Project Management


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  • Project management is the art of matching a project's goals, tasks, and resources to accomplish a goal as needed. We say "as needed" because one has limited time, money, and resources (human and machinery) with which to accomplish a goal. One can think of a project as a process. Figure 1 shows this process as a simplified block diagram. The process involves inputs and outputs. Successful projects "do the right things, with the right tools, and in the right way".
  • Project Management

    1. 1. INTRODUCTION Successful projects do the right things, with the right tools, and in the right way. Project management is the art of matching a project's goals, tasks, and resources to accomplish a goal as needed.
    2. 3. Project management <ul><li>What does a project manager do? </li></ul><ul><li>Gaining approval for the project aim and terms of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting and leading the team and setting individual objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring a feasibility study is complete </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring that the project is planned in appropriate detail </li></ul><ul><li>Allocating and monitoring the work and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Motivating the team </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting progress back to the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Helping the team to solve project problems </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve, through the team, the goals </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing and closing down (approvals and sign-offs) </li></ul>
    3. 4. Project variables <ul><li>The three variables to be managed are: </li></ul><ul><li>the time scale (the delivery date); </li></ul><ul><li>the resources used (the cost); </li></ul><ul><li>the quality of the product being developed (meeting the requirements). </li></ul>
    4. 5. THE CYCLE <ul><li>1. Project clarification/Scope </li></ul><ul><li>2. Solution Definition </li></ul><ul><li>3. Project specification </li></ul><ul><li>4. Content Production </li></ul><ul><li>5. Design and implementation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Testing/review and re-dos </li></ul><ul><li>7. Delivery </li></ul><ul><li>8. Maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>9. Review and evaluation </li></ul>
    5. 6. Stage 1: Project clarification or scope <ul><li>WHY? </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION What do you want the project to achieve?
    6. 7. <ul><li>Garbage in = garbage out. </li></ul><ul><li>Defining and clarifying the goals of the project -- what do you want to achieve: </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of this stage: </li></ul><ul><li>Every team member should have an understanding of what must be accomplished. </li></ul><ul><li>A scoping document that lists the goals with a short statement providing some detail and a definition of success. </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION: STAGE 1 SCOPE
    7. 8. <ul><li>What you’re looking for here is a process involving discussing, agreeing and then approving: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The overall aim of the project and the benefit of doing it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The scope (or terms of reference) of the project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The key objectives of the project </li></ul></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION: STAGE 1 SCOPE
    8. 9. Project Plan <ul><li>Title </li></ul>
    9. 10. Project Plan <ul><li>2. Brief synopsis of what you will end up with -- max. 250 words </li></ul>
    10. 11. Project Plan <ul><li>3. Major dates (milestones, </li></ul><ul><li>reviews, delivery) </li></ul>
    11. 12. Project Plan <ul><li>4. Your resources (what do you have to complete the project as envisaged?) </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Questions that must be answered in this stage: </li></ul><ul><li>What is this product designed to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is your target audience? Why will your product appeal to that audience? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the competitive products & services already in the marketplace? </li></ul><ul><li>What is different about your approach to the material? What makes it stand out? </li></ul><ul><li>Why will people come back to your product again and again? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will you get your content (graphics, text, audio)? </li></ul><ul><li>If you can answer these questions, you are ready to move on to the next phase. </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION: STAGE 1 SCOPE
    13. 14. <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly are you trying to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>Make a 3 column table in Word and list each goal down the left-hand column. </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION: STAGE 1 SCOPE
    14. 15. Stage 1: Project clarification/Scope <ul><li>KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are financial and non-financial metrics used to quantify objectives to reflect strategic performance of an organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Key Performance Indicators define a set of values used to measure against. </li></ul><ul><li>* Quantitative indicators which can be presented as a number. </li></ul><ul><li>* Practical indicators that assess company processes. </li></ul><ul><li>* Directional indicators specifying whether an organization is getting better or not. </li></ul><ul><li>* Actionable indicators that are sufficiently in an organization's control to change. </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    15. 16. Stage 1: Project clarification/Scope <ul><li>When identifying KPI's the acronym SMART is often applied. KPI's need to be: </li></ul><ul><li>* Specific </li></ul><ul><li>* Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>* Achievable </li></ul><ul><li>* Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>* Timely </li></ul><ul><li>The key performance indicators (KPIs) you choose for your project must: </li></ul><ul><li>* reflect the goals of your business </li></ul><ul><li>* be critical to its success </li></ul><ul><li>* be measurable and comparable </li></ul><ul><li>* allow for corrective action if things go wrong </li></ul><ul><li>KPIs vary from business to business, depending on their overall goals and key business drivers, ie activities which have a critical impact on business performance. </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    16. 