Nutrition fitness and sports ch12

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Nutrition fitness and sports ch12

  1. 2. Benefits of Exercise <ul><li>Increases lean body mass </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain weight </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Increases cardiovascular fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Improves blood lipid profile </li></ul><ul><li>Improves glucose regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Improves flexibility and balance, strengthens bones and joints </li></ul><ul><li>Improves peristalsis (prevents constipation) </li></ul><ul><li>Improves immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces stress </li></ul>
  2. 3. Energy Sources <ul><li>ATP = adenosine triphosphate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food energy transferred to ATP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP is the “energy currency” of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used all the time, only 2-4 seconds worth stored </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PCr = phosphocreatine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used at beginning of exercise, up to 1 minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can produce ATP quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not much stored in muscle </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Energy Sources <ul><li>Anaerobic system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose metabolism (glycolysis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lasts from 30 seconds to 2 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces lactic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerobic systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose metabolism – higher intensity exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat metabolism – lower intensity exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein metabolism – low amount used during exercise (endurance sport, esp. when glucose lacking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used when activity lasts for more than a couple of minutes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Fig. 10.4
  5. 6. Fig. 10.6
  6. 7. Table 10.2
  7. 8. Dangerous Practices <ul><li>Rapid weight loss to meet weight class </li></ul><ul><li>Using dangerous or illegal ergogenic aids </li></ul><ul><li>Low carbohydrate intake – “hitting the wall” </li></ul><ul><li>Poor hydration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heatstroke </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imbalanced diet – iron, calcium deficiency </li></ul>
  8. 9. CHO Loading vs. Sports Drinks <ul><li>CHO loading technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: increase glycogen stores in muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: may have more glucose in muscles for use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con: may attract too much water into muscles  reduced function, cramps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sports drinks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: increase blood glucose available for muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pro: spares glycogen and muscle protein, provides electrolytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con: taste, cost </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Before Exercise or Event <ul><li>Meal 2 to 4 hours before event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little fat and fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If meal is only 1 hour before event </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid/blended (smoothies, juice, sports drinks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High in carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid fat and fiber </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. During Exercise or Event <ul><li>Fluid intake </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water if less than 60 minutes long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports drink if longer than one hour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For long events/endurance events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30-60 grams of CHO/hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHO gels, sports drinks, energy bars </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. After Exercise or Event <ul><li>3 cups of fluid for every pound lost </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolyte replacement </li></ul><ul><li>CHO-rich foods to promote glycogen restoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 1-2 hours after event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat after another 2 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderate protein consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assists with muscle repair </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Ergogenic Aids <ul><li>Goal: improve exercise performance </li></ul><ul><li>Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical – light-weight running shoes, skin-tight swimwear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional – supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological – hypnosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacological – steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological – blood doping </li></ul></ul>

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