Gr. 8, Information System and Its Types

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An Introduction.

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  • 1. Information System and its types with example Irsam Nageen 3041 Anam Zulfiqar 3040 Hira Tahir 3037 Adnan Khadim 3038 Ateeq 3039 Submitted to Inam ul Haq University of Education, Okara Campus Next
  • 2. Contents Information Systems Components of IS Types of IS Transaction processing system Examples TPS Cycle Features of TPS Advantages of TPS Types of TPS Management Information system Management Elements Levels of MIS What is MI What is MIS Role of MIS Types of MIS Advantages of MIS Outputs of MIS Decision Support System Categories Tools for IM Examples Main Components Characterizing DSS Passive System Active System Issues Criteria Design Cycle
  • 3. INFORMATIONSYSTEM Acombinationofhardware,software,infrastructureandtrainedpersonnelorganizedto facilitateplanning,control,coordination,anddecisionmakinginanorganization. Componentsofinformationsystem Definitions Data Inputthesystemtakestoproduceinformation Hardware Acomputeranditsperipheralequipment:input,outputandstoragedevices;hardwarealsoincludesdata communicationequipment Software Setsofinstructionsthattellthecomputerhowtotakedatain,howtoprocessit,howtodisplayinformation,and howtostoredataandinformation Telecommunications Hardwareandsoftwarethatfacilitatesfasttransmissionandreceptionoftext,pictures,sound,andanimationin theformofelectronicdata People Informationsystemsprofessionalsanduserswho analyzeorganizationalinformationneeds,designand constructinformationsystems, writecomputerprograms,operatethehardware,andmaintainsoftware Procedures Rulesforachievingoptimalandsecureoperationsindataprocessing;proceduresincludeprioritiesin dispensingsoftwareapplicationsandsecuritymeasures Site Map UniversityofEducation,Okara Campus 3
  • 4. TYPESOFIS Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 4 There are many types of IS , some of these are followings •Transaction Processing System(TPS) •Management information system (MIS) •Decision support system (DSS) •Executive Support System (ESS) •Knowledge management system (KMS) •Learning management system (LMS) •Database management System (DBMS) •Office information system (OIS)
  • 5. TransactionProcessingSystem(TPS) Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 5 Transaction processing systems are designed to process the day-to-day transactions of an organization so that many labor-intensive business transactions can be replaced by automated processes. These transactions have characteristics of large numbers and routine processes. Each process has a very simple data transaction, and TPS is expected to process each one in a very short period of time. Examples are super market grocery check out (billing systems) or bank transaction processes, Airline Reservation System, Payroll Processing System, Transport Ticket Reservation System, Purchase Order Entry Systems and Markets Tabulation System.
  • 6. TPS Cycle Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 6 The process of data collection, data editing, data collection, data manipulation, data storage and document production. Data Manipulation: The process of capturing and gathering all data necessary to complete transactions Data Editing: The process of checking data for validity and completeness. Data Correction: The process of miskeyed or misscanned data that was found during data editing. Data Manipulation: The process of performing calculations and other data transformations related to business transaction. Data Storage: The process of updating one or more databases with new transaction. Data Production: The process of generation output records and reports.
  • 7. Features of TPS Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 7 Rapid response – fast performance with rapid results • Reliability – well designed backup and recovery with a low failure rate • Inflexibility – treat every transaction equally. It may be used many times each day which means it has to be precise and inflexible • Controlled processing – maintain specific requirements for the roles and responsibilities of different employees.
  • 8. Advantages of TPS Ensure data and information integrity and accuracy Produce timely documents and reports Increase labor efficiency Help provide increased and enhanced service Help build and maintain customer loyalty Achieve competitive advantage Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 8
  • 9. TypesofTPS BatchProcessingsystem: Batchprocessingiswheretheinformationiscollectedas abatchandthenprocessedlateron.Anexampleofbatch processingispayingbycheque. Batchprocessingisusefulforenterprisesthatneedto processlargeamountsofdatausinglimitedresources RealTimeProcessing Realtimeprocessingiswhereall detailsofthe transactionarerecordedandchangedatthetimeasit occurs.ExamplesofrealtimeprocessingareATM’s. Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 9
  • 10. References Main Menu Site Map UniversityofEducation,OkaraCampus 10
  • 12. Useful informationfor management decisions Comprisesprocesseddata (information), necessaryfor makingmanagementdecisionsand generally givesoutputin the form of tables, matrix, reports, dashboards,graphs, trends, etc for logical and analyticalcomparisons. Viz. Market trend reports,sales report, IT applicationusage reports,Management dashboards,businessinformationreports, researchreports, etc. Management Information System
  • 13. What is MIS? MIS is basically a software tool which gives a holistic report of processed information based on which management can take certain crucial decision on which strategy and tactics could be figured out MIS provides information that is needed to manage organizations efficiently and effectively MIS is any organized approach for obtaining relevant and timely information on which managerial decisions are based MIS facilitates the decision making process and enable the organizational planning, control, and operational functions to be carried out effectively MIS is a study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems.
  • 14. MIS must have Right Information To Right Person At Right Place At Right Time In the Right Form At Right Cost Role of MIS Effective decision making based upon: Quality analysis Cost & budget analysis Risk analysis Market analysis Inventory analysis SWOT analysis Stakeholder analysis Feedback analysis Behavior analysis
  • 15. Typesof MIS Management information systems (MIS), produce fixed, regularly scheduled reports based on data extracted and summarized from the firm’s underlying transaction processing systems to middle and operational level managers to identify and inform structured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision support systems (DSS) are computer program applications used by middle management to compile information from a wide range of sources to support problem solving and decision making. Executive information systems (EIS) is a reporting tool that provides quick access to summarized reports coming from all company levels and departments such as accounting, human resources and operations. Marketing information systems are MIS designed specifically for managing the marketing aspects of the business. Office automation systems (OAS) support communication and productivity in the enterprise by automating work flow and eliminating bottlenecks. OAS may be implemented at any and all levels of management.
