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Food safety ch15
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Food safety ch15

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  • 1. FOOD SAFETY Protecting Against Foodborne Illness
  • 2. TYPES OF CONTAMINATION
    • Bacteria
      • Most common cause of foodborne illness
    • Viruses
      • Reproduce in host
    • Fungi and parasites
    • Chemical
      • Responsible for far fewer cases
      • People generally report more fear over chemical contamination of food than of bacterial contamination
  • 3. PEOPLE MOST AT RISK
    • People with depressed immune system
      • HIV/AIDS, cancer, liver disease, diabetes, on immunosuppressant medications
    • Pregnant women
    • Infants, young children
    • Older adults
  • 4. MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY
    • USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture
      • Grains, produce, meat, poultry, milk, eggs
    • ATF = Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and Explosives
      • Alcoholic beverages
    • EPA = Environmental Protection Agency
      • Pesticide use, water quality
  • 5. MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY
    • FDA = Food and Drug Administration
      • Foods in interstate commerce (except meat and eggs), seafood, food labels
    • CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Monitors outbreaks, national prevention programs
    • Local governments
  • 6. FOOD SUPPLY RISK
    • Meat, dairy, eggs
      • Moist, high protein = excellent growth medium
    • Consumption of raw or undercooked animal products
    • Deli, salad bars, pre-prepared foods, restaurants
    • Imported RTE (ready-to-eat) foods
  • 7. FOOD PRESERVATION
    • Salt, sugar, sulfite additives
    • Dehydration
    • Pasteurization (high heat to sterilize)
    • Fermentation (production of acid and alcohol inhibits bacterial growth)
    • Irradiation (like in microwave cooking)
  • 8. COMMON BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
    • Salmonella
      • Meat, poultry, eggs, fish, sprouts, unpasteurized milk
    • E. coli
      • Beef, fruits, vegetables, sprouts, yogurt
    • Listeria
      • Soft cheese made with unpasteurized milk, deli foods (cross-contamination)
    • Clostridium botulinum
      • Botulism, spores
      • Improperly canned foods, dented cans, mushrooms, spinach, beef, honey
  • 9. COMMON VIRAL INFECTIONS
    • Norovirus (human rotovirus)
      • From human intestinal tract and feces
      • Food contamination with sewage
    • Hepatitis A
      • Fecal-oral contamination
  • 10. PRIONS
    • Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE)
    • High in nervous tissue
      • Banned in animal feed
    • Cooking does not destroy prions
  • 11. GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
    • Purchasing
      • Frozen and perishables last
      • Handle fresh produce first, in plastic bags
      • Use ice chest
      • Avoid damaged containers
      • Pasteurized dairy products only
  • 12. GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
    • Preparation
      • Wash hands for at least 20 seconds
      • Sanitize utensils, counters
      • Avoid cross-contamination
      • Separate cutting boards
      • Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator, under cold running water, or in microwave
      • Wash fresh produce in water
      • Avoid moldy food
      • Use refrigerated meat quickly
  • 13. GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
    • Cooking
      • Avoid “Danger Zone” of 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 2 hours for perishable foods
      • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold
      • Cook foods thoroughly to recommended temperature
  • 14. PESTICIDE USE
    • Consumers do not like to buy produce that has been damaged by pests
    • Pests cause billions of dollars in crop damage annually
    • FDA, EPA and the USDA enforce pesticide use standards
    • Annual tests demonstrate low levels of pesticides in foods
      • Washing reduces pesticide exposure
  • 15. PESTICIDE USE
    • Concerns
      • Some pesticides may be toxic, carcinogenic
      • Pesticides may persist in environment, contaminate water supplies
    • Organic foods
      • Grown without traditional pesticides
      • More costly, less risk for chemical contamination
      • May still cause foodborne illness
      • Note: poor food handling practices much more dangerous than risk of pesticide consumption of conventionally-grown produce