of Coffee & Chocolate
  78. 78. How can I do this by myself? Rough Notes
  79. 79. How can I do this by myself? Fly Under the Radar
  80. 80. How can I do this by myself? Piggyback on Other Research Usability Testing
  81. 81. How do mental models fit with agile principles? How do mental models fit with agile principles? 1. Synchronize UX with development 2. Separate modeling from design 3. Increase design literacy 4. Design on the whiteboard with developers, stakeholders 5. Strip documentation down to just the new ideas and the “easily forgotten” ideas 6. Book your time the way the developers do Austin Govella, Comcast Interactive Media IA & Usability - http://www.thinkingandmaking.com/view/agile-ux-six
  82. 82. How do mental models fit with agile principles?
  83. 83. How can I use a mental model to innovate? How can I use a mental model to innovate?
  84. 84. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Innovation Is: not forced understandable change ! crafting details focus on people long term
  85. 85. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Look at the Mental Model for Possibilities 1. Find a Gap Below the Line to Fill 2. Look for Scarce or Weak Support 3. Redefine & Augment Existing Features to Better Match 4. Combine Related Behaviors & Features 5. Look for Surprises 6. Look for Emotions 7. Examine Spaces Formerly Crossed Out 8. Rethink Features that Don’t Match a Behavior 9. Map Out Delivery of Products Over Time
  86. 86. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Identify with a Film
  87. 87. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Follow the Industry
  88. 88. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Releases Earnings Press
  89. 89. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Airplane II Releases 1982 25-Jun – Theater Release 1992 11-Sep – Director’s Cut Release Barbarosa 2007 29-Sep – Final Cut Release 2007 05-Dec – DVD Release Cat People Earnings Press Dead Men Don’t Wear Plaid
  90. 90. How can I use a mental model to innovate? 1. Synchronize UX with development 2. Separate modeling from design 3. Increase design literacy 4. Design on the whiteboard with developers, stakeholders 5. Strip documentation down to just the new ideas and the “easily forgotten” ideas 6. Book your time the way the developers do Austin Govella, Comcast Interactive Media IA & Usability - http://www.thinkingandmaking.com/view/agile-ux-six
  91. 91. How can I use a mental model to innovate?
  92. 92. How can I use a mental model to innovate? 1. Synchronize UX with development 2. Separate modeling from design 3. Increase design literacy 4. Design on the whiteboard with developers, stakeholders 5. Strip documentation down to just the new ideas and the “easily forgotten” ideas 6. Book your time the way the developers do Austin Govella, Comcast Interactive Media IA & Usability - http://www.thinkingandmaking.com/view/agile-ux-six
  93. 93. How can I use a mental model to innovate?
  94. 94. How can I use a mental model to innovate?
  95. 95. How can I use a mental model to innovate? Airplane II Releases 1982 25-Jun – Theater Release 1992 11-Sep – Director’s Cut Release Barbarosa 2007 29-Sep – Final Cut Release 2007 05-Dec – DVD Release Cat People Earnings Press Dead Men Don’t Wear Plaid
  96. 96. Book: Mental Models Code: ATMEDIA (10% discount) Blog: www.rosenfeldmedia.com/books/mental-models/ RSS: feeds.rosenfeldmedia.com/mental-models/ Me: indi@acm.org

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