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  2. 2. INFORMATION REPORTWhat is AN INFORMATION REPORT ?An information report is a piece of text that presents information about asubject. Its purpose is to classify and/or describe using facts about thesubject’s parts, behaviour and qualities. The subject is usually generalrather than particular, for example ‘skin’ rather than an individualperson’s skin. Examples of information report texts include:• lectures• reference articles• research assignments• chapters in textbooks.
  3. 3. INFORMATION REPORTFeatures of AN INFORMATION REPORTConstructing an information reportA written explanation usually involves three steps. First, there is the general statement about the event or thing. Next follows a series of paragraphs that tell the hows and whys. The final step is a concluding paragraph.Grammatical features of an information reportInformation reports usually include the following grammatical features:• technical language related to the subject• technical use of the timeless present tense• technical use of general nouns (e.g. weather, skin, earthquakes) rather than proper nouns• technical linking verbs to describe behaviours or qualities (cells are surrounded by membrane).
  4. 4. INFORMATION REPORTThe NFORMATION REPORT scaffold1 A general opening statement in the first paragraph• This statement tells the audience what the text is going to be about.• This can include a short description of the subject.• This can include a definition of the subject.2 A series of paragraphs about the subject• Each paragraph usually begins with a topic sentence.• The topic sentence in the beginning of each paragraph previews the information contained in the rest of the paragraph• The sentences after this preview give more details.• Each paragraph should give information about one feature of the subject.• These paragraphs build a description of the subject of the report.• These paragraphs may include technical language that is related to the subject.3 A concluding paragraph (optional)• The concluding paragraph signals the end of the text.• This paragraph can summarise the report
  5. 5. INFORMATION REPORT MODEL OF AN INFORMATION REPORT TEXT GrammaticalStructures Galaxies featuresINTRODUCTION A galaxy is a collection of stars and otherWITH A BRIEF astronomical bodies, including planets, comets and TIMELESSDESCRIPTION asteroids, held together by gravity. PRESENT TENSE Galaxies come in different shapes and sizes. These include the spiral, barrel-spiral and elliptical. Our galaxy called the Milky Way, is approximately 100 000 light years TECHNICALPARAGRAPHS TERMS ABOUT THE in the width and contains over 100 billion stars. RELATED TO SUBJECT The centre of galaxies can contain many young, THE SUBJECT very hot stars as well as older stars. Swirling clouds that have been energised by magnetic forces also exist in the centre. GENERAL NOUNS At this point in time, no one knows the exactCONCLUSION number of galaxies in the universe. Astronomers are, however, learning more and more about them everyday.
  6. 6. FACTUAL DESCRIPTIONWhat is A FACTUAL DESCRIPTION?A factual description describes a particular person, place or thing. Itspurpose is to ‘tell’ about the subject by describing its features withoutincluding personal opinions. A factual description differs from aninformation report because it describes a specific subject rather than ageneral group. Examples of factual description texts include:• descriptions of a particular building• descriptions of a specific animal• descriptions of a particular place• descriptions of a specific person
  7. 7. FACTUAL DESCRIPTIONFeatures of A FACTUAL DESCRIPTIONConstructing a factual descriptionA typical description has an opening paragraph introducing thesubject of the description, followed by a series of paragrapheach describing one feature of the subject. There can also be afinal concluding section that signals the end of the description.Grammatical features of a recountFactual descriptions usually include the following grammaticalfeatures:• verbs in the present tense• adjectives to describe the features of the subject• topic sentence to begin paragraphs and organise the variousaspects of the description.
  8. 8. FACTUAL DESCRIPTIONThe FACTUAL DESCRIPTION scaffold1 A general opening statement in the first paragraph• This statement introduces the subject of the description to the audience.• It can give the audience brief details about when, where, who or what of the subject.2 A series of paragraphs about the subject• Each paragraph usually begins with a topic sentence• The topic sentence previews the details that will be contained in the remainder of the paragraph.• Each paragraph should describe one feature of the subject.• These paragraphs build the description of the subject.3 A concluding paragraph (optional)• The concluding paragraph signals the end of the text.