17. Stage 1: Project clarification/Scope <ul><li>KPIs should be measurable </li></ul><ul><li>For each KPI you'll need: </li></ul><ul><li>* title </li></ul><ul><li>* definition </li></ul><ul><li>* stated method of measurement and comparison </li></ul><ul><li>* target </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    17. 18. Competitor Analysis <ul><li>Describe direct competitors in terms of: </li></ul><ul><li>o Target markets served (who are they succeeding with?) </li></ul><ul><li>o Product/service attributes (what is it and what is special about it?). </li></ul><ul><li>o Pricing </li></ul><ul><li>o Promotion (How are they selling themselves?) </li></ul><ul><li>o Distribution including the distributor network How are they getting it out there. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss competitor’s strengths and weaknesses: </li></ul><ul><li>May need to consider much more than just marketing issues such as: </li></ul><ul><li>financial standing </li></ul><ul><li>target market perception </li></ul><ul><li>R & D capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive trends: </li></ul><ul><li>May need to include discussion of future competitive threats </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Post to ning </li></ul><ul><li>3 competitor names </li></ul><ul><li>Urls </li></ul><ul><li>Brief description of their product </li></ul><ul><li>By next week </li></ul>
    19. 20. Analytic Tool: SWOT <ul><li>Discover new opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Manage and eliminate threats. </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT Analysis is a simple but powerful framework for analyzing your company or project's Strengths and Weaknesses, and the Opportunities and Threats you face. This helps you to focus on your strengths, minimize threats, and take the greatest possible advantage of opportunities available to you. </li></ul><ul><li>It is undertaken in response to clear goals. SWOT identifies and helps you eliminate threats that would otherwise catch you unawares. </li></ul>
    20. 21. Analytic Tool: SWOT <ul><li>strengths In looking at your strengths, think about them in relation to your competitors - for example, if all your competitors provide high quality animation, then a high quality animation process is not a strength in the market, it is a necessity. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Analytic Tool: SWOT <ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>* What could you improve? </li></ul><ul><li>* What should you avoid? </li></ul><ul><li>* What are people in your market likely to see as weaknesses? </li></ul><ul><li>* What factors lose you sales/career advancement/etc? </li></ul><ul><li>Again, consider this from an internal and external basis: Do other people seem to perceive weaknesses that you do not see? Are your competitors doing any better than you? It is best to be realistic now, and face any unpleasant truths as soon as possible. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Analytic Tool: SWOT <ul><li>Opportunities : </li></ul><ul><li>* Where are the good opportunities facing you? </li></ul><ul><li>* What are the interesting trends you are aware of? </li></ul><ul><li>Useful opportunities can come from such things as: </li></ul><ul><li>* Changes in technology and markets on both a broad and narrow scale </li></ul><ul><li>* Changes in government policy related to your field </li></ul><ul><li>* Changes in social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>* Local Events </li></ul><ul><li>A useful approach to looking at opportunities is to look at your strengths and ask yourself whether these open up any opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively, look at your weaknesses and ask yourself whether you could open up opportunities by eliminating them. </li></ul>
    23. 24. Analytic Tool: SWOT <ul><li>Threats </li></ul><ul><li>* What obstacles do you face? </li></ul><ul><li>* What is your competition doing? </li></ul><ul><li>* Are the required specifications for your job, products or services changing? </li></ul><ul><li>* Is changing technology threatening your position? </li></ul><ul><li>* Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems? </li></ul><ul><li>* Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business? </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying out this analysis will often be illuminating - both in terms of pointing out what needs to be done, and in putting problems into perspective. </li></ul>
    24. 25. Misc. The future Strengths and weaknesses Distribution Promotion Pricing Product/service Target markets Location Name
    25. 26. <ul><li>Project Title </li></ul><ul><li>Scoping Document </li></ul><ul><li>Prepared by, date </li></ul><ul><li>Project Synopsis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aims and Objectives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key Performance Indicators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Competitors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Deadlines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>7. Key Personnel and Stakeholders </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Stage 2: Solution Definition - HOW? <ul><li>Define project tasks/activities </li></ul><ul><li>Each goal or sub-set of goals should be matched to the tasks required to accomplish them. </li></ul><ul><li>Work Breakdown Structures </li></ul><ul><li>This is a technique to analyse the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its component parts. It is produced by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the key elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking each element down into component parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have been identified. These can then be allocated to the appropriate person. </li></ul></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    27. 29. Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) <ul><li>Network analysis or PERT is used to analyse the inter-relationships between the tasks identified by the work breakdown structure and to define the dependencies of each task. Whilst laying out a PERT chart it is often possible to see that assumptions for the order of work are not logical or could be achieved more cost effectively by re-ordering them. This is particularly true whilst allocating resources; it may become self evident that two tasks cannot be completed at the same time by the same person due to lack of working hours or, conversely, that by adding an extra person to the project team several tasks can be done in parallel thus shortening the length of the project. </li></ul>
    28. 30. PERT chart of the WBS shown above after network analysis as been applied.
