Tsunaminature’s  fury<br />
CONTENTs<br /><ul><li>Introduction
  Causes
  Characteristics
  Drawback
  Warnings and predictions
  Tsunami in history  </li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />A tsunami is a series of water waves that is caused by the disp...
CAUSES<br />Most  tsunamis are generated by underwater earthquakes. A tsunami can be generated when convergent or destruct...
CHARACTERISTICS<br />Whenthe wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases. The wave furth...
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Tsunami nature’s fury

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Tsunami nature’s fury

  1. 1. Tsunaminature’s fury<br />
  2. 2. CONTENTs<br /><ul><li>Introduction
  3. 3. Causes
  4. 4. Characteristics
  5. 5. Drawback
  6. 6. Warnings and predictions
  7. 7. Tsunami in history </li></li></ul><li>Introduction<br />A tsunami is a series of water waves that is caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, such as an ocean. Due to the immense volumes of water and energy involved, tsunamis can devastate coastal regions. Casualties can be high because the waves move faster than humans can run. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (detonations of nuclear devices at sea), landslides and other mass movements, and other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Tsunami and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving the impression of an incredibly high tide.<br />
  8. 8. CAUSES<br />Most tsunamis are generated by underwater earthquakes. A tsunami can be generated when convergent or destructive plate boundaries abruptly move and vertically displace the overlying water. Seduction zone related earthquakes generate the majority of tsunami. Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength, which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea. tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas. Tsunamis caused by these mechanisms, unlike the trans-oceanic tsunamis may dissipate quickly and rarely affect distant coastlines due to the small sea area affected. These events can give rise to much larger local shock waves. Most tsunamis are caused by submarine earthquakes which dislocate the oceanic crust, pushing water upwards. Tsunami can also be generated by erupting submarine volcanoes ejecting magma into the ocean. A gas bubble erupting in a deep part of the ocean can also trigger a tsunami.<br />
  9. 9. CHARACTERISTICS<br />Whenthe wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases. The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits land. Only the largest waves crest. While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has a wavelength of about 200 kilometres (120 mi). As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, wave shoaling compresses the wave and its velocity slows below 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph). Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously, producing a distinctly visible wave. Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front. About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but are possible wherever there are large bodies of water, including lakes. They may be caused by landslides, volcanic explosions, bolides and seismic activity.<br />
  10. 10. DRAWBACK<br />If the first part of a tsunami to reach land is a trough (called a drawback) rather than a wave crest, the water along the shoreline recedes dramatically, exposing normally submerged areas. A drawback occurs because the tectonic plate on one side of the fault line sinks suddenly during the earthquake, causing the overlaying water to propagate outwards with the trough of the wave at its front. Drawback begins before the wave's arrival at an interval equal to half of the wave's period. If the slope of the coastal seabed is moderate, drawback can exceed hundreds of meters. People unaware of the danger sometimes remain near the shore to satisfy their curiosity or to collect fish from the exposed seabed. During the Indian Ocean tsunami, the sea withdrew and many people went onto the exposed sea bed to investigate. Pictures show people walking on the normally submerged areas with the advancing wave in the background. Few survived.<br />
  11. 11. Warnings and predictions<br />Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who observe drawback can survive only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors of nearby buildings. In 2004, ten-year old Tilly Smith of Surrey, England, was on Maikhao in Phuket, Thailand with her parents and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told her family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned others minutes before the wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She credited her geography teacher, Andrew Kearney.A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted—even if the right magnitude of an earthquake occurs in the right location. Geologist, oceanographers, and seismologists analyses each earthquake and based upon many factors may or may not issue a tsunami warning. However, there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami, and automated systems can provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of the most successful systems uses bottom pressure sensors that are attached to buoys. The sensors constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column. Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami warning systems to warn the population before the wave reaches land. On the west coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami, warning signs indicate evacuation routes. As a direct result of the Indian Ocean tsunami, a re-appraisal of the tsunami threat for all coastal areas is being undertaken by national governments and the United Nations Disaster Mitigation Committee. A tsunami warning system is currently being installed in the Indian Ocean.Computer models can predict tsunami arrival—predicted arrival times are usually within minutes of the actual time. Bottom pressure sensors relay information in real time and based upon the pressure readings and other seismic information and the seafloor's shape and coastal Topography, the models estimate the amplitude and surge height of the approaching tsunami.<br />
  12. 12. TSUNAMI IN HISTORY<br />Tsunami are not rare, with at least 25 tsunami occurring in the last century. Of these, many were recorded in the Asia–Pacific region—particularly Japan. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami killed over 200,000 people with many bodies either being lost to the sea or unidentified.As early as 426 B.C the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami, and was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause. The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave, after the 365 A.D. tsunamidevastated Alexandria .<br />
  13. 13. Created by INAMUL HUSSAIN<br />KAMALABARI, MAJULI<br />JORHAT, <br />ASSAM <br />Email: inamulhussain121@gmail.com<br />

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