  9. 9. FACTUAL DESCRIPTION MODEL OF a FACTUAL DESCRIPTION GrammaticalStructures Deinonychus features OPENING The model of Deinonychus, a dinosaur from the TIMELESS STATEMENT Creataceous period, can be found in the Museum of Natural PRESENTINTRODUCING Science.THE SUBJECT TENSE Deinonychus is small by dinosaur standards. It is about 2.5 metres in length and stands about one metre high at the shoulder. ADJECTIVES This reptile has a long tail, spindly legs and slender neck. SERIES OF The head is large and the jaws are lined with sharp teeth.PARAGRAPHS The tail, approximately 3 metres in length, has vertebraeDESCRIBING surrounded by bundles of bony rods so the whole tail can beTHE SUBJECT held stiff. The toes of the Deinonychus are unusual. The first toe is TOPIC small and points backwards. The second toe has a huge sickle- SENTENCES shaped claw and is raised. The third and fourth toes are in the normal position. Deinonychus is an interesting example of a fast-runningCONCLUSION dinosaur.
  10. 10. RECOUNTWhat is A RECOUNT?A recount is a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order inwhich they occurred. Its purpose is to provide the audience with a descriptionof what occurred and when it occurred. Examples of recount texts include:• eyewitness account• newspaper reports• letters• conversations• television interviews• speeches
  11. 11. RECOUNTFeatures of A RECOUNTConstructing a recountA recount text usually has three main sections. The first paragraphgives background information about who, what, where, and when(called an orientation). This is followed by a series of paragraphs thatretell the events in the order in which they happened. Some recountshave a concluding paragraph, however this is not always necessary.Grammatical features of a recountRecounts usually include the following grammatical features:• proper nouns to identify those involved in the text• descriptive words to give details about who, what, when, whereand how• the use of the past tense to retell the events• words that show the order of the events (for example, first, next,then).
  12. 12. RECOUNTThe RECOUNT scaffold Step 1 Introductory paragraph that tells who, what, where, and when. Step 2 A sequence of events in the order in which they occurred. Step 3 (optional) A conclusion
  13. 13. RECOUNT MODEL OF A RECOUNT Structures Grammatical A Postcard features Dear Nan, PROPERINTRODUCTION NOUNS THAT We are having a great holiday here on the Gold Coast. Yesterday we went to PROVIDES Movie World. ORIENTATION WORDS When we got up in the morning, it looked like rain. After a while the clouds SHOWING THE disappeared and it became a sunny day. We then decided to go to Movie World. ORDER OF EVENTSSEQUENCE OFEVENTS THAT The first ride I went on was Lethal Weapon. Next I saw the Police Academy RETELLS THE show. After that I had lunch as I was really hungry. Meanwhile, Mum and KellyEVENTS IN THE queued for the Batman ride. PAT TENSE ORDER THEY OCCURRED About one o’clock we got a light shower of rain but it cleared up soon after. We then went on all the other rides followed by the studio tour. PROPER NOUNSCONCLUSION It was a top day. See you when we get back. Love Sam
  14. 14. NARRATIVEWhat is a narrative?A narrative is a text that tells a story and, in doing so, entertains the audience. Thepurpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audiencethink about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotions. Written narratives often take the form of novels. The story is usually told by anarrator. If the narrator is one of the characters in the story, the story is said to be told inthe first person. If a person outside the story is the narrator, then the story is beingtold in the third person. Examples of narrative texts include: myths fairytales Aboriginal dreaming stories science fiction historical fiction romance novels
  15. 15. NARRATIVEFeatures of a narrativeConstructing a narrativeThe steps for constructing a narrative text are: an orientation in which the narrator tells the audience about WHO is in the story, WHEN the story is taking place and WHERE the action is happening a complication that sets off a chain of events that influences what will happen in the story A sequence of events where the characters react to the complication A resolution in which the characters solve the problem created in the complication a coda that provides a comment or moral based on what has been learned from the story (an optional step).Grammatical features of a narrativeNarratives usually include the following grammatical features: nouns that identify the specific characters and places in the story adjectives that provide accurate descriptions of the characters and settings verbs that show the actions that occur in the story time words that connect events, telling when they occurred.
