Heroic figures in mythology


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Heroic figures in mythology

  1. 1. •Coined in English 1387, the word hero comes from the Greek "ἥρως" (heroes), "hero, warrior", literally "protector" or "defender". The postulated original forms of these words being *ἥρϝως, hērwōs, and *ἭρFα, Hērwā, respectively. •It is also thought to be a cognate of the Latin verb servo (original meaning: to preserve whole) and of the Avestan verb haurvaiti (to keep vigil over). •According to the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, the Indo-European root is *ser meaning "to protect". According to Eric Partridge in Origins, the Greek word Hērōs "is similar to" the Latin seruāre, meaning to safeguard.
  2. 2. Hero (male) and heroine (female) came to refer to characters who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, display courage and the will for self sacrifice that is, heroism for some greater good of all humanity. This definition originally referred to martial courage or excellence but extended to more general moral excellence.
  3. 3. •In mythology and legend, a man or woman, often of divine ancestry, who is endowed with great courage and strength, celebrated for his or her bold exploits, and favored by the gods." •Somebody who does something dangerous to help somebody else •Often tied up with concepts of bravery and virtue
  4. 4. •A man or woman who triumphs over obstacles Heroes are not all-powerful and immortal beings. Instead they represent the best of what it means to be human, demonstrating great strength, courage, wisdom, cleverness, or devotion.
  5. 5. In studying myths and legends from around the world, scholars have identified a pattern that appears over and over again—the story of the universal hero. According to Joseph Campbell: 1. Stories generally end with the hero gaining new knowledge or abilities. 2. Often an element of miracle or mystery surrounds the birth of such heroes.
  6. 6. 3. Their true identity may be unknown. 4. They may be the child of a virgin. 5. They may possess special powers or be demigods. 6. Many hero myths focus on a quest—a difficult task or journey that must be undertaken to achieve a goal or earn a reward such as the hand of a loved one. 7. Leaving the everyday world, the hero follows a path filled with challenges and adventures, perhaps involving magic or the supernatural.
  7. 7. 8. A hero may even enter the underworld and confront death itself. 9. Heroes must use strength, wits, or both to defeat enemies, monsters, or demons, although some are aided by luck or by a protective deity or magician. 10. In the end the hero returns home enriched with powers, wisdom, treasure, or perhaps a mate won in the course of the quest.
  8. 8. 1. Questing or Journeying Heroes. Greek mythology has many questing heroes, including Odysseus*, Orpheus*, Jason*, and Hercules*. Odysseus just wants to return home after the Trojan War, but his adventure- filled voyage takes ten years . 2. Warriors and Kings. A number of individuals rise to the level of heroes with their outstanding skills in combat. In myths about the Trojan War*, the warriors Ajax* and Achilles* fight valiantly and the Amazon* queen Penthesilea leads a troop of her soldiers against the Greek forces
  9. 9. 3. National and Culture Heroes. A national hero is a mythological—or even historical—hero who is considered to be the founder of a city or nation or the source of identity for a people. Another type of ancestral hero is the culture hero who brings the gifts of civilization to a people. 4. Clever Heroes and Tricksters. In many myths heroes accomplish great tasks by outwitting evil or more powerful enemies. Some culture heroes are tricksters—human or animal characters whose mischievous pranks and tricks can benefit humans.
  10. 10. 5. Folk Heroes. Some heroes are ordinary individuals who have special skills. They may take up the causes of common people against tyrants and bullies or may be blessed with remarkable good fortune. 6. Defiant and Doomed Heroes. Some heroes knowingly defy the limits placed on them by society or the gods. Even if they face destruction, they are determined to be true to their beliefs—or perhaps to perish in a blaze of glory. Others are simply the victims of their own failings or of bad luck.
  11. 11. Heroes in Greek legends usually performed dangerous feats, killed villains and monsters, and won the hearts of local maidens. They may also have been guilty of numerous acts of murder, rape, and sacrilege.
  12. 12. 1. Jason- was an ancient Greek mythological hero who was famous for his role as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcos. He was married to the sorceress Medea.
  13. 13. 2. Bellerophon (buh-LAIR- uh-fon)- a hero of Greek mythology. He was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus a nd Perseus, before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail
  14. 14. 3. Theseus- greatest hero of Athens, cousin of Hercules. He killed the Minotaur and became the first commander-in-chief of Athens.
  15. 15. 4. Perseus (PUR- see-us or PURS- yoos) - Son of Zeus, heroic vanquisher of the Gorgon Medusa.
  16. 16. 5. Heracles- He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. Extraordinary strength, courage, ingenuity, and sexual prowess with both males and females were among his characteristic attributes. Although he was not as clever as the likes of Odysseus or Nestor.
  17. 17. The Greatest Hero of Greece
  18. 18. “And I, myself, am the murderer of my dearest.”
  19. 19. The Nemean Lion
  20. 20. Lernaean Hydra
  21. 21. Iolaos
  22. 22. Cerynitian Hind
  23. 23. Erymanthian Boar
  24. 24. Augean Stables
  25. 25. Stymphalian Birds
  26. 26. Cretan Bull
  27. 27. Mares of Diomedes
  28. 28. Girdle of Hippolyta
  29. 29. Cattle of Geryon
  30. 30. Apples of the Hesperides
  31. 31. Cerberus
  32. 32. After his mighty labor he has rest. His choicest prize, eternal peace. Within the homes of blessedness
  33. 33. Early Norse stories, particularly mythology are often tragic tales. Man is born to sorrow as the sparks fly upward. To live is to suffer and the only solution of the problem of life is to suffer with courage.
  34. 34. “Husbands, daughters, sist ers, brothers,----one says, ----all were taken from me, and still I live.” Yet for her grief Gudrun could not weep, So hard was her heart by the hero‟s body
  35. 35. “My seven sons fell in the Southern land, another says, and my husband too, all eight in battle. I decked with my own hands for the grave. One half- year brought me this to bear. And no one came to comfort me.“ Yet for her grief Gudrun could not weep, So hard was her heart by the hero‟s body
  36. 36. …She laid his well-loved head on the knees of his wife. “Look on him thou loved and press thy lips to his as if he still were living.”
  37. 37. Only once did Gudrun look. She saw his hair all clotted with blood, his blinded eyes that had been so bright. Then she bent and bowed her head, AND HER TEARS RAN DOWN LIKE DROPS OF RAIN.
  38. 38. Most of the male Filipino mythological heroes are described as an attractive well-built man who exemplifies great strength.
  39. 39. 1.Lam-Ang- was known for avenging his father from the Igorots, wooing Innes Kannoyan who later became his wife, and for rising from the dead with the help of his rooster and dog. 2. Bernardo Carpio- Bernardo Carpio is a legendary figure in Philippine Mythology who is said to be the cause of earthquakes.
  40. 40. Indarapatra
  41. 41. sulayman
  42. 42. Princess
  43. 43. “I will go. And the land shall be avenged.” “By this tree, I shall know your fate from the hour you depart from here, for if you live, it will live; if you die, it will die too.”
  44. 44. “Alas, how pitiful and dreadful this situation is!’
  45. 45.
  46. 46. “Brother, wake up! Alas! My little brother is dead, and he wept bitterly’.
  47. 47. Aren’t you coming with me? „No brother, you have already done so much”.