Submitted to :- Mrs.Seema Oberoi
Submitted by:- Nishkarsh bansal
We are thankful to all mighty God that he
bestowed us with his blessings. We are equally
thankful to all our parents. We have another
very important person to thank, our respected
Mrs.Seema Oberoi who always inspired us. In
this journey we were also glad to have each
other, thanks all our teammates. We obviously
proved to be the best team ever!!
The term "Green Revolution" is applied to the period from 1967 to 1978.
The term "Green Revolution" is a general one that is applied to successful
agricultural experiments in many Third World countries. It is NOT specific
to India. But it was most successful in India.
There were three basic elements in the method of the Green Revolution:
• Continued expansion of farming areas - The area of land under cultivation
was being increased right from 1947. But this was not enough in meeting
with rising demand. The expansion of cultivable land also had to continue.
So, the Green Revolution continued with this quantitative expansion of
• Double-cropping existing farmland - Instead of one crop season per
year, the decision was made to have two crop seasons per year. The one-
season-per-year practice was based on the fact that there is only natural
monsoon per year. This was correct. So, there had to be two "monsoons"
per year. One would be the natural monsoon and the other an artificial
• Using seeds with superior genes - It developed new strains of high yield
value (HYV) seeds, mainly wheat and rice but also millet and corn. The most
noteworthy HYV seed was the K68 variety for wheat.
• Every fruit, vegetable, grain, etc. we see today is the result
of genetic modification. Biotechnology refines and extends
methods that produce new plants and animals.
• Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production
and processing. For ten thousand years fermentation, a
form of biotechnology, has been used to produce wine, beer
and bread. Selective breeding of essential foods such as rice,
corn and wheat have created thousands of local varieties
with improved yield compared to their wild ancestors.
In the past, plant breeders were limited to
introducing traits within the same botanical
family, such as wheat to wheat. Only pollen
from a compatible parent wheat could be
used to fertilize the seed-producing plant.
The diversity of traits possible from this
combination was limited by these genetic
compatibility barriers. Today, gene transfer
is not confined within cross-breeding species
but can cross genetic barriers such as corn
to tomato. A gene for a single trait can be
Hybrid is synonymous with heterozygous: any
offspring resulting from the mating of two
distinctly homozygous individuals.
• A structural hybrid results from the fusion
of gametes that have differing structure in at
least one chromosome as a result of structural
• A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of
gametes having different haploid numbers of
• A permanent hybrid is a situation where only the
heterozygous genotype occurs, because all
homozygous combinations are lethal.
Plant species hybridize readily and the resulting hybrids are more fertile
hybrids and may reproduce. A number of plant species are the result of
hybridization and polyploidy with many plant species easily cross pollinating
and producing viable seeds. The distinction between each species is
maintained by geographical isolation or differences in the flowering period.
These improvements can include the production of more or improved
seeds, fruits or other plant parts for consumption, or to make a plant more
winter or heat hardy or improve its growth and appearance for use in
• Three-way cross hybrids — result from the cross
between one parent that is an F1 hybrid and the other is
from an inbred line.
• Population hybrids — result from the crossing of plants
in a population with another population.
• Triple cross hybrids — result from the crossing of two
different three-way cross hybrids.
• Hybrid species - results from hybrid populations evolving
reproductive barriers against their parent species
through hybrid speciation.
Depending on the parents, there are a number of different types of hybrids:-
•Single cross hybrids — result from the cross between two true breeding organisms
and produces an F1 generation called an F1 hybrid (F1 is short for Filial 1, meaning
•Double cross hybrids — result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids.
Genetic engineering is the process that
uses the techniques of molecular
cloning and transformation to alter the
Characteristics of genes.
Genetic engineering is
about scientists altering
the 'recipes' for making
Benefits of Genetic
• Better yield and quality of crops
•Improves the lifestyles of humans
• Production becomes better in
variety and larger in quantity.
Production of super-crops
Bioremediation of the polluted
Farmers have been producing foods that
have been genetically altered to be more
nutritious, delicious, resistant to harmful
pesticides and have the
ability to repel pests.
Genes from naturally drought-
resistant plants are used to increase
drought tolerance in
Genetic Engineered papaya,
SunUp! That is resistant to the
Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)
Homegrown papaya that is
affected by the Papaya
ringspot virus (PRSV)
• Inadequate effort has been made to understand the
dangers in the use of transgenic crops
• Genetic engineering technology has the risk of
introducing allergens and toxins into safe foods.
• Transgenic crops might cross-pollinate with
related weeds, possibly resulting in “super
weeds” that become more difficult to control.
• It goes against religious values &
Transgenic crops might produce uncontrollable
Resistance to a specific
herbicide does not mean
that the plant is resistant
to other herbicides.
Most crop plants have
significant limitations in
their growth and seed
dispersal habits that
prevent them from
surviving long without
constant nurture by
humans, and they are thus
The Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) checks
to ensure that the levels of
naturally occurring allergens
in foods made from
transgenic organisms have
not significantly increased
above the natural range
Transgenic technology is
being used to remove
the allergens from
peanuts, one of most
serious causes of food