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EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,    OlivierBoissier, Jomi                                 Embodied Organizations  F. H...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                       Outline    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                           Current Issues in MAS    OlivierBoissier, J...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                    Current Approaches    OlivierBoiss...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                      Objectives    OlivierBoissier, J...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                                Objectives    OlivierB...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                             Embodied Organization    OlivierBoissier,...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                       Outline    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                  Unifying approach to MAS    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F. Hübner,       ...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                  Unifying approach to MAS    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F. Hübner,       ...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                   Environment Programming    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                                         Artifact Meta...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                     Model for A-E Interactions    OlivierBoissier, Jo...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                           Agent-Artifact Interaction    OlivierBoissi...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                               CArtAgO Infrastructure    OlivierBoissi...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                    Environment Management    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                  Organization Programming    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F. Hübner, Alessa...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                                           M OISE Mode...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                       Hospital Scenario: Structural    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F. Hübn...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                 Hospital Scenario: Functional    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                       Hospital Scenario: Deontic    OlivierBoissier, ...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                    Organization Management    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  ...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                       Outline    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                             Embodied Organizations    OlivierBoissier...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                          Embodied Organizations    Ol...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                     Constitutive Rules    OlivierBois...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                     Constitutive Rules    OlivierBois...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                          Embodied Organization    OlivierBoissier, Jo...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                       Outline    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                   Formal Model    OlivierBoissier, Jo...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                                     Workspace Events ...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                          Workspace Rules    OlivierBo...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                          Workspace Rules    OlivierBo...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                         Hospital Scenario: EMI    Oli...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                   Hospital Scenario: Count-as    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                         Hospital Scenario: Enact    OlivierBoissier, ...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                       Outline    OlivierBoissier, Jom...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                           Conclusions    OlivierBoiss...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                            Conclusions    OlivierBois...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                            Perspectives    OlivierBoi...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                          Bibliography I    OlivierBoi...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                         Bibliography II    OlivierBoi...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                           Bibliography III    Olivier...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                       Bibliography IV    OlivierBoiss...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                          Bibliography V    OlivierBoi...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                                        Bibliography VI    OlivierBois...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,    OlivierBoissier, Jomi                                 Embodied Organizations  F. H...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                                             Situated Organizations    OlivierBoissier...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                  Syntax of Workspace Rules    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F. Hübner, Aless...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,                        Regimentation and Enforcement    OlivierBoissier, Jomi  F. Hüb...
EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti,    OlivierBoissier, Jomi                                 Embodied Organizations  F. H...
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  1. 1. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, OlivierBoissier, Jomi Embodied Organizations F. Hübner, A unifying perspective in programming Agents, Alessandro Ricci Organizations and EnvironmentsIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS Michele Piunti1 Olivier Boissier2 Jomi F. Hübner3Programming Alessandro Ricci1EmbodiedOrganizations 1 Università degli studi di Bologna - DEIS, Bologna - Italy.ProgrammingModel {michele.piunti | a.ricci}@unibo.itConclusions 2 Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines - G2I St-Etienne - France boissier@emse.fr 3 Federal University of Santa Catarina - DAS, Florianópolis - Brazil jomi@das.ufsc.br COIN 2010 - Lyon
  2. 2. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Outline OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci 1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions 4 Programming Model 5 Conclusions
  3. 3. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Current Issues in MAS OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Programming Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying BELIEFS INTERNAL EVENTS ROLESapproach to GOALS PLANS MISSIONSMAS DUTIES ACTIONS ?Programming PERCEPTIONS DEONTIC RELATIONS NORMS SANCTIONS/REWARDSEmbodied AGENTS ORGANIZATIONSOrganizations RESOURCES LEGACYProgramming SERVICES COMPONENTSModel ENVIRONMENTSConclusions A seamless integration of entities and mechanisms is still needed
  4. 4. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Current Approaches OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Agent ProgrammingIntroduction Jason [Bordini et al., 2007], Jadex [Pokahr et al., 2005], 2APL [Dastani, 2008], etc.A unifyingapproach toMASProgramming Organization Programming: platforms and approachesEmbodiedOrganizations AGR/M AD K IT [Ferber et al., 2003], PowerJade [Baldoni et al., 2008], ElectronicProgramming Institutions [Esteva et al., 2004], S-M OISE + [Hübner et al., 2005], O PERAModel [Dignum, 2003], etc.Conclusions Environment Programming MASQ, AGRE [Stratulat et al., 2009, Báez-Barranco et al., 2006], Normative Objects [Okuyama et al., 2009], Situated Electronic Institutions [Campos et al., 2008], etc. Brahms [Sierhuis, 2001]
  5. 5. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Objectives OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Embodying Organizations in Agents’ Environments? Alessandro Ricci • To enable agents to profitably interact with bothIntroduction organizational and other environmental entities;A unifyingapproach to • To enable organizational entities to control agents andMASProgramming regiment environmental resources;EmbodiedOrganizations • To allow environmental changes to affect bothProgramming organizational dynamics and agents activities;ModelConclusions
  6. 6. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Objectives OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Embodying Organizations in Agents’ Environments? Alessandro Ricci • To enable agents to profitably interact with bothIntroduction organizational and other environmental entities;A unifyingapproach to • To enable organizational entities to control agents andMASProgramming regiment environmental resources;EmbodiedOrganizations • To allow environmental changes to affect bothProgramming organizational dynamics and agents activities;ModelConclusions Several outcomes at an application level: • To reconcile agents and their work environments with institutional dimensions (i.e. organizations); • To exploit a strong notion of agency, i.e., mental attitudes (purposes, knowledge), events, perception • Interoperability and Openness
  7. 7. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Embodied Organization OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, In human organizations infrastruc- Environment Alessandro tures are explicitly conceived for eas- Infrastructures Artifacts Ricci ing complex activities/tasks.Introduction Cross disciplinary approach:A unifyingapproach to • Intelligent use of SpaceMAS [Kirsh, 1995]ProgrammingEmbodied • Theory of Social ActionsOrganizations [Castelfranchi, 1998] PatientProgramming AgentsModel Environments are instrumented with Staff AgentsConclusions specific Infrastructures Staff Agent Visitor Aiding purposes, easing agent works Agents To provide a set of coherent Infrastructures instrumenting environments for implementing Organizations and Environments [Piunti et al., 2009a, Piunti et al., 2009b]
  8. 8. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Outline OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci 1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions 4 Programming Model 5 Conclusions
  9. 9. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Unifying approach to MAS OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Programming Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying A-Eapproach to AGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizations A-O O-EProgrammingModelConclusions ORGANIZATION
  10. 10. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Unifying approach to MAS OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Programming Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying A-Eapproach to AGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizations A-O O-EProgrammingModelConclusions ORGANIZATION
  11. 11. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Environment Programming OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci A&A meta-model for MAS [Omicini et al., 2008] :IntroductionA unifyingapproach to Agents Autonomous andMAS self-interested entitiesProgramming encapsulating theirEmbodiedOrganizations control. Artifacts Non-autonomous ArtifactsProgrammingModel entities.Conclusions Workspaces Virtual containers of Agents agents and artifacts, defining the topology Hospital workspace and the properties of the environment.