  16. 16. NARRATIVEThe narrative scaffold1. OrientationIn this paragraph the narrator tells the audience who is in the story, when it ishappening, where it is happening and what is going on.2. ComplicationThis is the part of the story where the narrator tells about something that will begin achain of events. These events will affect one or more of the characters. Thecomplication is the trigger.3. Sequence of eventsThis is where the narrator tells how the characters react to the complication. It includestheir feelings and what they do. The events can be told in chronological order (theorder in which they happen) or with flashbacks. The audience is given the narrator’spoint of view.4. ResolutionIn this part of the narrative the complication is sorted out or the problem is solved5. CodaThe narrator includes a coda if there is a moral or message to be learned from thestory.
  17. 17. NARRATIVE MODEL OF A NARRATIVE Structures Grammatical The Drover’s Wife features (adapted from a short story by Henry Lawson) ORIENTATION The two-roomed house is built of round timber, slabs and stringy-bark and SPECIFIC TELLING WHO floored with split slabs. Bush all round-bush with no horizon, for the country is CHARACTERS AND WHERE flat. The drover, an ex-squatter, is away with sheep. His wife and children areCOMPLICATION left here alone.THAT TRIGGERS Four ragged, dried-up looking children are playing about the house. ADJECTIVES A SERIES OF Suddenly one of them yells ‘Snake! Mother, here’s a snake!’ PROVIDING EVENTS DESCRIPTION It is near sunset, and she knows the snake is there. She makes up bedsSEQUENCE OF for the children and sits down beside them to keep watch all night.EVENTS WHERE She has an eye on the corner and a green sapling club ready by her USE OF TIME THE side. Alligator, the dog, lies nearby. WORDS TO CHARACTERS It must be one or two o’clock in the morning. The bush woman watches CONNECTREACT TO THE EVENTS and listens, thinking about her life alone whilst her husband is gone.COMPLICATION It must be near daylight now. The hairs on Alligator’s neck begin to bristle. Between a crack in the slabs an evil pair of small, bead-like eyes glisten. VERBS SHOWING RESOLUTION The snake-a black one-comes slowly out. ACTIONS IN WHICH THEPROBLEM FROM Alligator springs. He has the snake now. Thud, thud as the woman THE strikes at the snake. The dog shakes and shakes the black snake. The snake’s COMPLICATION back is broken. Thud, thud is head is crushed. IS SOLVED She lifts the mangled reptile and throws it on the fire. The eldest boy ADJECTIVES watches it burn and looks at his mother, seeing tears in her eyes. SHOWING CODA THAT DESCRIPTIONS GIVES THE He throws his arms around her and exclaims, ‘Mother, I won’t never goMORAL TO THE droving; blarst me if I do!’ STORY
  18. 18. PROCEDUREWhat is A PROCEDURE?A procedure is a piece of text that tells how to do something. Its purpose is toprovide instructions for making something, doing something or gettingsomewhere. Examples of procedure texts include:• recipes• itineraries• instruction manuals• directions
  19. 19. PROCEDUREFeatures of A PROCEDUREConstructing a procedureA procedure text usually has three sections. There is an introductorystatement or title that gives the aim or goal of the procedure, followedby a list of materials that will be needed to complete the procedure.The final section is a sequence of steps, in the order they need to becompleted, to achieve this goal. Some procedures have other stages such as explaining why eachstep is necessary.Grammatical features of a procedureProcedure texts usually include the following grammatical features:• sentence that begins with verbs and are stated as commands• time words or numbers that show the order for carrying out theprocedure• adverbs to describe how the action should be performed• precise terms and technical language.
