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  2. 2. Limestone Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or CAco3 Molecular Structure foraminifera.
  3. 3. Erosion of limestone Limestone makes up about 10% of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karts landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone Erosion of limestone bedrock.
  4. 4. Limestone Limestone has numerous uses, including as building material, as aggregate to form the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or A building made up of limestone paints, and as a chemical feedstock.
  5. 5. Limestone  The Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its outside cover is made entirely fromGreat pyramid of Giza limestone
  6. 6. Limestone quarry in Virginia U.S.A
  7. 7. Limestone in middle ages Limestone was also a very popular building block in the Middle Ages. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Beer stone was a popular kind of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England. Sydoriv Castle, in Ukraine Made up of limestone
  8. 8. Limestone Caves A stalactite is a type of speleothem (secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling of limestone caves. It is a type of dripstone. The corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as Limestone Cave in U.S.A a stalagmite.
  9. 9. UNDERGROUND LIMESTONE FEUTURES Stalactite: They are formed when rain water falls from the roof of the cavern evaporating the water and depositing calcium carbonate(calcite).
  10. 10. Limestone Chalk  Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite plates shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Chalk canLimestone Chalk also refer to other compounds including magnesium silicate and calcuim sulfate.
  11. 11. Other limestone types: Fossiliferous Limestone Oolitic Limestone A limestone that  A limestone composed contains obvious and mainly of calcium abundant fossils. These carbonate "oolites", small are normally shell and spheres formed by the skeletal fossils of the concentric precipitation of calcium carbonate on organisms that a sand grain or shell produced the fragment. limestone.
  12. 12. UNDERGROUND LIMESTONE FEUTURES Cavern: They are created when water runes underground and a chemical reaction causes limestone to be eroded, this continues to create a cavern.
  13. 13. UNDERGROUND LIMESTONE FEUTURES  CHEMICAL WEATHERINGChemical weathering is the process at which limestone is weathered to create caverns and caves. CaCO3 + H2O + CO2 (Limestone (water) (Carbon dioxide calcium from the carbonate) atmosphere) Ca(HCO3)2 Calcium bicarbonate
  14. 14. UNDERGROUND LIMESTONE FEUTURES Malham cove: It has 3 types of rock: Silurian limestone, Combrifirous limestone, Bowland Shales. There is impervious rock where the surface rivers are and then porous rock where the swallow holes are this allows for the erosion of the limestone so cave and caverns can be created. This is essential for the creation of stalagmites and stalactites.
  15. 15. USES OF LIMESTONE It is the raw material for the manufacture of quicklime (calcium oxide), slaked lime(calcium hydroxide), cement and mortar. Pulverized limestone is used as a soil conditioner to neutralize acidic soils. It is crushed for use as aggregate—the solid base for many roads. Geological formations of limestone are among the best petroleum reservoirs; As a reagent in flue-gas desulfurization, it reacts with sulphur dioxide for air pollution control. Glass making, in some circumstances, uses limestone. It is added to toothpaste, paper, plastics, paint, tiles, and other materials as both white pigment and a cheap filler.
  16. 16. USES OF LIMESTONE It can suppress methane explosions in underground coal mines. Purified, it is added to bread and cereals as a source of calcium. Calcium levels in livestock feed are supplemented with it, such as for poultry (when ground up). It can be used for remineralizing and increasing the alkalinity of purified water to prevent pipe corrosion and to restore essential nutrient levels. Used in blast furnaces, limestone extracts iron from its ore. It is often found in medicines and cosmetics. It is used in sculptures because of its suitability for carving.
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  19. 19. b7c The End Hecho por: Pablo Bilbao Ignacio Sádaba Javier Lavilla Lucas Ibañez