  12. 12. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Artifact Metamodel OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro OBSERVABLE Ricci update Observable EVENTS GENERATION Property <EvName,Params> OBSERVABLE name ObsPropName Value PROPERTIES valueIntroduction ObsPropName Value Manual 1 functions ... ...A unifying operatingapproach to instructions OPERATION XMAS Usage Interface OpControlName(Params)Programming 1 1 Usage Control Artifact USAGE OpControlName(Params) Interface name OPERATION Y params INTERFACE ...Embodied triggerOrganizations control OperationProgramming generate Observable Event ARTIFACTModel MANUAL LINK INTERFACEConclusions Usage Interface and Observable Properties • Basic building block for decentralized MAS environments • “Object” at an agent level of abstraction
  13. 13. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Model for A-E Interactions OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci A-E AGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMASProgramming A-O O-EEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming ORGANIZATIONModelConclusions Actions and Perceptions • Native capabilities of agents; • Addressed at artifacts (and workspaces) functionalities
  14. 14. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Agent-Artifact Interaction OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Metamodel Alessandro Ricci update Observable perceive Property observe nameIntroduction value Manual consultA unifying 1 functions operatingapproach to instructionsMAS Usage InterfaceProgramming Work 1 1 Usage Control use Artifact Agent Environment Interface nameEmbodied params triggerOrganizations control OperationProgramming generate Observable perceiveModel EventConclusions join Workspace quit Pragmatic and Epistemic Actions • Agent-Environment (A-E) interactions are based on the notion of: Usage and Perception [Piunti and Ricci, 2008]
  15. 15. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, CArtAgO Infrastructure OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro makeArtifact Ricci payments focus payIntroduction useA unifying BillingMachineapproach toMASProgrammingEmbodied Hospital WorkspaceOrganizations AgentProgramming + Bridge Platform(s) (i.e. c4Jason, CArtAgO nodeModel c4Jadex)Conclusions Orthogonality Improved repertoire of agent’s actions: • .joinWorkspace • Heterogeneous agents (Jason, • .makeArtifact Jadex) work in artifact based • .lookupArtifacts environments; • . ... • .use • Integration technologies (bridges) • .observeProperty [Piunti et al., 2008, Ricci et al., 2009]. • .focus
  16. 16. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Environment Management OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Infrastructures Alessandro Ricci Hospital ScenarioIntroductionA unifyingapproach to Artifacts are viewed as a set of re-MASProgramming sources exploitable by agents STAFFEmbodied • Goal Oriented InteractionOrganizations • Externalisation STAFF visits sendBill signDocProgrammingModel • Coordination sendFee Terminal signPat SurgeryTablet EMIConclusions ENVIRONMENT ARTIFACTS For instance in Jason: payments reservations VISITOR pay bookVisit +!execute_pay VISITOR BillingMachine Desk : artifact_id(billing, BmId) Hospital Workspace & payment(Params) Agent <- cartago.use(BmId, pay(Params), Platforms Receipt).
  17. 17. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Organization Programming OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifyingapproach to A-E AGENT(S) ENVIRONMENTMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizations A-O O-EProgrammingModelConclusions ORGANIZATION
  18. 18. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, M OISE Model OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifying Organization is specified by defining a set of dimensionsapproach toMAS [Hübner et al., 2007]1 :ProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizations Structural Roles, Groups, RelationshipsProgrammingModel Functional Goals, Missions, deadlines (time-to-fulfill)Conclusions Deontic Norms, Obligations 1 For the adoption of M OISE we would thank the G2I group at Ecole des Mines, St-Etienne.
  19. 19. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: Structural OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, dimension Alessandro Ricci Visitor StaffIntroductionA unifying 0..1approach to Escort Patient DoctorMAS 0..1 1..1 1..1ProgrammingEmbodied Visit Staff Group GroupOrganizations 0..NVMAX Surgery Room 1..1 GroupProgrammingModel LEGEND LINKS INTRA-GROUP EXTRA-GROUPConclusions inheritance min..max acquaintance composition communication ROLE authority GROUP ABS compatibility ROLE (a) Structural Specification in Moise in the Hospital Scenario
