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Vitamins ch9 and 11

Vitamins ch9 and 11






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    Vitamins ch9 and 11 Vitamins ch9 and 11 Presentation Transcript

    • Vitamins
    • Two Categories of Vitamins
      • Fat-soluble
        • A, D, E, K
      • Water-soluble
        • The 8 B vitamins, vitamin C
    • Vitamin Storage in the Body
      • Vitamin storage in the body
        • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in adipose cells
        • Water-soluble vitamins are not well stored, easily excreted by the kidneys
    • Vitamin Toxicity
      • Megadose = 10 times the RDA
        • Toxic levels of vitamins are usually achieved only with supplements
      • Although foods may be excellent sources of vitamins, it is difficult to have toxic effects without supplementation
      • Because fat-soluble vitamins are stored and excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted by the kidneys, toxicity from fat-soluble vitamins is more likely
    • Preserving Vitamin Content
      • Keep fresh produce cool, away from light
      • Peel and cut only right before serving
      • Use soon after purchase
      • Frozen and canned products do provide substantial vitamin content still, particularly if use the fluid packed with it
      • For cooking, less water is best (steam, microwave, stir-fry)
    • Fig. 8.15 Processing grains reduces natural vitamin and mineral content. Some processed grain products are fortified, but much micronutrient content is not restored.
    • Vitamin A
      • Vitamin A = retinol, retinal, retinoic acid
      • Preformed vitamin A = retinol
        • Found in animal products (organ meat)
      • Provitamin A
        • Found in plant products
          • Beta-carotene, lycopene
      • Only retinol can be toxic
    • Vitamin A
      • Functions:
        • Eyes
          • Prevents night blindness
          • Protects mucus-producing cells in the eyes
            • Helps prevent xerophthalmia (“dry eye”)
        • Growth/reproduction
          • Vitamin A attaches to DNA to stimulate the production of proteins necessary for healthy growth
        • Antioxidant: may protect against some cancers
          • Lycopene and prostate cancer
    • Vitamin A
      • Deficiency
        • Common in countries with poor access to food
      • Toxicity
        • Caused by excessive intake of retinol
        • Acne cream, pregnancy
    • Vitamin D: The Sunshine Vitamin
      • Non-food source: sunlight exposure on skin
        • About 25% of the time it takes to get a sunburn, 2-3 times per week
        • In Colorado, not between October and March
      • Body converts a cholesterol derivative into inactive vitamin D when exposed to sun radiation
        • Inactive vitamin D (also form found in supplemented foods/beverages) is activated in the kidneys
    • Fig. 8.5
    • Vitamin D
      • Function: encourages calcium absorption and deposition in bones
      • Deficiency:
        • Rickets – malformation of skeletal tissue, soft bones from inadequate calcium (“bowlegged”)
        • Osteoporosis – bone loss disease
    • Vitamin E
      • Tocopherols
      • Function:
        • Most potent fat-soluble antioxidant, protects PUFAs and LDL from free radical damage
      • Deficiency:
        • Hemolytic anemia – preterm babies who do not have good vitamin E accumulation
      • Food sources: vegetable oils, nuts
    • Fig. 8.8
    • Vitamin K
      • Non-food source: bacteria in the large intestine
      • Function: maintains healthy levels of blood clotting factors
        • “ koagulation”
      • Deficiency:
        • Newborns – sterile large intestine
        • Long-term antibiotic use
    • Fig. 8.11
    • Vitamin C
      • Ascorbic acid
      • Functions:
        • Maintains healthy collagen
          • Major structural protein in teeth, bones, tendons, blood vessels
        • Antioxidant – prevents some free radical damage
          • May help protect against cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts in the eye
        • Immune system function
    • Vitamin C
      • So, does vitamin C cure colds?
        • No, but….
          • Vitamin C can reduce the duration of cold symptoms by about 1 day
        • Body is saturated with 200 mg/day
        • Supplements often provide 1000 to 2000 mg
        • Eat citrus!
    • Vitamin C
      • Deficiency:
        • Scurvy – disease characterized by poor quality collagen
          • Fragile capillary walls, easy bruising, poor wound healing, bone pain and fractures, diarrhea, pinpoint hemorrhages on arms and legs
      • RDA for cigarette smokers: 35mg extra
      • Toxicity:
        • UL = 2 grams (2000 mg), stomach inflammation, diarrhea
      • Cooking, water causes vitamin C loss
      Fig. 8.31
    • Coenzymes
      • All B vitamins are coenzymes
      Fig. 8.13
    • Fig. 8.14
    • Thiamin
      • Functions:
        • Coenzyme in energy metabolism
        • Used in nutrition therapy with alcoholism (alcohol interferes with thiamin absorption)
      • Deficiency:
        • Beriberi
          • Means “I can’t, I can’t”
          • Peripheral nerve disease, pain and paralysis of extremities, edema, muscle wasting
      • Sources:
        • Animal protein foods, whole grains, enriched grain products, some vegetables and fruits
        • Easily lost in cooking water
    • Riboflavin
      • Function:
        • Coenzyme in energy and protein metabolism
      • Deficiency:
        • Tissue inflammation and breakdown
        • Swollen, reddened tongue
      • Food sources: milk, organ meats, whole or enriched grains, vegetables
      • Easily destroyed by light
        • Milk in opaque containers
      Fig. 8.18
    • Niacin
      • Function:
        • Coenzyme in system that converts protein into glucose
      • Deficiency
        • Pellegra – dermatitis, sometimes fatal effects on nervous system
      • Tryptophan can be converted to niacin
        • Milk has no niacin but is high in tryptophan
        • Milk can prevent deficiency
    • Vitamin B6
      • Pyridoxine
      • Function:
        • Coenzyme in protein metabolism in over 100 amino acid reactions
          • Produces neurotransmitters, new amino acids, niacin from tryptophan, hemoglobin
      • Deficiency:
        • Anemia
        • Nervous system problems (irritability, convulsions)
        • Infant formulas – if sterilized, destroys B6
      • Pantothenic acid
        • Function: coenzyme in energy metabolism
      • Biotin
        • Function: coenzyme in the synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, DNA
        • Some made by intestinal bacteria
    • Folate
      • Folic acid
      • Function:
        • Coenzyme that transfers single carbons to build larger molecules
        • May help prevent heart disease
    • Folate
      • Deficiency:
        • Macrocytic anemia
        • Chemotherapy drugs inhibit folate metabolism
        • Neural tube defects – inability of nerve cells to divide and make new cells
          • Neural tube closes within 28 days of pregnancy
          • Spina bifida
          • Anencephaly
    • Fig. 8.26
    • Fig. 8.27
    • Folate
      • Food sources: green leafy vegetables, legumes, tomatoes, enriched grains and flours
      • RDA: 400 micrograms, average intake 220 micrograms for women
    • Vitamin B12
      • Cobalamin
      • Function:
        • Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism and hemoglobin production
        • Assists in placing lipid coat on nerve cells
      • Deficiency:
        • Pernicious anemia
        • Neurological problems – tingling in arms and legs, paralysis, mental decline
    • Vitamin B12
      • Sources:
        • Naturally only found in animal products
        • Fortified foods
        • Supplements/injections
      • B12 is poorly absorbed without intrinsic factor made by stomach
    • Vitamin B12
      • People at risk for B12 deficiency:
        • Elderly
          • Reduced intrinsic factor production with age
        • Vegans
          • Eat no animal products, must use injections or enriched foods
        • Infants nursed by vegan mothers
          • Symptoms: diminished brain growth, spinal cord degeneration, anemia