  • 16. Advantagesof MIS Companies are able to highlight their strengths and weaknesses due to the presence of revenue reports, employees' performance record etc. The identification of these aspects can help the company improve their business processes and operations. Giving an overall picture of the company and acting as a communication and planning tool. The availability of the customer data and feedback can help the company to align their business processes according to the needs of the customers. The effective management of customer data can help the company to perform direct marketing and promotion activities. Information is considered to be an important asset for any company in the modern competitive world. The consumer buying trends and behaviors can be predicted by the analysis of sales and revenue reports from each operating region of the company.
  • 17. Outputs of MIS Scheduled reports Produced periodically, or on a schedule (daily, weekly, monthly) Key-indicator report Summarizes the previous day’s critical activities Typically available at the beginning of each day Demand report Gives certain information at a manager’s request Exception report Automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action
  • 18. DecisionSupport System A DSS is typically built to support the solution of a certain problem or to evaluate an opportunity. Advantages Time savings Enhance effectiveness Improve interpersonal communication. Competitive advantage. Cost reduction. Increase decision maker satisfaction. Promote learning. Increase organizational control. A DSS::= an approach for supporting decision making. It uses an interactive, flexible, adaptable computer-based information system CBIS especially developed for supporting the solution to a specific non-structured management problem A clinical decision-support system is any computer program designed to help health professionals make clinical decisions. In a sense, any computer system that deals with clinical data or medical knowledge is intended to provide decision support. Three types of decision-support function, ranging from generalized to patient specific.
  • 19. categories Generating alerts and reminders Diagnostic assistance Therapy critiquing and planning Image recognition and interpretation Tools for Information Management Examples: Hospital information systems Bibliographic retrieval systems (PubMed) Specialized knowledge-management workstations (e.g. electronic textbooks, …) These tools provide the data and knowledge needed, but they do not help to apply that information to a particular decision task (particular patient)
  • 20. Tools for focusingIntention Examples: Clinical laboratory systems that flag abnormal values or that provide lists of possible explanations for those abnormalities. Pharmacy systems that alert providers to possible drug interactions or incorrect drug dosages Are designed to remind the physician of diagnoses or problems that might be overlooked. Tools for Patient-Specific Consultation Provide customized assessments or advice based on sets of patient-specific data: Suggest differential diagnoses Advice about additional tests and examinations Treatment advice (therapy, surgery, …)
  • 21. Tools for Patient-SpecificConsultation Provide customized assessments or advice based on sets of patient-specific data: Suggest differential diagnoses Advice about additional tests and examinations Treatment advice (therapy, surgery, …) Alternative (more specific) Definition Clinical decision support systems are active knowledge systems which use two or more items of patient data to generate case-specific advice. Main components: Medical knowledge Patient data Case-specific advice Characterizing Decision-Support Systems System function Determining what is true about a patient (e.g. correct diagnosis) Determining what to do (what test to order, to treat or not, what therapy plan a…) The mode for giving advice Passive role (physician uses the system when advice needed) Active role (the system gives advice automatically under certain conditions)
  • 22. PassiveSystem The user has total control: Requires advice Analyses the advice Accepts/Rejects the advice Domain of use: Wide domain like internal medicine Examples: QMR, DXPLAIN Narrow domain Acute abdominal pain Analysis of ECG Passive Systems (cont.) Characteristics: Stand-alone Data entry: System initiative User initiative Consultation style Consulting model Critiquing model
  • 23. ActiveSystem The user has partial control System gives advice User evaluates the advice The user accepts/rejects the advice Domain of use Limited domain Drug interactions Protocol conformance control Laboratory results warnings Medical devices control Active Systems (cont.) Characteristics Built-in/integrated with other system (e.g. laboratory information system, or pharmacy system) Data entry By the user Related to the main application Consultation style Critiquing model Examples: HELP (advices and reminders, therapy) CARE (reminders)
  • 24. Need for CDSS Limited resources - increased demand Physicians are overwhelmed. Insufficient time available for diagnosis and treatment. Need for systems that can improve health care processes and their outcomes in this scenario Possible Disadvantages of CDSS Changing relation between patient and the physician Limiting professionals’ possibilities for independent problem solving Legal implications - with whom does the onus of responsibility lie? Issues for success or failure Evaluation of User Needs Top management support Commitment of expert Integration Issues Human Computer Interface Incorporation of domain knowledge Consideration of social and organisational context of the CDSS
  • 25. Evaluationof Clinical DecisionSupport Systems Evaluation of Clinical Decision Support Systems Criteria for success of CDSS Aspects for consideration during evaluation Criteria for a clinically useful DSS Knowledge based on best evidence Knowledge fully covers problem Knowledge can be updated Data actively used drawn from existing sources Performance validated rigorously Criteria for a clinically useful DSS (cont.) System improves clinical practice Clinician is in control The system is easy to use The decisions made are transparent Aspects for Evaluation of a CDSS The process used to develop the system The systems essential structure Evidence of accuracy, generality and clinical effectiveness The impact of the resource on patients and other aspects of the health care environment
  • 26. DesignCycleFor developmentCDSS Design Cycle for the development of a CDSS Planning Phase Research Phase System Analysis and conceptual phase Design Phase Construction phase Further Development phase Maintenance, documentation and adaptation
  • 27. References t Chap2.ppt a.ppt