  20. 20. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: Functional OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, dimension Alessandro Ricci visitorSch monitorSchIntroduction visitor monitorA unifying scheme schemeapproach toMASProgramming mVisit mVisit visit mStaff mVisit enforcement enter book observeEmbodied exit the room the visit [5 minutes]Organizations mPatient mPay do the pay mRew mSanProgramming visit visit send sendModel [30 minutes] [30 minutes] bill fee [1 day] [1 day]Conclusions docSch mDoc LEGEND Doctor mDoc scheme missions visit goal patient [TTF] sequence choice parallelism [30 minutes] (b) Functional Specification in Moise
  21. 21. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: Deontic OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, dimension Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModelConclusions (c) Deontic Specification in Moise Controlling agent’s autonomy with Norms • Organization prescribes a set of norms (obligations, prohibitions permissions); • Agents may decide to violate norms; • Once a norm is violated the organization configuration has to be updated
  22. 22. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Organization Management OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Infrastructures Alessandro Ricci • ORA4MAS [Hübner et al., 2009] OMI is composed by a set ofIntroduction artifacts providing agents with organizational functions;A unifyingapproach to • Artifact initialized with the M OISE specificationMASProgramming • Define also A-OEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModel Norm violations are relevant ESCORTConclusions events stored as artifact events GroupBoards OMI ORGANISATIONAL ARTIFACTS For instance in Jason: +!commit_mission(M) VISITOR SchemeBoards : artifact_id(sch, SchId) Hospital VISITOR <- cartago.use(SchId, Workspace commitMission(M)). Agent Platforms
  23. 23. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Outline OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci 1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions 4 Programming Model 5 Conclusions
  24. 24. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Embodied Organizations OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro A-E AGENT(S) ENVIRONMENT RicciIntroduction A-O O-EA unifyingapproach to ORGANIZATIONMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModelConclusions
  25. 25. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Embodied Organizations OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro A-E AGENT(S) ENVIRONMENT RicciIntroduction A-O O-EA unifyingapproach to ORGANIZATIONMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModel EMI ENVIRONMENTConclusions STAFF ARTIFACTS STAFF E-O Integration Terminal GroupBoards SurgeryTablet • To recast events and changes OMI ORGANISATIONAL ARTIFACTS occurring inside environment to SchemeBoards the organizational infrastructure VISITOR BillingMachine Desk • and the other way Hospital VISITOR Workspace Agent Platforms
  26. 26. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Constitutive Rules OlivierBoissier, Jomi Constitutive Rules [Searle, 1964] F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci • Typical of human societies (Social Reality [Searle, 1997] )Introduction • The reification of a state in a particular context may constitute theA unifying realization of a particular institutional/organizational factapproach toMAS count-asProgrammingEmbodied Environment count-as OrganisationOrganizations Management Management Infrastructure InfrastructureProgramming AgentsModel enactConclusions • Used to automate particular dynamics between E-O:
  27. 27. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Constitutive Rules OlivierBoissier, Jomi Constitutive Rules [Searle, 1964] F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci • Typical of human societies (Social Reality [Searle, 1997] )Introduction • The reification of a state in a particular context may constitute theA unifying realization of a particular institutional/organizational factapproach toMAS count-asProgrammingEmbodied Environment count-as OrganisationOrganizations Management Management Infrastructure InfrastructureProgramming AgentsModel enactConclusions • Used to automate particular dynamics between E-O: • “Entering an ambulatory room count-as adopting the role patient” • “Finalizing the payment operation on the billing machine count-as achieving the goal pay” • “A sold out in the visit schedule enact the suspension of the booking service”
  28. 28. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Embodied Organization OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Metamodel Alessandro RicciIntroduction O-E functional relationships defined by Constitutive RulesA unifying based on Events:approach toMASProgramming Environment Event EventEmbodied Ev TypeOrganizations Ev Value Organization EventProgramming TriggersModelConclusions Constitutive 1..n Embodied Rule Organization (Emb-Org-Rule) Produces Count-as Enact Rule Rule
