University of Education, Okara Campus

1
•In 1965 DENDRAL was
used in expert system
•MYCIN was developed in
1976

University of Education, Okara Campus

2
WHY MYCIN
 Disease diagnosis and therapy selection
 Advise for non expert physicians with time

consideration and incomp...
PROBLEM BEFORE MYCIN
• ROBERTS AND VISCONTI:-

 Only 13% patients are treated rationally
 66% are being given irrational...
DEVELOPMENT OF MYCIN
• Developed by ADWARD SHORTLIFFE in 1976

a STANFORD UNIVERSITY in the artificial intelligence
in med...
HOW MYCIN WAS TESTED FOR
ACCURACY
• 10 patients for a particular disease were chosen

• Their information was sent to 8 ph...
WHO WON FROM THE TEST
• MYCIN won the test
• MYCIN received the highest score as for as

accuracy and effectiveness of dia...
STAGES IN DAIGNOSIS AND
TREATMENT

• Decide if there is significant infection

• Identify the causing organism(s) by clini...
RESULTS
 Never implemented for routine clinical use
 Shown to be competent by panels of experts even in

case where expe...
PROBLEMS
• If the system gives an incorrect diagnosis, who is

to be blamed or sued
• Physicians rely to heavily on system...
Resources


Wikipedia Page




Building Expert Systems in Prolog






Available at: http://www.amzi.com/ExpertSyste...
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Expert System (examples)

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Expert System (examples)

  1. 1. University of Education, Okara Campus 1
  2. 2. •In 1965 DENDRAL was used in expert system •MYCIN was developed in 1976 University of Education, Okara Campus 2
  3. 3. WHY MYCIN  Disease diagnosis and therapy selection  Advise for non expert physicians with time consideration and incomplete evidence as  Bacterial infections of the blood  Extended to other elements University of Education, Okara Campus 3
  4. 4. PROBLEM BEFORE MYCIN • ROBERTS AND VISCONTI:-  Only 13% patients are treated rationally  66% are being given irrational treatment  21% are being given questionable treatment • IRRATIONAL MEANS, FOR EXAMPLE: Using a contra-indicated combination  Using the wrong agent for a specific organisms  Not taking the required culture University of Education, Okara Campus 4
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF MYCIN • Developed by ADWARD SHORTLIFFE in 1976 a STANFORD UNIVERSITY in the artificial intelligence in medicine group • First system that was implemented into the medical field University of Education, Okara Campus 5
  6. 6. HOW MYCIN WAS TESTED FOR ACCURACY • 10 patients for a particular disease were chosen • Their information was sent to 8 physicians and MYCIN • All then came up with recommended treatment • Those recommendations along with what the patient actually received as treatment was sent to 8 unidentified specialists University of Education, Okara Campus 6
  7. 7. WHO WON FROM THE TEST • MYCIN won the test • MYCIN received the highest score as for as accuracy and effectiveness of diagnosis University of Education, Okara Campus 7
  8. 8. STAGES IN DAIGNOSIS AND TREATMENT • Decide if there is significant infection • Identify the causing organism(s) by clinical and laboratory evidence • Decide what antibiotic agent the organisms are sensitive to • Prescribe the optimal drug combination for particular case University of Education, Okara Campus 8
  9. 9. RESULTS  Never implemented for routine clinical use  Shown to be competent by panels of experts even in case where experts themselves disagreed on conclusions  Key contributions  Reuse of production rules( expansion knowledge aquision ) University of Education, Okara Campus 9
  10. 10. PROBLEMS • If the system gives an incorrect diagnosis, who is to be blamed or sued • Physicians rely to heavily on system instead of consulting other experts University of Education, Okara Campus 10
  11. 11. Resources  Wikipedia Page   Building Expert Systems in Prolog    Available at: http://www.amzi.com/ExpertSystemsInProlog/xsipfrtop.htm Artificial Intelligence - A modern Approach by Stuart Rassell, Peter Norvig PC AI – Expert Systems   Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expert_system Available at: http://www.pcai.com/web/ai_info/expert_systems.html VisiRule Web Demos (A simple example): http://www.lpa.co.uk/vrs_dem.htm University of Education, Okara Campus 11
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