Social Studies Ch 3 lessons 1 and 2 The Civil War Begins and The Union Victory Leon

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  • 1. Social Studies Chapter 3 Lessons 1 and 2 The Civil War
  • 2. Lesson 1: The War Begins Vocabulary 1. STRATEGY Definition 1. long-range plans to reach a goal 2. BLOCKADE 2. ships blocking a port 3. RETREAT 3. fall back, usually in conflict 4. CASUALTY 4. killer or injured in war 5. EMANCIPATE 5. to set free 6. PREJUDICE 6. unfair dislike of a group of people due to race, background 7. IMMIGRANT 7. someone who comes to a country for a new life
  • 3. People to Know 1. Thomas Jackson 1. Southern General 2. Ulysses S. Grant 2. Northern General 3. Robert E. Lee 3. Southern General 4. Robert Smalls 4. Captured steam boat for North 5. Clara Barton 5. Nurse for North 6. Dorothea Dix 6. Headed Northern nurses 7. Sally Tompkins 7. Ran a Southern hospital 8. Belle Boyd 8. Southern spy
  • 4. Places to Know Manassas Junction or Bull Run Pittsburg Landing or Shiloh Bloodies Day of the War First Major Battle of the War Gave the North Control of a Border State Southern Victory Antietam Creek Northern Victory Northern Victory Virginia Tennessee Maryland
  • 5. The Best Laid Plans Union Strategy Confederate Strategy  Weaken the South and then invade it  Protect their lands from Northern attacks  Win the control of the Mississippi River  Make the war last a long time so the Union would get tired  Blockade Southern ports  Hoped that England and/or France would aid them because  Keep the South from buying or both countries needed the selling with Europe, including cotton the South produced importing weapons
  • 6. Early Battles  Manassas Junction or Bull  Pittsburg Landing or Run Shiloh  July 21, 1861  Virginia    Both armies had about 30,000 untrained troops Looked like a Northern victory General Thomas Jackson saved the day for the South  April 6, 1862  Tennessee  General Grant marched into Tenn. to reclaim it for Union  Important Union victory  Control of Tenn. for the rest of the war
  • 7. Battle of Antietam The Worst Day of the Civil War The Emancipation Proclamation By September of 1862, the North’s President Lincoln had been waiting strategy seemed to be working. for a Union victory to make an Southerners were feeling the pain important announcement. He of no supplies and the war being issued a proclamation freeing all fought on their land. General slaves in captured territory. Lee tried to take the war to the Those who were still controlled North. He made it as far north as by the Confederates would have Antietam, Maryland. There were to wait for the Union Army to 22,000 casualties on both sides. free them, but a change was Lee took his troops back south. coming, and everyone knew it.
  • 8. Contributions from All About 180,000 African Americans joined the Union despite prejudice and mistreatment. European immigrants fought mostly for the North. There were entire regiments of Irish, Italians, and German immigrants.
  • 9. Women in the War Effort Neither side allowed women to serve as soldiers although it later proven that several women dressed as men and fought. Woman on both sides worked a nurses and doctors. Clara Barton is probably the best known nurse for the North. Dorothea Dix was a supervisor of nurses for the North. On the Southern side, Sally Tomkins ran a hospital in Virginia for wounded soldiers. For the South, Belle Boyd was a famous spy.
  • 10. Women’s Warriors Clara Barton Sally Tompkins Belle Boyd Dorothea Dix
  • 11. Sally Tompkins’ Hospital Richmond, Virginia
  • 12. Union and Southern Generals Union Leadership General George Meade was the North’s commander during the early part of the war. Most experts today feel that Meade was a stumbling block to the Union effort. The President finally replaced him with Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who understood how to bring the war to an end. Southern Leadership The South had the best military leadership headed by General Robert E. Lee. Lee was surrounded by capable soldiers, especially Gen. Stonewall Jackson. When Jackson was killed, Lee said, “I’ve lost my right arm.”