  29. 29. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Outline OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci 1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions 4 Programming Model 5 Conclusions
  30. 30. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Formal Model OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Implementing Emb-Org-Rules implies to re-engineer Alessandro Ricci CArtAgO by indruducing:Introduction Workspace EventsA unifyingapproach to Workspace rulesMASProgrammingEmbodied MAS = WsOrganizationsProgramming Ws = { wsn , Ag, Ar , Art, Ev , M, R, t }Model Ag = { agid , ags , agEv , agpr }Conclusions Ar = { arid , art , I, O, P, V } Table: Structures inside a MAS (implemented by CArtAgO) Formal model described by a transition system in the thesis
  31. 31. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Workspace Events OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Ws = Ag, Ar , Art, Ev, M, R, tIntroductionA unifying CArtAgO Workspace Eventsapproach toMAS Are records of significant changes in theProgramming application domain (i.e., state/processes).EmbodiedOrganizations 1 Can be perceived by agents focusing artifactsProgramming Workspace KernelModel WORKSPACE 2 Can be collected and ranked at the EVENTS ( Ev ) R Art MConclusions workspace level ev = evt , evv Event pairs (type, value) from Observable Properties and from Operations Execution
  32. 32. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Workspace Rules OlivierBoissier, Jomi Ws = Ag, Ar , Art, Ev , M, R, t F. Hübner, CArtAgO Workspace Alessandro Legend Ricci AGENT Needed to specify rules governing ARTIFACTIntroduction intra-workspace dynamics OBSERVABLE PROPERTYA unifying OPERATION LINK OPERATIONapproach to ACTIONMAS PERCEPTIONProgramming Workspace as a WORKSPACE LAWS ( R ) Ev Workspace Kernel Art M LINK WS OPERATOREmbodiedOrganizations programmable entityProgrammingModelConclusions Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules: “when ev in the context c apply a” • +ev : c → a • ev ∈ Ev • c refers to observable states ∈ Ar • a refers to a set of workspace operators
  33. 33. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Workspace Rules OlivierBoissier, Jomi Ws = Ag, Ar , Art, Ev , M, R, t F. Hübner, CArtAgO Workspace Alessandro Legend Ricci AGENT Needed to specify rules governing ARTIFACTIntroduction intra-workspace dynamics OBSERVABLE PROPERTYA unifying OPERATION LINK OPERATIONapproach to ACTIONMAS PERCEPTIONProgramming Workspace as a WORKSPACE LAWS ( R ) Ev Workspace Kernel Art M LINK WS OPERATOREmbodiedOrganizations programmable entityProgrammingModel Basic Workspace Operators:Conclusions Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules: “when ev in the context c apply a” (1) applyOp(arid , opname [, Params]) • +ev : c → a (2) applyLop(arid , opname [, Params]) (3) make(arid , artn [, Params]) • ev ∈ Ev (4) dispose(arid ) • c refers to observable states (5) disable(arid [, agid ] {, opname }) ∈ Ar (6) enable(arid [, agid ] {, opname }) • a refers to a set of workspace (7) exclude(agid ) operators (8) include(agid )
  34. 34. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: EMI OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, visitorSch monitorSch visitor Alessandro scheme monitor scheme RicciIntroduction mVisit mVisit visit mVisit mStaff enter book enforcement exit observeA unifying the room the visitapproach to mPatient mPayMAS do the pay mRew mSan send sendProgramming visit visit bill feeEmbodied joinWorkspace use use focus Hospital Desk BillingMachine Desk,Organizations bookVisit pay BillingMachine use use useProgramming quitWorkspace SurgeryTablet Terminal Terminal HospitalModel signPat sendBill sendFee docSch DoctorConclusions scheme Hospital visits reservations Workspace signDoc bookVisit signPat mDoc visit Desk SurgeryTablet patient payments sendBill pay sendFee use SurgeryTablet ENVIRONMENT signDoc MANAGEMENT BillingMachine Terminal INFRASTRUCTURE
  35. 35. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: Count-as OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Count-As Rules An event occurring in the system may “count-as” an institutional eventIntroduction and automatically update the organizationA unifyingapproach toMAS +join_req(Ag)Programming +ws_leaved(Ag) -> make("visitorGroupBoard", -> apply("visitorGroupBoard", "OMI.GroupBoard",Embodied leaveRole(Ag, "patient")). ["moise/hospital.xml","visitGroup"]);Organizations make("visitorSchBoard", +op_completed("BillingMachine",Programming "OMI.SchemeBoard", Ag, pay)Model ["moise/hospital.xml","visitorSch"]); -> apply("visitorSchBoard", apply("visitorGroupBoard", setGoalAchieved(Ag, pay_visit)).Conclusions adoptRole(Ag, "patient")); include(Ag). +op_completed("Terminal", +op_completed("visitorGroupBoard", _, Ag, sendFee) adoptRole(Ag, "patient")) -> apply("monitorSchBoard", -> apply("visitorSchBoard", setGoalAchieved(Ag, send_fee)). commitMission(Ag, "mPat")). Figure: Example of count-as rules in the Hospital scenario.
