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Ch2 Healthy Diet Design
 

Ch2 Healthy Diet Design

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    Ch2 Healthy Diet Design Ch2 Healthy Diet Design Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 2 Guidelines for Designing a Healthy Diet Lecture Outline with Animations Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View . Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note : Once you have used any of the animation functions (such as Play or Pause), you must first click in the blue background before you can advance to the next slide.
    • Philosophy That Works
      • “ Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food.”
      • Variety
        • Choose different foods
      • Balanced
        • Do not overeat any single type of food
      • Moderation
        • Control portion size
    • Nutrient Density
      • Nutrient Dense
        • Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with number of kcals
      • Empty calories
    • Comparison of Nutrient Density
    • Nutrient Density Comparator
    • Energy Density
      • Comparison of kcal content with weight of food
      • High-energy-dense foods
      • Low-energy-dense foods
    • Calories in a Sandwich
    • States of Nutritional Health
    • Desirable Nutritional Health
      • Intake meets body ’s needs
      • Body has a small surplus
    • Undernutrition
      • Intake is below body ’s needs
      • Surpluses are depleted
      • Health declines
      • Metabolic processes slow or stop
      • Subclinical deficiency
      • Clinical symptoms
    • Overnutrition
      • Intake exceeds body ’s needs
      • Short term
        • Few symptoms
      • Long term
        • Serious conditions
        • Obesity
      • Abuse of supplements
      • www.shapeup.org
    •  
    • Measuring Nutritional State
      • Anthropometric
      • Biochemical Assessment
      • Clinical Assessment
      • Dietary Assessment
      • Economic Assessment
    • Measuring Nutritional State
    • Limitations of Nutritional Assessment
      • Delayed symptoms and signs
      • Symptoms due to different causes
    • Healthy Habits to Adopt
      • Consume a healthy diet
      • Control your weight
      • Drink alcohol in moderation (optional)
      • Exercise > 30 minute a day
      • Don ’t smoke
    • Recommendations for Healthy Eating:
    • MyPyramid
      • Translates science into practical terms
      • Helps people meet nutritional needs
        • For carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, & minerals
      • Suggests a pattern of food choices
      • Incorporates foundations of healthy diet:
        • Variety, balance, moderation
    • MyPyramid
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    • MyPyramid
      • Not for children under the age of 2
      • Each food is deficient in at least one essential nutrient
      • Variety is the key
      • Calorie and nutrient content may vary within a food group
    • Using MyPyramid
      • Choose low-fat/fat free options
      • Include plant proteins several times a week
      • Include dark green vegetable every day
      • Include vitamin C-rich food every day
      • Choose whole-grain products
      • Include plant oils daily
      • Eat fish at least twice a week
    • How Does Your Diet Rate?
      • Compare food intake with MyPyramid recommendations
        • Based on age, gender and physical activity
      • Most are low in milk, fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread and cereal
      • www.MyPyramid.gov
        • MyTracker
    • The Dietary Guidelines Another tool for menu planning
    • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans
      • Published by USDA and DHHS - 2005
      • Created to promote:
        • Optimal nutrient intakes and diet composition
        • Adequate vitamin and mineral intakes
      • Reduce the risk of chronic diseases
      • Intended for healthy children (>2 yrs) and adults
    • Dietary Guideline Recommendations
      • Consume a variety of nutrient dense food and beverages
      • Limit saturated fat and trans fat, cholesterol, added sugar, salt and alcohol
      • Maintain body weight in healthy range
      • ≥ 30 minutes of physical activity, most days of the week
      • Practice safe food handling
    • Using of the Dietary Guidelines
      • Consider your state of health
      • Differences in genetic background
      • There is no ‘optimal’ diet
    •  
    • Nutrient Standards and Recommendations
    • Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
      • Ongoing and collaborative effort
      • Health Canada and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (US)
    • RDAs AIs DRIs EERs ULs
    • Standards Under the DRI
    • The Recommended Dietary Allowances
      • “ Recommended intakes of nutrients that meet the needs of almost all healthy people of similar age and gender”---- the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences
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    • Scientific Research
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    • Studies
      • Laboratory animal experiments
      • Human studies
      • Case-control study
      • Double-blind study
      • Peer Review
      • Follow-up studies
    • Standards For Food Labeling
      • DRIs are gender and age specific
      • FDA developed the Daily Values
      • Generic standard used on food labels
      • Allow for comparison
    • DRV for 2000 kcal Food Component DRV 2000 kcal Fat < 65 g Saturated Fat < 20 g Protein 50 g Cholesterol < 300 mg Carbohydrate 300 g Fiber 25 g Sodium < 2400 mg Potassium 3500 mg
    • Nutrition Facts
    • What ’s on the Food Label?
      • Product name
      • Manufacturer ’s name and address
      • Uniform serving size
      • Amount in the package
      • Ingredients in descending order by weight
      • Nutrient components
    • Anatomy of a Food Label
    • What Food Requires a Label?
      • Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products
      • Health claims
      • Fresh fruit, vegetable, raw single ingredient meal, poultry, fish are voluntary
    • What is Not Required on a Label?
      • % Daily Value for protein (for foods intended for 4 yrs. or older)
      • Protein deficiency is rare
      • Procedure to determine protein quality is expensive
    • Health Claims Allowed on Food Labels Relating to
      • Osteoporosis
      • Some cancer
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Hypertension
      • Neural tube defects
      • Tooth decay
      • Stroke
      • Use of “may” or “might”
    • Comparative and Absolute Nutrient Claims
      • Sugar (free, no added)
      • Calories (free, low)
      • Fiber (high, food source, added)
      • Fat (free, low, reduced)
      • Cholesterol (free, low, reduced)
      • Sodium (free, low, light)
    • Claims
      • Fortified/enriched
      • Healthy
      • Light, lite
      • Diet
      • Good source
      • Organic
      • Natural
    • Poor Nutrition Advice
      • Quick fix
      • Warnings of danger
      • Sounds too good to be true
      • Simplistic conclusions
      • Recommendations based on single study
      • Dramatic statements
      • Lists “good” and “bad” foods
      • Selling a product
      • Studies published without peer review
      • Studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups
    • Good Nutrition Advice
      • Physicians
      • Registered Dietitian
        • www.eatright.org/find/html
        • www.dietitians.ca
    • Dietary Supplements
    • Dietary Supplements
      • Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) 1994
        • Classified vitamins, minerals, amino acids and herbal remedies as foods
      • Can be marketed in US without FDA approval if:
        • Reasonably safe
        • Product must be labeled as a dietary supplement
    •  
    • Evaluating Claims
      • www.eatright.org
      • www.acsh.org
      • www.quackwatch.com
      • www.ncahf.org
      • www.dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov
      • www.fda.gov