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  • Functional:
    Planning: what to do and how to do it. an outline is a plan. Organizing: structuring various resources such as staffing for human resources Commanding: giving instructions to make things happen. it can be general or specific. ( general) make and sell cookies maximizing freshness and minimizing waste; (specific) follow this procedure for deciding when to make cookies and how to sell them. Coordinating: interrelating and harmonizing activities.
    Controlling: ensure that plans are carried out properly
    It is interacting with others as a figure head (social, ceremonial. legal duties), leader(motivate and activate subordinate), liaison (networking), follower (subordinate), or peer.
    The interpersonal roles require communication. In Informational role one is monitor, disseminator, or spokesperson.
    entrepreneur (seek and seize opportunities to set a new direction), disturbance handler (devise corrective action), resource allocator (), negotiator (bargain)
  • DSS

    1. 1. Inam Ul-Haq Lecturer in Computer Science University of Education Okara Campus organizer@dfd-charity.com, inam.bth@gmail.com DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Decision Support Systems 1
    2. 2. • • • • • • • Define DSS Decision Making / Problem Solving Decision Making Process DSS Incorporates types of IS Basic Themes & Taxonomy of DSS DSS Benefits and Components Applications & Categories DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Contents 2
    3. 3. • A computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. • OR • Interactive computer-based systems, which help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. [Gorry and Scott-Morton (1971)] • OR • Decision support systems couple the intellectual resources of individuals with the capabilities of the computer to improve the quality of decisions. It is a computer-based support system for management decision makers who deal with semi-structured problems. [Keen and Scott-Morton (1978)] • What do managers do? DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Decision Support System • Functions: • Plan, organize, command, coordinate, control. • Roles • Interpersonal, informational, decisional 3
    4. 4. Decision Making/ Problem Solving external Info Target problem goals reports queries info DATA DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Decision makers DECISIONS Information systems 4
    5. 5. Decision Making Process • Decision making process • Intelligence • Sensing, finding, identifying, and defining problem/opportunity • Diagnosing the problem/opportunity • Generating alternatives • Choice • Choosing the best alternative • Implementation • Adopting the selected course of action in decision situation. DSS, University of Education Okara Campus • Design 5 • E.g. MS Excel for Merit List, Grade Distribution
    6. 6. DSS Incorporates Types of Info Systems Executive Information Systems Expert Systems Information Reporting Systems Transaction Processing Systems 3Types of Decisions Unstructured Decision Structured Semi-structured DSS, University of Education Okara Campus • • • • 100% 0% 6
    7. 7. • • • • • • Information system. Used by managers for making decisions. Used to support, not to replace people. Used when the decision is "semi-structured" or "unstructured." Incorporate a database of some sort. Incorporate models. DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Basic Themes of DSS 7
    8. 8. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A communication-driven DSS supports more than one person working on a shared task; examples include integrated tools like Google Docs or Groove A data-driven DSS or data-oriented DSS emphasizes access to and manipulation of a time series of internal company data and, sometimes, external data. A document-driven DSS manages, retrieves, and manipulates unstructured information in a variety of electronic formats. A knowledge-driven DSS provides specialized problem-solving expertise stored as facts, rules, procedures, or in similar structures. A model-driven DSS emphasizes access to and manipulation of a statistical, financial, optimization, or simulation model. Modeldriven DSS use data and parameters provided by users to assist decision makers in analyzing a situation; they are not necessarily data-intensive. Dicodess is an example of an open source modeldriven DSS generator. (Created by Daniel Power) DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Taxonomy of DSS 8
    9. 9. DSS Componets 1 2 DATA DBMS KBMS MBMS Database Management System Knowledge-based Management System Model-based Management System Data Generation & Management System DGMS 3 USER DSS, University of Education Okara Campus MODELS 9
    10. 10. Applications Airline Reservation system Canadian National Railway A Loan Manager can decide whether to grant loan to an applicant Decision Making Software E.g. Logical Decisions (30 days trial) Expert Choice DecideIT 1000Minds DSS, University of Education Okara Campus No more seats available Provide alternative flights you can use Use the info to make flight plans 10
    11. 11. • Clinical decision support system for medical diagnosis. • An engineering firm that has bids on several projects and wants to know if they can be competitive with their costs. • DSS is extensively used in business and management. Executive dashboards and other business performance software allow faster decision making, identification of negative trends, and better allocation of business resources. • A growing area of DSS application, concepts, principles, and techniques is in agricultural production, marketing for sustainable development. • A DSS can be designed to help make decisions on the stock market, or deciding which area or segment to market a product toward. DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Applications Cont. 11
    12. 12. • The key DSS characteristics and capabilities are as follows: 1. Support for decision makers in semi-structured and unstructured problems. 2. Support managers at all levels. 3. Support individuals and groups. 4. Support for interdependent or sequential decisions. 5. Support intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. 6. Support variety of decision processes and styles. 7. DSS should be adaptable and flexible. 8. DSS should be interactive ease of use. 9. Effectiveness, but not efficiency. 10. Complete control by decision-makers. 11. Ease of development by end users. 12. Support modeling and analysis. 13. Data access. 14. Standalone, integration and Web-based DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Characteristics & Capabilities 12
    13. 13. • • • • • • • • • • • • Improves personal efficiency Speed up the process of decision making Increases organizational control Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker Speeds up problem solving in an organization Facilitates interpersonal communication Promotes learning or training Generates new evidence in support of a decision Creates a competitive advantage over competition Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space Helps automate managerial processes Create Innovative ideas to speed up the performance DSS, University of Education Okara Campus DSS Benefits 13
    14. 14. DSS Categories  Data-based DSS  Model-based DSS Structured Semi-structure Data-based DSS Unstructured DSS, University of Education Okara Campus Support based DSS (Alter 1980) Model-based DSS 14
    15. 15. References DSS, University of Education Okara Campus • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_support_system • Http://www.freedictionary.com/dsss • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision_making_software 15