  20. 20. PROCEDUREThe PROCEDURE scaffold1 An introductory statement giving the aim or goal• This may be the title of the text.• This may be an introductory paragraph.2 Materials needed for completing the procedure• This may be a list.• This may be a paragraph.• This step may be left out in some procedures.3 A sequence of steps in the correct order• Numbers can be used to show: first, second, third and so on.• The order is usually important.• Words such as now, next and after this can be used.• The steps usually begin with a command such as add, stir, or push.
  21. 21. PROCEDURE Models of a procedure Structures Anzac biscuits GOAL You will need: 2 cups of rolled oats 1 2 cups caster sugar 1 LIST OF MATERIALS 4 tablespoons golden syrup REQUIRED TOCOMPLETE THE 2 tablespoons boiling water PROCEDURE 1 cup plain flour 250 grams butter 1 teaspoon baking soda
  22. 22. PROCEDURE Models of a procedure Grammatical oStructures 1 Turn oven into 160 C. features 2 Lightly grease oven tray. SENTENCES 3 Mix oats, flour and sugar in a large bowl. BEGINNING 4 Melt butter and golden syrup in a pan. WITH VERBSSEQUENCE OF 5 Mix baking soda and boiling water in a cup.STEPS IN THE 6 Add this mixture to melted butter and golden SENTENCES ORDER THEY NEED TO BE syrup WRITTEN AS COMMANDS COMPLETED 7 Add this to the oats mixture in the large bowl, mix together well. 8 Roll tablespoonfuls of the mixture into balls. Put on tray 5 cm apart. 9 Press lightly on top of each with a fork. 10 Bake for 20 minutes
  23. 23. PROCEDURE Models of a procedure GrammaticalStructures features TITLE How to reduce the risk of heart ADVERBS GIVES attack SHOWING GOAL ORDER Today I will tell you how to reduce the risk of having a heart attack. SENTENCES Firstly, be a non-smoker. Secondly, see WRITTEN AS COMMANDSSEQUENCE OF your doctor regularly for tests to check your STEPS TO cholesterol levels. Thirdly, eat a low-fat dietACIEVE THE GOAL and keep to a healthy weight. Finally, exercise regularly.
  24. 24. NEWS ITEMNews item is a text which informs readersabout events of the day. The events areconsidered newsworthy or important.Purpose: to inform readers about events ofthe day which are considered newsworthy orimportant
  25. 25. Dominant Language Features: 1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using action verbs 3. Using saying verbs 4. Using adverbs : time, place and manner.Generic Structure of News Item 1. Main event 2. Elaboration (background, participant, time, place) 3. Resource of information
  26. 26. TOWN CONTAMINATED Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncoveredevidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which Main Eventkilled 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speakto people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclearsubmarine at the naval base of Shkotovo – 22 nearVladivostock. The accident, which occurred 13 monthsbefore the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up Backgroundby officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the eventsexplosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarineduring a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclearexplosion. And those involved in the clean up operationto remove more than 600 tones of contaminatedmaterial were sworn to secrecy. A board of investigators was later to describe it asthe worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Source
  27. 27. REVIEW TEXT A review is a text that gives a person’s response (judgement, opinion, reaction) to another text such as a book, film or poem. The purpose is to describe the artistic work and provide a judgement about it.Examples of review texts include: • book reviews • theatre reviews • movie reviews • CD reviewsGrammatical features of a review text: • the use of present tense • adjectives to describe the text • words that express the writer’s judgements and attitudes.
  28. 28. Generic Structure:1. A paragraph introducing the text being judged This section should contain information on the title of the text being judged, the name of the person who constructed it (the author/artist), when it was constructed and a brief summary of the work.2. A description of the text This section gives details about the main features of the text and a summary on what happens in it. There can be one or more paragraphs in this section of the response.3 A judgement of the text This section gives a judgement of the text by the person writing the response. There may also be some recommendations. This section can be one or more paragraphs.