  36. 36. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Hospital Scenario: Enact OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Enact RulesIntroduction Organization may produce a control by enacting changes upon theA unifyingapproach to environment (i.e., to promote equilibrium, avoid undesiderable states).MASProgrammingEmbodied +signal("monitorSchBoard",Organizations goal_non_compliance, +signal("visitorGroupBoard", obligation(Ag,Programming role_cardinality, visitor) ngoa(monitorSch,mRew,send_bill),Model : true achieved(monitorSch,send_bill,Ag), -> disable("Desk", bookVisit). TTF)Conclusions : true -> exclude(Ag). Figure: Example of enact rules in the hospital scenario.
  37. 37. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Outline OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci 1 IntroductionIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS 2 A unifying approach to MAS ProgrammingProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgramming 3 Embodied OrganizationsModelConclusions 4 Programming Model 5 Conclusions
  38. 38. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Conclusions OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro An unifying approach to MAS programming RicciIntroduction • Embodied Organization;A unifying • No need for agents to bring about organizational notions;approach toMAS • Environment infrastructures succeed to mediate between agentsProgramming and organizations;EmbodiedOrganizations • Global dynamics shaped on workspace events and transparentlyProgramming handled by the system.ModelConclusions
  39. 39. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Conclusions OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro An unifying approach to MAS programming RicciIntroduction • Embodied Organization;A unifying • No need for agents to bring about organizational notions;approach toMAS • Environment infrastructures succeed to mediate between agentsProgramming and organizations;EmbodiedOrganizations • Global dynamics shaped on workspace events and transparentlyProgramming handled by the system.ModelConclusions Limitations and Aspects we do not address (yet): • Direct communication between agents (Agent-Agent interaction) through message passing (i.e. ACL) is not currently under the control of the organization. • Complex interaction patterns may result in many relationship to be specified between E-O.
  40. 40. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Perspectives OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Ongoing and Furure Work:Introduction • To generalize the mechanism of Workspace Laws and EmbodiedA unifying Organization Rules defining a wide set of inter-system functionalapproach toMAS relations (i.e. access control, security);Programming • To provide a general framweork for integrated MAS developmentEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModel Applications in future ICT:Conclusions • Any scenario integrating artificial agents, devices, humans in the same application • Future Internet, Cloud Computing • Sociotechnical systems, pervasive computing • Virtualization, Electronic Marketplaces, etc.
  41. 41. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Bibliography I OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Báez-Barranco, J.-A., Stratulat, T., and Ferber, J. (2006). Ricci A unified model for physical and social environments. In Environments for Multi-Agent Systems III, Third International WorkshopIntroduction (E4MAS 2006), volume 4389 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pagesA unifying 41–50. Springer.approach toMAS Baldoni, M., Genovese, V., and van der Torre, L. (2008).Programming Adding Organizations and Roles as primitives to the JADE framework.Embodied In Proc. of the 3rd International Workshop on Normative MAS.Organizations Bordini, R. H., Hübner, J. F., and Wooldrige, M. (2007).ProgrammingModel Programming Multi-Agent Systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. Wiley Series in Agent Technology. John Wiley & Sons.Conclusions Campos, J., Lòopez-Sànchez, M., Rodrìguez-Aguilar, J. A., and Esteva, M. (2008). Formalising Situatedness and Adaptation in Electronic Institutions. In COIN-08, Proc. Castelfranchi, C. (1998). Modeling Social Action for AI Agents. Artificial Intelligence, 103:157–182.
  42. 42. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Bibliography II OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Dastani, M. (2008). Alessandro 2APL: a practical agent programming language. Ricci Autonomous Agent and Multi-Agent Systems, 16:214–248.Introduction Dastani, M., Grossi, D., Meyer, J.-J. C., and Tinnemeier, N. A. M. (2008).A unifying Normative Multi-Agent Programs and Their Logics.approach to In Knowledge Representation for Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, FirstMAS International Workshop, KRAMAS 2008, Sydney, Australia, Revised SelectedProgramming Papers, volume 5605 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer.EmbodiedOrganizations Dignum, M. V. F. d. A. J. G. (2003).Programming A model for organizational interaction: based on agents, founded in logic.Model PhD thesis, Utrecht University, SIKS dissertation series 2004-1.Conclusions Esteva, M., Rodríguez-Aguilar, J. A., Rosell, B., and L., J. (2004). AMELI: An agent-based middleware for electronic institutions. In Proceedings of International conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems (AAMAS’04), pages 236–243, New York. ACM. Ferber, J., Gutknecht, O., and Michel, F. (2003). From Agents to Organizations: An Organizational View of Multi-agent Systems. In Proceedings of (AOSE-03), volume 2935 of Lecture Notes Computer Science (LNCS). Springer.
