Introductory concepts ch1 2


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Introductory concepts ch1 2

  1. 1. Introductory Concepts
  2. 2. Nutrition and Health <ul><li>Poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle are risk factors for diseases that are responsible for 2/3 of deaths in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease (CVD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension (HTN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some forms of cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other nutrition-related diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anemia, osteoporosis, cirrhosis </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Excess Caloric consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fat and trans fat </li></ul><ul><li>Excess salt (sodium) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Spotlight on Obesity <ul><li>34% of U.S. adults are obese </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess body fat that places person at higher risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, stroke, gallbladder disease and hypertension </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What causes obesity? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior: Consuming more calories than expending through physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment: Barriers to physical activity at home/work/school, too easy to select high calorie foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics: May make some more susceptible to overweight and obesity </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Essential nutrient – a nutrient necessary for a function in the human body that cannot be made by the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be consumed in the diet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macronutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed in larger amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide energy (calories) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needed in smaller amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide no energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  6. 6. Energy and Calories <ul><li>Macronutrients provide energy in the form of calories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 food calorie = 1 kilocalorie = 1000 calories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use kilocalorie or kcal </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Six classes of essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review: Which of the above classes are macronutrients? Micronutrients? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is an essential nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>4 kcal/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Major source of energy for the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain – ONLY energy source is glucose! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple sugars vs. complex carbohydrates/polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber </li></ul><ul><li>If inadequate carbohydrate intake, body is forced to turn protein into glucose for energy </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Carbon, hydrogen, few oxygens </li></ul><ul><li>9 kcal/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Not soluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fat” (solid at room temp – animal fat) vs. “oil” (liquid at room temp – plant oils) related to chemical structure and effect in the body </li></ul><ul><li>2 essential fatty acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help regulate blood pressure, repair cells, blood clotting </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>4 kcal/gram </li></ul><ul><li>Major part of muscle and bone </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in blood, body cells, enzymes, immune system </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 common in food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 essential amino acids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. adults eat 1 ½ to 2 times protein needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excess used for energy or converted to carbohydrate and fat </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Provide no energy </li></ul><ul><li>Coenzymes for many chemical reactions in vivo (means “in the body”) </li></ul><ul><li>13 vitamins - essential nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Water-soluble (B vitamins, vitamin C) vs. fat-soluble (vitamins A, D, E, K) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>No carbon (inorganic) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide no energy </li></ul><ul><li>Cannon be damaged in cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Functions in nervous system, water/electrolyte balance, structures </li></ul><ul><li>16+ minerals, divided into major and trace – essential nutrients </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Solvent </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation of nutrients and waste </li></ul><ul><li>Human body is ~60% water </li></ul><ul><li>Water is an essential nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beverages, foods like </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fruits and vegetables </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Thinking Time <ul><li>Which of the classes of essential nutrients are macronutrients? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give 2 reasons why they are macronutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which of the classes of essential nutrients are micronutrients? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give 2 reasons why they are micronutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which class of essential nutrient is neither? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Physiological drive = hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological drive = appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Satiety = feeling full, satisfied </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber, water  satiety reached sooner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: 5 apples vs. 1 regular serving French fries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GI tract signals brain  full, stop eating </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Flavor </li></ul><ul><li>Texture </li></ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Early influences </li></ul><ul><li>Culture </li></ul>Deep-fried insects and arthropods, Beijing, China.
  18. 18. Thinking Time <ul><li>Which factors most influence how you eat? </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of how the following might influence us to make poor eating choices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics/cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Busy lifestyle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional needs </li></ul></ul>