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Food safety ch15
 

Food safety ch15

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    Food safety ch15 Food safety ch15 Presentation Transcript

    • FOOD SAFETY Protecting Against Foodborne Illness
    • TYPES OF CONTAMINATION
      • Bacteria
        • Most common cause of foodborne illness
      • Viruses
        • Reproduce in host
      • Fungi and parasites
      • Chemical
        • Responsible for far fewer cases
        • People generally report more fear over chemical contamination of food than of bacterial contamination
    • PEOPLE MOST AT RISK
      • People with depressed immune system
        • HIV/AIDS, cancer, liver disease, diabetes, on immunosuppressant medications
      • Pregnant women
      • Infants, young children
      • Older adults
    • MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY
      • USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture
        • Grains, produce, meat, poultry, milk, eggs
      • ATF = Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms and Explosives
        • Alcoholic beverages
      • EPA = Environmental Protection Agency
        • Pesticide use, water quality
    • MONITORING THE FOOD SUPPLY
      • FDA = Food and Drug Administration
        • Foods in interstate commerce (except meat and eggs), seafood, food labels
      • CDC = Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
        • Monitors outbreaks, national prevention programs
      • Local governments
    • FOOD SUPPLY RISK
      • Meat, dairy, eggs
        • Moist, high protein = excellent growth medium
      • Consumption of raw or undercooked animal products
      • Deli, salad bars, pre-prepared foods, restaurants
      • Imported RTE (ready-to-eat) foods
    • FOOD PRESERVATION
      • Salt, sugar, sulfite additives
      • Dehydration
      • Pasteurization (high heat to sterilize)
      • Fermentation (production of acid and alcohol inhibits bacterial growth)
      • Irradiation (like in microwave cooking)
    • COMMON BACTERIAL INFECTIONS
      • Salmonella
        • Meat, poultry, eggs, fish, sprouts, unpasteurized milk
      • E. coli
        • Beef, fruits, vegetables, sprouts, yogurt
      • Listeria
        • Soft cheese made with unpasteurized milk, deli foods (cross-contamination)
      • Clostridium botulinum
        • Botulism, spores
        • Improperly canned foods, dented cans, mushrooms, spinach, beef, honey
    • COMMON VIRAL INFECTIONS
      • Norovirus (human rotovirus)
        • From human intestinal tract and feces
        • Food contamination with sewage
      • Hepatitis A
        • Fecal-oral contamination
    • PRIONS
      • Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy or BSE)
      • High in nervous tissue
        • Banned in animal feed
      • Cooking does not destroy prions
    • GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
      • Purchasing
        • Frozen and perishables last
        • Handle fresh produce first, in plastic bags
        • Use ice chest
        • Avoid damaged containers
        • Pasteurized dairy products only
    • GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
      • Preparation
        • Wash hands for at least 20 seconds
        • Sanitize utensils, counters
        • Avoid cross-contamination
        • Separate cutting boards
        • Thaw frozen foods in refrigerator, under cold running water, or in microwave
        • Wash fresh produce in water
        • Avoid moldy food
        • Use refrigerated meat quickly
    • GOOD FOOD HANDLING PRACTICES
      • Cooking
        • Avoid “Danger Zone” of 40 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit for more than 2 hours for perishable foods
        • Keep hot foods hot and cold foods cold
        • Cook foods thoroughly to recommended temperature
    • PESTICIDE USE
      • Consumers do not like to buy produce that has been damaged by pests
      • Pests cause billions of dollars in crop damage annually
      • FDA, EPA and the USDA enforce pesticide use standards
      • Annual tests demonstrate low levels of pesticides in foods
        • Washing reduces pesticide exposure
    • PESTICIDE USE
      • Concerns
        • Some pesticides may be toxic, carcinogenic
        • Pesticides may persist in environment, contaminate water supplies
      • Organic foods
        • Grown without traditional pesticides
        • More costly, less risk for chemical contamination
        • May still cause foodborne illness
        • Note: poor food handling practices much more dangerous than risk of pesticide consumption of conventionally-grown produce