Gr 1: History of Information Systems and its Importance


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Basic Components of Information System

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Gr 1: History of Information Systems and its Importance

  1. 1. Introduction to IS Group No.1
  2. 2. What is Information System (IS)? Means a system for generating, sending, receiving, storing or otherwise processing electronic communications; A combination of hardware, software, infrastructure and trained personnel organized to facilitate planning, control, coordination, and decision making in an organization.
  3. 3. Historical Perspective  Information Systems have been around a long time.  People have always been the backbone of an IS
  4. 4. Historical Perspective  Previous to computers, telephones were probably the biggest innovation that improved information systems.  Previous to telephones, Paper was the big innovation.  What will be the next big thing?
  5. 5. Historical Perspective Year Activity  Mainframe computers were used  Computers and data were centralized  Systems were tied to a few business functions: payroll, inventory, billing  1970  Programming in COBOL (completely absolute business oriented language)
  6. 6. Historical Perspective Year Activity  Main focus was to automate existing processes  PCs and LANs are installed  Departments set up own computer systems  End-user computing with Word Processors and Spreadsheets makes departments less dependent on the IT department  1980  PC support, basic networking
  7. 7. Historical Perspective Year Activity  Main focus is automating existing processes  Wide Area Networks (WANs) become corporate standards  Senior management looks for system integration and data integration. No more stand-alone systems  1990  Network support, systems integration, database administration
  8. 8. Historical Perspective Year Activity  Main focus is central control and corporate learning  Wide Area Networks expand via the Internet to include global enterprises and business partners – supply chain and distribution  Senior management looks for data sharing across systems  2000  Network support, systems integration
  9. 9. Historical Perspective Year Activity  Main focus is efficiencies and speed in inventory, manufacturing, distribution, Transaction processing system, Decision support system etc.  Current situation after 2000  Network support, systems integration  Team work
  10. 10. Importance of Information Systems in an Organization  Communication:  An information systems can make communication process more efficient by allowing managers to communicate rapidly. Email is quick and effective, but managers can use information systems even more efficiently by storing documents in folders that they share with the employees who need the information.  Operations:  You can use information systems to gain a cost advantage over competitors or to differentiate yourself by offering better customer service. Sales data give you insights about what customers are buying and let you stock or produce items that are selling well.
  11. 11. Importance of Information Systems in an Organization  Decisions:  The company information system can help you make better decisions by delivering all the information you need and by modeling the results of your decisions. If more than one choice looks appealing, you can use the information system to run different scenarios. For each possibility, the system can calculate key indicators such as sales, costs and profits to help you determine which alternative gives the most beneficial result. AIMMS  Records:  The information system stores documents and revision histories, communication records and operational data. You can use such information to prepare cost estimates and forecasts and to analyze how your actions affected the key company indicators.
  12. 12. AIMMS (Advanced Interactive Multidimensional Modeling System)
  13. 13. Components of an Information System
  14. 14. Computer Hardware Technologies  Examples  Dell PowerEdge 2600 File Server  Apple PowerBook G4  Sony LCD Flat Panel Monitor  iPod  IDAutomation USB Barcode Scanner  RFID Chip
  15. 15. Computer Software Technology  Examples  Windows XP  Graphics Card Driver Software  PowerPoint  mySAP Customer Relationship Management  Peachtree Accounting  iTunes Software
  16. 16. Telecommunications Network Technologies  Examples  Ethernet  Netgear Wireless Router  Cable Modem  Cell Phone  WiFi, WiMax  Bluetooth
  17. 17. Data Resource Management Technologies  Examples  IBM DB2 8.2  Microsoft SQL Server 2000  Oracle Database 10g  MySQL  Data Mining Software
  18. 18. People Technology   People are the 5th component of an Information System  Everyone forgets the importance of people in an information system.  Example: End User, Data Entry Person, Manager, Programmer, DB Administrator, Cashier, Secretary, Professor.
  19. 19. IT for E-commerce
  20. 20. Transaction Processing System (TPS)  Supports Operations  Updates Operational Databases  Examples:  ATM Machine System – Banking Transactions  Cash Register System – Point of Sale Transactions  Accounting System – Checking Account Transactions  Even Pay-per-view or OnDemand is a TPS
  21. 21. Management Information System (MIS)  Supports Management (duh?)  Analysis & Reporting  Charts, Graphs, Summary Tools  Examples:  SCT Banner – Managing College Information (Siena uses it)  Spreadsheet (Excel) – One of the first and most basic  Oracle's Corporate Performance Management
  22. 22. Decision Support System (DSS)
  23. 23. Decision Support System (DSS)  Support Management  What-if Analysis, Decision Modeling, Scenario Building, Highly interactive, ad hoc.  Examples  Enterprise Decision Manager 2.0 Fair Isaac Corporation  AIMMS 3.6  Most DSS’s are custom developed for specific companies; very few out-of-the-box products.
  24. 24. References     2&ved=0CGQQFjAG& PL2PgKAP&usg=AFQjCNHk_F-Tj4bxIeAspqT- UuJ5L37t0g&sig2=XUNJm5rybknNxC6UvhnNZQ&bvm=bv.65397613,d.ZWU   2&ved=0CHYQFjAI& 97.pdf&ei=0qpYU630L42wPL2PgKAP&usg=AFQjCNEA7ylJGWZRg- DdKIlmE7fQqhWR6A&sig2=IBcRnqvN8nmaK4B5lP43PQ&bvm=bv.65397613,d.ZWU      systems-Information-systems-consist-of-three?topicId=287895