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Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
Vitamins ch9 and 11
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Vitamins ch9 and 11

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  • 1. Vitamins
  • 2. Two Categories of Vitamins
    • Fat-soluble
      • A, D, E, K
    • Water-soluble
      • The 8 B vitamins, vitamin C
  • 3. Vitamin Storage in the Body
    • Vitamin storage in the body
      • Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in adipose cells
      • Water-soluble vitamins are not well stored, easily excreted by the kidneys
  • 4. Vitamin Toxicity
    • Megadose = 10 times the RDA
      • Toxic levels of vitamins are usually achieved only with supplements
    • Although foods may be excellent sources of vitamins, it is difficult to have toxic effects without supplementation
    • Because fat-soluble vitamins are stored and excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted by the kidneys, toxicity from fat-soluble vitamins is more likely
  • 5. Preserving Vitamin Content
    • Keep fresh produce cool, away from light
    • Peel and cut only right before serving
    • Use soon after purchase
    • Frozen and canned products do provide substantial vitamin content still, particularly if use the fluid packed with it
    • For cooking, less water is best (steam, microwave, stir-fry)
  • 6. Fig. 8.15 Processing grains reduces natural vitamin and mineral content. Some processed grain products are fortified, but much micronutrient content is not restored.
  • 7. Vitamin A
    • Vitamin A = retinol, retinal, retinoic acid
    • Preformed vitamin A = retinol
      • Found in animal products (organ meat)
    • Provitamin A
      • Found in plant products
        • Beta-carotene, lycopene
    • Only retinol can be toxic
  • 8. Vitamin A
    • Functions:
      • Eyes
        • Prevents night blindness
        • Protects mucus-producing cells in the eyes
          • Helps prevent xerophthalmia (“dry eye”)
      • Growth/reproduction
        • Vitamin A attaches to DNA to stimulate the production of proteins necessary for healthy growth
      • Antioxidant: may protect against some cancers
        • Lycopene and prostate cancer
  • 9. Vitamin A
    • Deficiency
      • Common in countries with poor access to food
    • Toxicity
      • Caused by excessive intake of retinol
      • Acne cream, pregnancy
  • 10. Vitamin D: The Sunshine Vitamin
    • Non-food source: sunlight exposure on skin
      • About 25% of the time it takes to get a sunburn, 2-3 times per week
      • In Colorado, not between October and March
    • Body converts a cholesterol derivative into inactive vitamin D when exposed to sun radiation
      • Inactive vitamin D (also form found in supplemented foods/beverages) is activated in the kidneys
  • 11. Fig. 8.5
  • 12. Vitamin D
    • Function: encourages calcium absorption and deposition in bones
    • Deficiency:
      • Rickets – malformation of skeletal tissue, soft bones from inadequate calcium (“bowlegged”)
      • Osteoporosis – bone loss disease
  • 13. Vitamin E
    • Tocopherols
    • Function:
      • Most potent fat-soluble antioxidant, protects PUFAs and LDL from free radical damage
    • Deficiency:
      • Hemolytic anemia – preterm babies who do not have good vitamin E accumulation
    • Food sources: vegetable oils, nuts
  • 14. Fig. 8.8
  • 15. Vitamin K
    • Non-food source: bacteria in the large intestine
    • Function: maintains healthy levels of blood clotting factors
      • “ koagulation”
    • Deficiency:
      • Newborns – sterile large intestine
      • Long-term antibiotic use
  • 16. Fig. 8.11
  • 17. Vitamin C
    • Ascorbic acid
    • Functions:
      • Maintains healthy collagen
        • Major structural protein in teeth, bones, tendons, blood vessels
      • Antioxidant – prevents some free radical damage
        • May help protect against cardiovascular disease, cancers, cataracts in the eye
      • Immune system function
  • 18. Vitamin C
    • So, does vitamin C cure colds?
      • No, but….
        • Vitamin C can reduce the duration of cold symptoms by about 1 day
      • Body is saturated with 200 mg/day
      • Supplements often provide 1000 to 2000 mg
      • Eat citrus!
