Ch2 Healthy Diet Design

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Ch2 Healthy Diet Design

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Guidelines for Designing a Healthy Diet Lecture Outline with Animations Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View . Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please Note : Once you have used any of the animation functions (such as Play or Pause), you must first click in the blue background before you can advance to the next slide.
  2. 2. Philosophy That Works <ul><li>“ Consume a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food.” </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose different foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Balanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overeat any single type of food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control portion size </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nutrient Density <ul><li>Nutrient Dense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison of vitamin and mineral content with number of kcals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empty calories </li></ul>
  4. 4. Comparison of Nutrient Density
  5. 5. Nutrient Density Comparator
  6. 6. Energy Density <ul><li>Comparison of kcal content with weight of food </li></ul><ul><li>High-energy-dense foods </li></ul><ul><li>Low-energy-dense foods </li></ul>
  7. 7. Calories in a Sandwich
  8. 8. States of Nutritional Health
  9. 9. Desirable Nutritional Health <ul><li>Intake meets body ’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Body has a small surplus </li></ul>
  10. 10. Undernutrition <ul><li>Intake is below body ’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Surpluses are depleted </li></ul><ul><li>Health declines </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic processes slow or stop </li></ul><ul><li>Subclinical deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical symptoms </li></ul>
  11. 11. Overnutrition <ul><li>Intake exceeds body ’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Short term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Few symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abuse of supplements </li></ul><ul><li>www.shapeup.org </li></ul>
  12. 13. Measuring Nutritional State <ul><li>Anthropometric </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Assessment </li></ul>
  13. 14. Measuring Nutritional State
  14. 15. Limitations of Nutritional Assessment <ul><li>Delayed symptoms and signs </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms due to different causes </li></ul>
  15. 16. Healthy Habits to Adopt <ul><li>Consume a healthy diet </li></ul><ul><li>Control your weight </li></ul><ul><li>Drink alcohol in moderation (optional) </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise > 30 minute a day </li></ul><ul><li>Don ’t smoke </li></ul>
  16. 17. Recommendations for Healthy Eating:
  17. 18. MyPyramid <ul><li>Translates science into practical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Helps people meet nutritional needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamins, & minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggests a pattern of food choices </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates foundations of healthy diet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety, balance, moderation </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. MyPyramid
  19. 24. MyPyramid <ul><li>Not for children under the age of 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Each food is deficient in at least one essential nutrient </li></ul><ul><li>Variety is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Calorie and nutrient content may vary within a food group </li></ul>
  20. 25. Using MyPyramid <ul><li>Choose low-fat/fat free options </li></ul><ul><li>Include plant proteins several times a week </li></ul><ul><li>Include dark green vegetable every day </li></ul><ul><li>Include vitamin C-rich food every day </li></ul><ul><li>Choose whole-grain products </li></ul><ul><li>Include plant oils daily </li></ul><ul><li>Eat fish at least twice a week </li></ul>
  21. 26. How Does Your Diet Rate? <ul><li>Compare food intake with MyPyramid recommendations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on age, gender and physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most are low in milk, fruits, vegetables and whole grain bread and cereal </li></ul><ul><li>www.MyPyramid.gov </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MyTracker </li></ul></ul>
  22. 27. The Dietary Guidelines Another tool for menu planning
  23. 28. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans <ul><li>Published by USDA and DHHS - 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Created to promote: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal nutrient intakes and diet composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate vitamin and mineral intakes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce the risk of chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Intended for healthy children (>2 yrs) and adults </li></ul>
  24. 29. Dietary Guideline Recommendations <ul><li>Consume a variety of nutrient dense food and beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Limit saturated fat and trans fat, cholesterol, added sugar, salt and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain body weight in healthy range </li></ul><ul><li>≥ 30 minutes of physical activity, most days of the week </li></ul><ul><li>Practice safe food handling </li></ul>
