Nishkarsh ppt (2)


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  • What is genetic engineering? Well, (genetic engineering is the..). Simply to say, (Genetic engineering is about….)
  • The answer would be a yes. Simply because genetic engineering (improves the lifestyles…) as it is able to increase the quality and yield of crops by producing “super-crops”. In addition, genetic engineering is also able to produce microorganisms that are able to clean up the environment through a process called Bioremediation.
  • Ever since genetic engineering is made possible, (farmers have been….). Moreover, (plant life is changed…). According to (Wieczorek from the department….)
  • This slide shows the difference between a (genetic engineered papaya…) & a (homegrown papaya that is…)
  • Some consumers and environmentalists feels that (inadequate effort…) and this in turn would let them be confronted with conflicting and confusingstatements about the effect of genetic engineering on agriculture. Such as how ( genetic engineering technology…) & how (transgenic crops…) even more so, they believe that (Gene Engineering goes against religious…) With people thus concerned for their health and the well-being of our lifestyle, the issues related to their concerns need to be addressed.
  • There is a belief among some opponents of genetic engineering technology that transgenic crops might cross-pollinate with related weeds, possibly resulting in “super weeds” that become more difficult to control. This might sound true but sadly, it is not. (resistance to a specific…). Even more so, (most crop plants have…)
  • A major safety concern raised with regard to genetic engineering technology is the risk of introducing allergens and toxins into otherwise safe foods. However, (transgenic technology is…). Moreover, (the food & drug administration…)
  • Nishkarsh ppt (2)

    1. 1. Submitted to :- Mrs.Seema Oberoi Submitted by:- Nishkarsh bansal
    2. 2. Acknowledgement We are thankful to all mighty God that he bestowed us with his blessings. We are equally thankful to all our parents. We have another very important person to thank, our respected Mrs.Seema Oberoi who always inspired us. In this journey we were also glad to have each other, thanks all our teammates. We obviously proved to be the best team ever!!
    3. 3. The term "Green Revolution" is applied to the period from 1967 to 1978. The term "Green Revolution" is a general one that is applied to successful agricultural experiments in many Third World countries. It is NOT specific to India. But it was most successful in India. There were three basic elements in the method of the Green Revolution: • Continued expansion of farming areas - The area of land under cultivation was being increased right from 1947. But this was not enough in meeting with rising demand. The expansion of cultivable land also had to continue. So, the Green Revolution continued with this quantitative expansion of farmlands. • Double-cropping existing farmland - Instead of one crop season per year, the decision was made to have two crop seasons per year. The one- season-per-year practice was based on the fact that there is only natural monsoon per year. This was correct. So, there had to be two "monsoons" per year. One would be the natural monsoon and the other an artificial 'monsoon.‘ • Using seeds with superior genes - It developed new strains of high yield value (HYV) seeds, mainly wheat and rice but also millet and corn. The most noteworthy HYV seed was the K68 variety for wheat.
    4. 4. • Every fruit, vegetable, grain, etc. we see today is the result of genetic modification. Biotechnology refines and extends methods that produce new plants and animals. • Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. For ten thousand years fermentation, a form of biotechnology, has been used to produce wine, beer and bread. Selective breeding of essential foods such as rice, corn and wheat have created thousands of local varieties with improved yield compared to their wild ancestors.
    5. 5. In the past, plant breeders were limited to introducing traits within the same botanical family, such as wheat to wheat. Only pollen from a compatible parent wheat could be used to fertilize the seed-producing plant. The diversity of traits possible from this combination was limited by these genetic compatibility barriers. Today, gene transfer is not confined within cross-breeding species but can cross genetic barriers such as corn to tomato. A gene for a single trait can be
    6. 6. Hybrid is synonymous with heterozygous: any offspring resulting from the mating of two distinctly homozygous individuals. • A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome as a result of structural abnormalities. • A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes having different haploid numbers of chromosomes. • A permanent hybrid is a situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs, because all homozygous combinations are lethal.
    7. 7. Plant species hybridize readily and the resulting hybrids are more fertile hybrids and may reproduce. A number of plant species are the result of hybridization and polyploidy with many plant species easily cross pollinating and producing viable seeds. The distinction between each species is maintained by geographical isolation or differences in the flowering period. These improvements can include the production of more or improved seeds, fruits or other plant parts for consumption, or to make a plant more winter or heat hardy or improve its growth and appearance for use in horticulture.
    8. 8. • Three-way cross hybrids — result from the cross between one parent that is an F1 hybrid and the other is from an inbred line. • Population hybrids — result from the crossing of plants in a population with another population. • Triple cross hybrids — result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids. • Hybrid species - results from hybrid populations evolving reproductive barriers against their parent species through hybrid speciation. Depending on the parents, there are a number of different types of hybrids:- •Single cross hybrids — result from the cross between two true breeding organisms and produces an F1 generation called an F1 hybrid (F1 is short for Filial 1, meaning "first offspring". •Double cross hybrids — result from the cross between two different F1 hybrids.
    9. 9. Genetic engineering………... Genetic engineering is the process that uses the techniques of molecular cloning and transformation to alter the structure and Characteristics of genes. Genetic engineering is about scientists altering the 'recipes' for making life. WHAT? ?
    10. 10. Benefits of Genetic Engineering • Better yield and quality of crops •Improves the lifestyles of humans • Production becomes better in variety and larger in quantity.  Production of super-crops  Bioremediation of the polluted environment
    11. 11. Farmers have been producing foods that have been genetically altered to be more nutritious, delicious, resistant to harmful pesticides and have the ability to repel pests. Genes from naturally drought- resistant plants are used to increase drought tolerance in crop varieties.
    12. 12. Genetic Engineered papaya, SunUp! That is resistant to the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) Homegrown papaya that is affected by the Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)
    13. 13. • Inadequate effort has been made to understand the dangers in the use of transgenic crops • Genetic engineering technology has the risk of introducing allergens and toxins into safe foods. • Transgenic crops might cross-pollinate with related weeds, possibly resulting in “super weeds” that become more difficult to control. • It goes against religious values & ethics
    14. 14. Transgenic crops might produce uncontrollable ‘super weeds’ Resistance to a specific herbicide does not mean that the plant is resistant to other herbicides. Most crop plants have significant limitations in their growth and seed dispersal habits that prevent them from surviving long without constant nurture by humans, and they are thus
    15. 15. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) checks to ensure that the levels of naturally occurring allergens in foods made from transgenic organisms have not significantly increased above the natural range Transgenic technology is being used to remove the allergens from peanuts, one of most serious causes of food allergy.