  43. 43. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Bibliography III OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Hübner, J. F., Boissier, O., Kitio, R., and Ricci, A. (2009). Ricci Instrumenting Multi-Agent Organisations with Organisational Artifacts and Agents.Introduction Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.A unifyingapproach to Hübner, J. F., Sichman, J. S., and Boissier, O. (2005).MAS S-moise+ : A middleware for developing organised multi-agent systems.Programming In Boissier, O., Padget, J. A., Dignum, V., Lindemann, G., Matson, E. T.,Embodied Ossowski, S., Sichman, J. S., and Vázquez-Salceda, J., editors,Organizations Coordination, Organizations, Institutions, and Norms in Multi-Agent Systems,Programming AAMAS 2005 International Workshops, volume 3913 of Lecture Notes inModel Computer Science, pages 64–78. Springer.Conclusions Hübner, J. F., Sichman, J. S., and Boissier, O. (2007). Developing Organised Multi-Agent Systems Using the M OISE Model: Programming Issues at the System and Agent Levels. Agent-Oriented Software Engineering, 1(3/4):370–395. Kirsh, D. (1995). The intelligent use of space. Artificial Intelligence, 73(1-2):31–68.
  44. 44. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Bibliography IV OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Okuyama, F. Y., Bordini, R. H., and da Rocha Costa, A. C. (2009). A Distributed Normative Infrastructure for Situated Multi-AgentIntroduction Organisations. In Decl. Agent Lang. & Techn. (DALT-VI), volume 5397 of LNCS. Springer.A unifyingapproach toMAS Omicini, A., Ricci, A., and Viroli, M. (2008).Programming Artifacts in the A&A meta-model for multi-agent systems. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 17 (3).EmbodiedOrganizations Piunti, M. and Ricci, A. (2008).Programming From Agents to Artifacts Back and Forth: Purposive and Doxastic use ofModel Artifacts in MAS.Conclusions In Proceedings of Sixth European Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems(EUMAS-08), Bath, UK. Piunti, M., Ricci, A., Boissier, O., and Hübner, J. F. (2009a). Embodied Organisations in MAS Environments. In Braubach, L., van der Hoek, W., Petta, P., and Pokahr, A., editors, MATES, volume 5774 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 115–127. Springer.
  45. 45. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Bibliography V OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Piunti, M., Ricci, A., Boissier, O., and Hübner, J. F. (2009b). Ricci Embodying Organisations in Multi-agent Work Environments. In Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint ConferenceIntroduction on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT 2009), pagesA unifying 511–518, Milan, Italy. IEEE.approach toMAS Piunti, M., Ricci, A., Braubach, L., and Pokahr, A. (2008).Programming Goal-directed Interactions in Artifact-Based MAS: Jadex Agents playing inEmbodied CArtAgO Environments.Organizations In IEEE/WIC/ACM International Joint Conference on Web Intelligence andProgramming Intelligent Agent Technology (WI-IAT 2008), Sydney, NSW, Australia.Model Pokahr, A., Braubach, L., and Lamersdorf, W. (2005).Conclusions Jadex: A BDI Reasoning Engine. In Bordini, R. H., Dastani, M., Dix, J., and Fallah-Seghrouchni, A. E., editors, Multi-Agent Programming, volume 15 of Multiagent Systems, Artificial Societies, and Simulated Organizations, pages 149–174. Springer. Ricci, A., Piunti, M., Viroli, M., and Omicini, A. (2009). Environment programming in CArtAgO. In Multi-Agent Programming: Languages, Platforms and Applications, Vol. 2, pages 259–288. Springer.