  25. 30. Using of the Dietary Guidelines <ul><li>Consider your state of health </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in genetic background </li></ul><ul><li>There is no ‘optimal’ diet </li></ul>
  26. 32. Nutrient Standards and Recommendations
  27. 33. Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) <ul><li>Ongoing and collaborative effort </li></ul><ul><li>Health Canada and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (US) </li></ul>
  28. 34. RDAs AIs DRIs EERs ULs
  29. 35. Standards Under the DRI
  30. 36. The Recommended Dietary Allowances <ul><li>“ Recommended intakes of nutrients that meet the needs of almost all healthy people of similar age and gender”---- the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences </li></ul>
  31. 38. Scientific Research
  32. 41. Studies <ul><li>Laboratory animal experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Human studies </li></ul><ul><li>Case-control study </li></ul><ul><li>Double-blind study </li></ul><ul><li>Peer Review </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up studies </li></ul>
  33. 42. Standards For Food Labeling <ul><li>DRIs are gender and age specific </li></ul><ul><li>FDA developed the Daily Values </li></ul><ul><li>Generic standard used on food labels </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for comparison </li></ul>
  34. 43. DRV for 2000 kcal Food Component DRV 2000 kcal Fat < 65 g Saturated Fat < 20 g Protein 50 g Cholesterol < 300 mg Carbohydrate 300 g Fiber 25 g Sodium < 2400 mg Potassium 3500 mg
  35. 44. Nutrition Facts
  36. 45. What ’s on the Food Label? <ul><li>Product name </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturer ’s name and address </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform serving size </li></ul><ul><li>Amount in the package </li></ul><ul><li>Ingredients in descending order by weight </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient components </li></ul>
  37. 46. Anatomy of a Food Label
  38. 47. What Food Requires a Label? <ul><li>Nearly all packaged foods and processed meat products </li></ul><ul><li>Health claims </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh fruit, vegetable, raw single ingredient meal, poultry, fish are voluntary </li></ul>
  39. 48. What is Not Required on a Label? <ul><li>% Daily Value for protein (for foods intended for 4 yrs. or older) </li></ul><ul><li>Protein deficiency is rare </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure to determine protein quality is expensive </li></ul>
  40. 49. Health Claims Allowed on Food Labels Relating to <ul><li>Osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Some cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular disease </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertension </li></ul><ul><li>Neural tube defects </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth decay </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Use of “may” or “might” </li></ul>
  41. 50. Comparative and Absolute Nutrient Claims <ul><li>Sugar (free, no added) </li></ul><ul><li>Calories (free, low) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber (high, food source, added) </li></ul><ul><li>Fat (free, low, reduced) </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol (free, low, reduced) </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium (free, low, light) </li></ul>
  42. 51. Claims <ul><li>Fortified/enriched </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy </li></ul><ul><li>Light, lite </li></ul><ul><li>Diet </li></ul><ul><li>Good source </li></ul><ul><li>Organic </li></ul><ul><li>Natural </li></ul>
  43. 52. Poor Nutrition Advice <ul><li>Quick fix </li></ul><ul><li>Warnings of danger </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds too good to be true </li></ul><ul><li>Simplistic conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations based on single study </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic statements </li></ul><ul><li>Lists “good” and “bad” foods </li></ul><ul><li>Selling a product </li></ul><ul><li>Studies published without peer review </li></ul><ul><li>Studies that ignore differences among individuals or groups </li></ul>
  44. 53. Good Nutrition Advice <ul><li>Physicians </li></ul><ul><li>Registered Dietitian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.eatright.org/find/html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.dietitians.ca </li></ul></ul>
  45. 54. Dietary Supplements
  46. 55. Dietary Supplements <ul><li>Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) 1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classified vitamins, minerals, amino acids and herbal remedies as foods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be marketed in US without FDA approval if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonably safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product must be labeled as a dietary supplement </li></ul></ul>
  47. 57. Evaluating Claims <ul><li>www.eatright.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.acsh.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.quackwatch.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.ncahf.org </li></ul><ul><li>www.dietary-supplements.info.nih.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.fda.gov </li></ul>

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