    29. 31. Milestone Planning <ul><li>Milestone planning is used to show the major steps that are needed to reach the goal on time. When several tasks have been completed the milestone is reached. </li></ul><ul><li>House Developer’s milestones </li></ul><ul><li>* Planning permission granted </li></ul><ul><li>* Foundations laid </li></ul><ul><li>* Walls constructed </li></ul><ul><li>* Roof built </li></ul><ul><li>* Fixtures, fittings and services completed </li></ul><ul><li>* Garden landscaped </li></ul><ul><li>* House inspected and approved </li></ul><ul><li>* House sold </li></ul>
    30. 32. Stage 3: Project specification -- WHAT? <ul><li>Project brief – business, creative, technical and content requirements. Team members and responsibilities. Sign offs/Milestones. Sitemap/s. Performance indicators. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine and verify resource requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are those things which are needed to accomplish the project goals. </li></ul></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    31. 33. Stage 3: Project specification <ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    32. 34. Stage 3: Project specification <ul><li>Develop a schedule : schedule is the conversion of a project plan into a real timetable. </li></ul><ul><li>GANT CHARTS: A gant chart is a schedule which plots the tasks, people responsible for these tasks, and a timeline. </li></ul>PHASE 1 PRE-PRODUCTION
    33. 36. Other Tasks for this stage: <ul><li>1. Concept design </li></ul><ul><li>2. Content design </li></ul><ul><li>3. Game design </li></ul><ul><li>4. Character design </li></ul><ul><li>5. Interface design </li></ul><ul><li>6. Animation storyboards </li></ul><ul><li>7. Navigation Design </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sound Design </li></ul><ul><li>9. Package Design </li></ul><ul><li>10. Write design document </li></ul><ul><li>11. Write all text and scripts </li></ul><ul><li>12. Test concept & design with potential users, make changes as necessary </li></ul><ul><li>13. Detailed budget and schedule for the production phase </li></ul><ul><li>14. Make sure you have enough hard drive/network space </li></ul><ul><li>15. Become familiar with tools and authoring systems needed for the production phase </li></ul><ul><li>16. Search for and select voice-over talent and video actors, if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Select artists, composers, sound designers, and programmers, if needed </li></ul><ul><li>18. Draw up contracts with anyone you need to employ to execute the project </li></ul>
    34. 37. Questions that must be answered in this stage: <ul><li>* How many people will it take to complete this project? </li></ul><ul><li>* What will it cost? How will you recover your costs? </li></ul><ul><li>* How will you let people know about your product? </li></ul><ul><li>* Exactly what can the user do on each screen? </li></ul><ul><li>* How much video, animation, and audio will need to be created, and how will they be created? What formats will they need to be in? </li></ul><ul><li>* Who is on your team? Who will execute each part of the project, when, and for how much? </li></ul><ul><li>* When will your project be completed? </li></ul><ul><li>* If your project is a commercial venture, who will distribute it? How will you reach your potential customers? </li></ul>
    35. 38. Stage 4: Execute the schedule <ul><li>Typical tasks for this stage: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Set up a schedule for backing up data </li></ul><ul><li>2. Create a directory structure for storing files </li></ul><ul><li>3. Create, process, and compress 2D graphics </li></ul><ul><li>4. Create, process, and compress 3D graphics </li></ul><ul><li>5. Create, process, and compress animation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Shoot original video footage or license stock video </li></ul><ul><li>7. Capture and compress video </li></ul><ul><li>8. Write user documentation </li></ul><ul><li>9. Record, edit, and process voice-over narration </li></ul><ul><li>10. Record, edit, and process sound effects </li></ul><ul><li>11. Compose, record, and process music </li></ul><ul><li>12. Integrate graphics, sound, video, text, and music with an authoring tool. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Create install program, if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Program, test, and improve game play, if any. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Repeat step 10 until it is fun. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Test early versions of the product with potential users. </li></ul><ul><li>17. If changes become necessary, make them as early as possible </li></ul><ul><li>18. Keep design document up to date at all times. </li></ul>PHASE 2 PRODUCTION
    36. 39. Questions that must be answered in this stage: <ul><li>* Is your system organized, so that changes can be made quickly and easily during production? </li></ul><ul><li>* Have you arranged your schedule so that tasks flow smoothly one after another? </li></ul><ul><li>* Is the programmer commenting his/her code, to make it easy to debug? </li></ul><ul><li>* Do the people working for you have all the information they need to do their jobs? </li></ul><ul><li>* Are you frequently testing the product with potential users to make sure they like the way it works? </li></ul><ul><li>* Can you easily track expenses, to know immediately if you are going over budget? </li></ul><ul><li>* Are you regularly backing up your work, in case you have unexpected computer problems? </li></ul><ul><li>* Are the people working for you happy? Are you doing everything you can to reduce their stress? </li></ul><ul><li>* Will your project be done on time and on budget? </li></ul>PHASE 2 PRODUCTION
    37. 40. Stage 7: Project completion and performance assessment STAGES OF A PROJECT AND HOW TO COMPLETE THEM