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  1. 1. By: Yohne, Incilay, & Minahil
  2. 2. -Major Theories -Issue with Knowledge -Responding to? Different From? -Rationalist? Or Empiricist? -Main Vocabulary
  3. 3. Theory of Perception Main Theory
  4. 4. <ul><li>-External world has its foundation in experience and priori concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Proposition: predicate not contained in subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic Proposition: predicate concept contained in subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Kant claims that elementary math is a synthetic, that the statement provides new knowledge, but knowledge gained without experience. </li></ul><ul><li>-Experience depends on necessary conditions (priori) this holds “world’s experience” </li></ul><ul><li>-Experience also based on perception of external objects and priori knowledge from past. </li></ul><ul><li>External World -> Analyze the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Knowledge -> supplies time and space of experienced objects. </li></ul><ul><li>“Thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>We hold some objective of knowledge of the world </li></ul><ul><li>- Knowledge relies on synthetic and laws of nature </li></ul><ul><li>-Subject must create laws that makes the experience exist (must be synthetic and have priori of nature so we know what we will experience before hand)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Experience supplied by mind from the given institution (transcendental deduction)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-Particular knowledge and priori universal to help perceive the subject (not just perceiving at current status)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>- Categories: construction of objects in mind (objects have priori cognition)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-Judgments must be listed and perceptions put to the side (understanding constructs judgment)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-Listing moments deducts from all categories </li></ul><ul><li>-believed all proposition made by Aristotle: proposition equivalent to the moments of understanding within judgments </li></ul><ul><li>-Four Groups </li></ul><ul><li>-Quantity: particular, universal and singular </li></ul><ul><li>-Quality: affirmative, infinitive, negative </li></ul><ul><li>-Relation: Categories. Hypothetical, Disjunctive </li></ul><ul><li>-Modality: Problematic, Assertor, Apodictic </li></ul><ul><li>-Fundamental Building Blocks of Experience: </li></ul><ul><li>-Sensibility supplies mind with intuition </li></ul><ul><li>-Understanding: produces judgments based on intuitions and diving them into categories </li></ul><ul><li>-Categories: takes the intuitions from the subject places them in consciousness and produce universal knowledge. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problem: mind plays a part in creating objective knowledge (Intuitions and Categories are different from each other)‏ -Solution: Transcendental creates concepts with intuitions through time -concepts is always priori and the same goes for categories then it should pertain for all times.
  7. 7. <ul><li>Main Goal: End wars and create peace </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted Constitution Republics (Democratic Peace Theory Created)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Majority rule posed as a intimidation to individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy should: </li></ul><ul><li>Establish management power </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing people to vote against or for even for the people who are not “recognized.” </li></ul><ul><li>This challenged freedom and general will </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Investigates logical category of judgments of taste </li></ul><ul><li>Differences made upon judgment of taste, moral judgment and scientific judgment </li></ul><ul><li>“Beauty is not an artwork but the pleasure of imaginations and understanding.” </li></ul><ul><li>Reason: justifies beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment: not cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment of taste based on emotional response towards the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Universal validity obtained through common sense </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty refers to an undetermined relationship between reason and imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical Sublime: Formless or what appears </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty of reason more superior than sense </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamical Sublime: Senses acts as an imagination </li></ul><ul><li>The subject makes us feel pleasure and sense of moral satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>“Judgment of Taste” -material value to society </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>During 1760’s-1770’s took a naturalistic approach in understanding the psychological grounds for human freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>“Groundwork of the Metaphysics he rejected this approach </li></ul><ul><li>Section III of Groundwork proved failure when he attempted metaphysic for ethics </li></ul><ul><li>- appealed “fact of reason” gave up attempt in creating a foundation of fundamental principle in morals. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Kant's problem in respect to speculative reason was to show how knowledge was possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Kant's problem in respect to practical reason was to show how moral judgments are possible. Kant's understanding of scientific knowledge greatly influences his view of morality. For Kant knowledge, both scientific and moral, must be universal and necessary. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Within Intelligence <ul><li>“ Kant believes that to extend knowledge to the supersensible realm of speculative metaphysics. The reason that knowledge has these constraints, Kant argues, is that the mind plays an active role in constituting the features of experience and limiting the mind's access to the empirical realm of space and time.”( </li></ul><ul><li>Basically Kant differed from all other philosopher’s because he was so out spoken, and argued for something that all others didn’t agree with </li></ul><ul><li>He went against, many individuals beliefs to only prove his belifes, he was a strong and very influential philosopher that many took his word very seriously at his time, he always stood up after his word and made a statemeant wth whatever he was proving </li></ul><ul><li>Because he was known for all the years in school that he studied everyone trusted his word “ younger generation saw Kant as their intellectual leader.” ( </li></ul>
  12. 12. Rationalist or Empiricist? <ul><li>Wanted to prove, that although our knowledge is derived from experience, it is possibl e to have knowledge of objects in advance of experience. He w anted to prove that both empiricism and rationale can help us understand the philosophy of Truth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both reason and the senses can be a source of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all contents that are existent in ones mind are perceived through the senses but are ultimately held together by the mind or by using reason. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>he believed that truth could be found of in transcendentalism: combining the experiences from the world and the fundamental validity of an idea or statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We cannot completely recognize objects without the use of our sensory and mental apparatus. We don't make up reality,it exists independently of us </li></ul>
  13. 13. Glossary <ul><li>Synthetic Proposition: predicate not contained in subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic Proposition: predicate concept contained in subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical Proposition : entirely dependant on sense perception </li></ul><ul><li>The Forms of Intuition: Space (the outer form, spatial relations of geometry) Time (the inner form, linear succession of arithmetic) </li></ul><ul><li>Priori Truths (also in the form of a proposition): Truth which is independent of experience, a necessary truth </li></ul><ul><li>Posteriori Truths: Truth which is based on experience, contingent </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic Judgment: A judgment in which the concept of the predicate term is found in the concept of the subject term. (often called true by definition) </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic Judgment: A judgment in which the concept of the predicate term in not found in the concept of the subject term. Kant's task is to show how synthetic a priori truths are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Speculative reason: is the faculty of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Practical reason: is the faculty of choice (the Will) </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of Consciousness : all thoughts, beliefs, impressions, hopes etc are unified in a single consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Supersensible: Beyond the range of what is perceptible by the senses; not belonging to the experience able physical world </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphysics: the philosophical study of being and knowing </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology: The study of the nature knowledge and justification </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics: the philosophical study of moral values and rules </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics: The philosophy or study of the nature of beauty and art </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>