  29. 29. So Much to Tell You So Much to Tell You is Australian author John Marsden’spowerful novel in diary form about 14-year-old girl whorecords her thoughts on boarding-school life. It was first Introduction, giving title ofpublished in 1987 by Water McVitty Books and has gone on the work,to become one of Australia’s best-selling books. So Much to author and context.Tell You appears in sixteen different languages and has wonmany prizes including the 1988 Book of the Year Award. This absorbing story is written in the first person as adiary. Little by little, the reader learns from the girl’s past and Athe events that caused her to withdraw into herself. description of the textSimultaneously, she tells of day-to-day life at boarding schooland the people around her. This is a wonderful novel, full of powerful emotions and Judgementwritten in a fresh, original style. Although most suitable for andteenage readers, adults will also find So Much to Tell You an recommendintelligent, stunning piece of work. -ation
  30. 30. HORTATORY EXPOSITIONPurpose : to persuade the readers or listeners that something should orshould not be the case.Text OrganizationA thesisArgumentsRecommendationLanguage Features:•The use of emotive words (e.g. worried, alarmed etc)•The use of words that qualify statements (e.g. usual, probably etc)•The use of words that link arguments (e.g. firstly, However, therefore etc)•The use of compound and complex sentence•The use of modals and adverbs (e.g. may, must, should, etc)•The use of subjective opinions using pronouns I and we
  31. 31. Corruption Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relationbetween money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere inthe world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, itis quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corruptplace in Indonesia. The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn aliving here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smugglingis not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their taxpayments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials. Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem bypunishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent theyounger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption. I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I thinkeveryone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We mustnot make any distinction.
  32. 32. ANALYTICAL EXPOSITIONDefinition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition 1. Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position 2. Arguments: Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s position 3. Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position
  33. 33. The Power of Music in Our Life Do you agree that music is important in our life? Yes I do, music has certainrole completing our day to day activities. Here are some reasons why music isheard everywhere and anywhere. Music is a way to express feelings. When we fall in love, the kind of musicwe’d listen to would be all about love. When we’re sad, we would go for musicthat is melancholic in nature and immerse ourselves in the sadness. When we’rehappy, we’d choose songs with happy tunes too. Song can help to memorize the last experiences. A favorite song is apowerful documentary. People with Alzheimer which are impaired the brain wouldremember details about songs they were familiar with. For example, an elderlywoman who couldn’t even remember her husband’s name would remember thedetails of her favorite song; when it was played, how it made her feel and thingsabout the song that made it especially memorable for her. Further, music can unite people for a cause and changes the world. A songwith good lyric and striking deep chord can stimulate the universal feeling of allpeople. We can see it in the case of the famous and legendary Michael JacsonsHeal the World. It can arouse humanism of a lot people in this world. So what would the world be like without music? It would be lonely
  34. 34. SPOOF Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Orientation 2. Events 3. Twist: the unpredictable thing in the end of story which is often funny.Language Feature of Spoof 1. Focusing on people, animals or certain things 2. Using action verb; ate, ran, etc 3. Using adverb of time and place 4. Told in chronological order
  35. 35. PENGUIN IN THE PARK Once a man was walking in a park when he across apenguin. He took it to a policeman and said; "Whatshould I do?" The policeman replied; "Take it to the zoo!". The next day, the policeman saw the man in the samepark. The man was still carrying the penguin. Thepoliceman was rather surprised and walked up to theman and asked, "Why are you still carrying the penguin?Didnt you take it to the zoo?“ The man replied; "I certainly did. And it was a greatidea because the penguin really enjoyed it. So, today I amtaking it to the movie".