  • 19. Vitamin C
    • Deficiency:
      • Scurvy – disease characterized by poor quality collagen
        • Fragile capillary walls, easy bruising, poor wound healing, bone pain and fractures, diarrhea, pinpoint hemorrhages on arms and legs
    • RDA for cigarette smokers: 35mg extra
    • Toxicity:
      • UL = 2 grams (2000 mg), stomach inflammation, diarrhea
    • Cooking, water causes vitamin C loss
    Fig. 8.31
  • 20. Coenzymes
    • All B vitamins are coenzymes
    Fig. 8.13
  • 21. Fig. 8.14
  • 22. Thiamin
    • Functions:
      • Coenzyme in energy metabolism
      • Used in nutrition therapy with alcoholism (alcohol interferes with thiamin absorption)
    • Deficiency:
      • Beriberi
        • Means “I can’t, I can’t”
        • Peripheral nerve disease, pain and paralysis of extremities, edema, muscle wasting
    • Sources:
      • Animal protein foods, whole grains, enriched grain products, some vegetables and fruits
      • Easily lost in cooking water
  • 23. Riboflavin
    • Function:
      • Coenzyme in energy and protein metabolism
    • Deficiency:
      • Tissue inflammation and breakdown
      • Swollen, reddened tongue
    • Food sources: milk, organ meats, whole or enriched grains, vegetables
    • Easily destroyed by light
      • Milk in opaque containers
    Fig. 8.18
  • 24. Niacin
    • Function:
      • Coenzyme in system that converts protein into glucose
    • Deficiency
      • Pellegra – dermatitis, sometimes fatal effects on nervous system
    • Tryptophan can be converted to niacin
      • Milk has no niacin but is high in tryptophan
      • Milk can prevent deficiency
    www.medscape.com
  • 25. Vitamin B6
    • Pyridoxine
    • Function:
      • Coenzyme in protein metabolism in over 100 amino acid reactions
        • Produces neurotransmitters, new amino acids, niacin from tryptophan, hemoglobin
    • Deficiency:
      • Anemia
      • Nervous system problems (irritability, convulsions)
      • Infant formulas – if sterilized, destroys B6
  • 26.
    • Pantothenic acid
      • Function: coenzyme in energy metabolism
    • Biotin
      • Function: coenzyme in the synthesis of fatty acids, amino acids, DNA
      • Some made by intestinal bacteria
  • 27. Folate
    • Folic acid
    • Function:
      • Coenzyme that transfers single carbons to build larger molecules
      • May help prevent heart disease
  • 28. Folate
    • Deficiency:
      • Macrocytic anemia
      • Chemotherapy drugs inhibit folate metabolism
      • Neural tube defects – inability of nerve cells to divide and make new cells
        • Neural tube closes within 28 days of pregnancy
        • Spina bifida
        • Anencephaly
  • 29. Fig. 8.26
  • 30. Fig. 8.27
  • 31. Folate
    • Food sources: green leafy vegetables, legumes, tomatoes, enriched grains and flours
    • RDA: 400 micrograms, average intake 220 micrograms for women
  • 32. Vitamin B12
    • Cobalamin
    • Function:
      • Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism and hemoglobin production
      • Assists in placing lipid coat on nerve cells
    • Deficiency:
      • Pernicious anemia
      • Neurological problems – tingling in arms and legs, paralysis, mental decline
  • 33. Vitamin B12
    • Sources:
      • Naturally only found in animal products
      • Fortified foods
      • Supplements/injections
    • B12 is poorly absorbed without intrinsic factor made by stomach
  • 34. Vitamin B12
    • People at risk for B12 deficiency:
      • Elderly
        • Reduced intrinsic factor production with age
      • Vegans
        • Eat no animal products, must use injections or enriched foods
      • Infants nursed by vegan mothers
        • Symptoms: diminished brain growth, spinal cord degeneration, anemia

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