  • 13. Generals Lee and Jackson
  • 14. The Road to Union Victory Lesson 2 Gen. Grant Gen. Lee
  • 15. What to Know in Lesson 2 Vocabulary and People to Know Vocab.: Address Ulysses S. Grant Places to Know Vicksburg Chancellorsville Gettysburg George G. Meade Mobile George Pickett Chattanooga David Glasgow Farragut Atlanta William Tecumseh Sherman Savannah Richmond Appomattox Court House
  • 16. May of 1863 President Lincoln Replaced Meade with Grant Vicksburg, Mississippi May of 1863, Grant laid siege to the city. Supply lines were cut. City shelled with canons. On July 4, city surrendered. Important victory for the Union. G It gave them control of the Miss. River. The South was cut in two, and even communication was difficult. Chancellorsville, Virginia Gen. Lee had won a victory for the South, but at a terrible personal cost to him. Gen. Stonewall Jackson was accidently killed by his own troops. Lee knew that Jackson could not be replaced. With Jackson, Lee could have dragged the war out for much longer. Click for Pictures of Gen. Stonewall Jackson
  • 17. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson Born in Parkersburg or Clarksburg, WV “The only true rule for cavalry is to follow the enemy as long as he retreats.” Click for Another Picture of Gen. Jackson
  • 18. Gen. Jackson’s Statue at West Virginia Capitol Click to Return to Presentation
  • 19. The Turning Point: The Battle of Gettysburg Pennsylvania Gen. Lee July 1, 1863, Gen. Lee headed North. His troops met with Gen. Meads Union troops. The battle lasted for three terrible days. Lee ordered Gen. Pickett with his 5,000 men to run across an open field and take a stone wall. Over half of his men were casualties Withdrew from the battle and took his troops back South. Gettysburg was the farthest North the Confederacy would reach. It is often called, “the high water mark of the South.” Click for a picture of Gen. Lee
  • 20. Gen. Lee on His Famous Horse, Traveller Click to Return to Presentation
  • 21. Gettysburg Address On Nov. 19, 1863, President The address ended: Lincoln went to Gettysburg to dedicate a cemetery that held the remains of the men “…that these dead shall not who died in the battle. have died in vain…that There was a crowd of about government of the people, 6,000 people waiting for the by the people, and for the speeches. Lincoln gave an people shall not perish from address of about three the earth.” minutes. It is one of the most famous speeches in American history
  • 22. More Union Victories Gen. Sherman’s March In 1864, Union Gen. Sherman was ordered by Gen. Grant to start at Chattanooga and march In 1864, David G. Farragut with his troops to Atlanta, was in command of the Georgia. When he arrived in Union navy. He ordered his Atlanta, he burned the city. He then started marching to fleet to sail into the harbor Savannah burning and even though the port was destroying everything in his mined. One of his ships was path. He destroyed everything in a trail 60 miles wide and sunk, but he captured the 300 miles long. The Battle of Mobile Bay, Alabama city for the Union.
  • 23. The War Ends In Virginia by 1865, Gen. Grant more-or-less had Gen. Lee on the run. Lee’s army was starving, exhausted, and out of supplies. In April, Confederate troops evacuated Richmond, their capital. As they left, they set the city on fire to keep the Union troops from gaining any advantage. Finally, Lee’s army tried to move west, but they were outnumbered 10 to 1. On April 9, 1865, at a place named Appomattox Court House, Lee surrendered to Grant. It was finally over. More than 600,000 soldiers had died, and the South was left in ruins.
  • 24. Southern Surrender Signed
  • 25. General Lee’s Fate Gen. Lee dressed in his newest uniform and finest boots that fateful morning. When asked why he was dressed so well, he replied, “Gen. Grant will have me hanged on the spot, or I will be shipped off to a Northern prison before they hang me. Either way, I am going to need to be wearing my best clothes.” Neither thing happened. Gen. Grant had him sign the papers, and then told him to return to his home and never pick up weapons against the United States again. Southern soldiers were told the same thing. It was finally over. Enough blood had been shed on both sides.
  • 26. The End of the War Next: The Reconstruction