  36. 36. EXPLANATIONWhat is AN EXPLANATION ?An explanation tells how or why something occurs. Explanations can bespoken or written and their purpose is to tell each step of the process(the how) and to give reasons (the why) for it. Examples of explanations texts include:• how something occurs• why something happened• why things are alike or different• how to solve a problem
  37. 37. EXPLANATIONFeatures of AN EXPLANATIONConstructing an explanationA written explanation usually involves three steps. First, there is thegeneral statement about the event or thing. Next follows a series ofparagraphs that tell the hows and whys. The final step is a concludingparagraph.Grammatical features of an explanationExplanations usually include the following grammatical features:• technical language• words that show cause and effect• use of timeless present tense
  38. 38. EXPLANATIONThe EXPLANATION scaffold 1 Description in the introductory paragraph 2 A sequence of sentences that tell how or why 3 A conclusion
  39. 39. EXPLANATIONS MODEL OF AN EXPLANATION GrammaticalStructures features QUESTION What causes food poisoning HEADINGINTRODUCTION Food poisoning is a disorder of the stomach and intestines USE OF DECRIBING caused by bacteria or chemical in foods. TECHNICAL SUBJECT TERMS The classic form of food poisoning is caused by staphylococci (bacteria commonly known as staph). The staph germs enter the food during preparation. As a result of WORDS the food not properly refrigerated the bacteria multiply SHOWINGEXPLANATION hourly, contaminating the food with toxin (poison). As staph HOW AND WHY SEQUENCE germs and their toxins are odourless and tasteless the contaminated food smells and tastes normal. Eating contaminated food causes vomiting, abdominal TIMELESS cramps and diarrhoea within one to six hours. PRESENT TENSE Thus, food poisoning is frequently caused by CONCLUSION staphylococci, which contaminate food during preparation and enter the stomach and intestines during eating. GENERIC TERMS
  40. 40. DISCUSSIONWhat is A DISCUSSION?A discussion text type gives the for and against, the positive and negative, orthe good and bad points. A discussion can be in oral or written form. Thepurpose of a discussion is to present to the audiences different opinions on atopic and, at the end, your opinion. Examples of discussion texts include:• talkback radio• debates• current affairs interviews• letters to the editor• essays• newspaper articles
  41. 41. DISCUSSIONFeatures of a DISCUSSIONConstructing a discussionA typical discussion text has an introductory paragraph that hasa statement about the topic followed by a series of paragraphsthat give evidence, opinions or arguments for and against thetopic. The end of the discussion text is signalled by a conclusionthat gives a final point of view, either for or against the topic.Grammatical features of a dramatic textDiscussions usually include the following grammatical features:• the use of generic terms related to the topic• words that show a comparison or a contrast• words that link arguments.
  42. 42. DISCUSSIONThe DISCUSSIOn scaffoldStep 1• An opening paragraph that introduces the topic being discussed. It can contain a question about the topic. It can state the view of the author of the text.Step 2• Argument or point of view for, with supporting evidence or elaboration (more details).• Another argument for, with supporting argument or elaboration.• Argument or point of view against, with supporting evidence or elaboration.• Another argument against, with supporting argument or elaboration.Step 3• A conclusion that sums up the discussion and gives a recommendation or opinion.
  43. 43. MODEL OF a discussion GrammaticalStructures Should Australia become a republic? features GENERAL Recently, Australians have been debating the possibility ofSTATEMENT WORDS TO THAT becoming a republic. There are arguments for and against LINKINTRODUCES Australia pursuing this course in the twenty-first century. I ARGUMENTSDISCUSSION believe that Australia should become a republic. Republicans see Australia as having moved beyond its British roots and desire change, not only because it is practical, PHRASEARGUMENTS but also symbolic. I believe that Britain is now less important to INTRODUCES FOR Australia economically as well as culturally, and that Australia ANOTHER POINT should look at forming stronger links with nations situated in the OF VIEW same region. On the other hand, those opposed to a republic argue that our parliamentary system and other major institutions, such asARGUMENTS WORDS the law, are based on the British model, which has provided AGAINST SHOWING Australia with a stable system of government and they fear that AUTHOR’S any changes may threaten this stability. OPINION It can be seen that there are reasons for and againstCONCLUSION becoming a republic. After looking at both sides, I still believe that Australia should become a republic.