  46. 46. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Bibliography VI OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro Ricci Searle, J. R. (1964).Introduction Speech Acts, chapter What is a Speech Act?A unifying Cambridge University Press.approach toMAS Searle, J. R. (1997).Programming The Construction of Social Reality.Embodied Free Press.Organizations Sierhuis, M. (2001).ProgrammingModel Modeling and Simulating Work Practice; Brahms: A multiagent modeling and simulation language for work system analysis and design.Conclusions PhD thesis, University of Amsterdam, SIKS Dissertation Series. Stratulat, T., Ferber, J., and Tranier, J. (2009). MASQ: Towards an Integral Approach of Agent-Based Interaction. In Proc. of 8th Conf. on Agents and Multi Agent Systems (AAMAS-09).
  47. 47. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, OlivierBoissier, Jomi Embodied Organizations F. Hübner, A unifying perspective in programming Agents, Alessandro Ricci Organizations and EnvironmentsIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS Michele Piunti1 Olivier Boissier2 Jomi F. Hübner3Programming Alessandro Ricci1EmbodiedOrganizations 1 Università degli studi di Bologna - DEIS, Bologna - Italy.ProgrammingModel {michele.piunti | a.ricci}@unibo.itConclusions 2 Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines - G2I St-Etienne - France boissier@emse.fr 3 Federal University of Santa Catarina - DAS, Florianópolis - Brazil jomi@das.ufsc.br COIN 2010 - Lyon
  48. 48. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Situated Organizations OlivierBoissier, Jomi • MASQ, AGRE [Stratulat et al., 2009, Báez-Barranco et al., 2006]: integrate F. Hübner, Alessandro different dimensions (agents, environment, interactions, organizations and Ricci institutions) into an integral view; • Distributed normative infrastructures: “normative places” and “normativeIntroduction objects”, reactive entities inspectable by agents and containing readableA unifying information about norms [Okuyama et al., 2009].approach toMAS • Situated Electronic Institutions [Campos et al., 2008]: governor entitiesProgramming allow to bridge environmental structures by instrumenting environments withEmbodied embodied devices controlled by the institutional apparatus.Organizations • Constitutive rules [Searle, 1997] to bridge the gap between environmentProgrammingModel and institutional dimensions:Conclusions • The reification of a particular state in a normative place may constitute the realization of a particular institutional fact (e.g., “being on a car driver seat makes an agent to play the role driver”) [Okuyama et al., 2009]. • “Normative artifact” as a container of institutional facts (facts related to the institutional states), and brute facts (states related to the concrete workplace where agents dwell) [Dastani et al., 2008]. “Count-as” and “sanctioning” rules allows the infrastructure to recast brute facts to institutional ones and provide normative control.
  49. 49. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Syntax of Workspace Rules OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Alessandro RicciIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMASProgrammingEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModelConclusions
  50. 50. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, Regimentation and Enforcement OlivierBoissier, Jomi F. Hübner, Organisational Alessandro Regimentation done by Artifacts Ricci EOA+OAIntroduction mechanisms used by Enforcement done byA unifyingapproach to detectionMAS evaluationProgramming done by Staff judgement done by AgentEmbodiedOrganizationsProgrammingModelConclusions • Regimentation is done by enabling and disabling operation controls (uic) on environment artifacts (visitDoor) • This enables or prevents the use of artifacts (CArtAgO implements RBAC) • Enforcement is done (by staff/organizational agents) by using special artifacts (i.e. the terminal to send fines, the phone to call police, etc.)
  51. 51. EmbodiedOrganizationsMichele Piunti, OlivierBoissier, Jomi Embodied Organizations F. Hübner, A unifying perspective in programming Agents, Alessandro Ricci Organizations and EnvironmentsIntroductionA unifyingapproach toMAS Michele Piunti1 Olivier Boissier2 Jomi F. Hübner3Programming Alessandro Ricci1EmbodiedOrganizations 1 Università degli studi di Bologna - DEIS, Bologna - Italy.ProgrammingModel {michele.piunti | a.ricci}@unibo.itConclusions 2 Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines - G2I St-Etienne - France boissier@emse.fr 3 Federal University of Santa Catarina - DAS, Florianópolis - Brazil jomi@das.ufsc.br COIN 2010 - Lyon
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