CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


     True/False Questions

     Learning Objective 1

1.   The four approaches that can be i...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


10.   Expectancy theory states that people will choose behaviors that will help them achieve...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION

20.   Enriched jobs might frustrate and dissatisfy employees with weak growth needs.

      A...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION

      even after a level of satisfaction has been attained.

      ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Easy...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


     Learning Objective 1

     Understanding Motivation and Satisfaction
3.   Any influence...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


7.    Which approach to motivating employees concentrates on key characteristics of the
    ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION

12.   One employee of a firm is motivated by money, while another employee of the same
      ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


17.   Which of the following statements does not correctly describe goal-setting theory?
   ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


22.   __________ theory suggests that behavior is a function of its consequences.
      a. E...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


27.   __________ is an attempt to discourage a behavior by the application of negative
     ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


32.   Although the reinforcement model has many positive features, it also has some
      dr...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


37.   Examples of behavioral choices that are related to work performance include all of the...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


42.   The __________of an outcome associated with performance is the weight that a
      par...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


46.   The job characteristics theory states that there are critical psychological states nee...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


51.   According to the job characteristics model, when a job provides the individual
      s...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


56.   Knowledge of results __________.
      a. provides feedback from the task itself
     ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


61.   The __________ theory is concerned with how employees make judgements about
      whet...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


66.   Lindsey told you: “I never thought I would get the networking assignment. I thought
  ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


71.   Intuit’s Thanks Program is characterized by __________.
      a. an annual banquet to ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


      Learning Objective 5

      Individual Differences Approach
76.   Which of the followi...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


81.   A recent study in a Bangladesh cotton mill showed that financial rewards were a greate...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION

      by involving employees in the decision-making process, restructuring their jobs, or
   ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


91.   Frank Gotti, an employee in Random Engineering company, has been periodically
      as...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


96.   Managers can satisfy needs of their employees and thereby reduce frustration by doing
...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


100. Evidence indicates that enriched jobs tend to be more satisfying than unenriched jobs
 ...
CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION


104. Feedback is effective when presented in all of the following ways except:
     a. frequ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Tb14

6,941

Published on

Published in: Education, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
6,941
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
80
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Tb14"

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION True/False Questions Learning Objective 1 1. The four approaches that can be implemented by management to motivate and satisfy employees result in higher customer satisfaction. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 384 Learning Objective 2 2. When the Gallup Organization interviewed 80,000 people about their work they found that employees tolerate a lot of negative aspects of their work if they work for a good manager. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 386 3. Communication is key to instilling employees with a sense of purpose and a meaningful mission. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Easy, pp. 386–387 4. Behavior modification, which focuses on the use of rewards and punishments to encourage or discourage behaviors, has its roots in the work of B. F. Goodrich. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Easy, p. 390 5. Negative reinforcement and extinction are two types of consequences that reduce or stop behaviors. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 391 6. When employees set their own goals, provide their own reinforcements, and monitor their own results they are self-managing. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 393 7. Positive reinforcement is the preferred approach for decreasing undesirable behaviors. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 393 8. Positive reinforcement is the preferred approach for increasing desirable behavior. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 393 9. Psychologist B. F. Skinner developed and extended much of reinforcement theory. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 390 111
  2. 2. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 10. Expectancy theory states that people will choose behaviors that will help them achieve their goals and avoid behaviors that have undesirable consequences. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Easy, p. 394 11. The usefulness of a behavior to obtain the desired outcome is referred to as valance. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 396 12. Valences are subjective. The same outcome may have a high valence for one person and a low valence for another. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 395 13. Employees who believe that exerting more effort results in better performance generally show higher levels of performance than employees who do not. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 396 14. Understanding how employees think about the future in order to find solutions to behavior problems is one way a manager can apply expectancy theory. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 397 15. When monetary awards are attached to performance, expectancy theory states that it is a powerful way to change employee behavior. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 398 Learning Objective 3 16. Feedback is one of the job characteristics that leads to experienced responsibility for the outcomes of work. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 399 17. Individuals with a high growth need strength are likely to respond positively to job enrichment programs. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Easy, p. 401 18. According to a recent survey of 1,200 U.S. employees, the nature of the work they did was the most important factor in determining how people felt about staying with their current employer and how motivated they were to work hard. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 399 19. Managers working in countries outside the United States might experience cultural differences in the level of motivation achieved by the five key job characteristics. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 401 112
  3. 3. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 20. Enriched jobs might frustrate and dissatisfy employees with weak growth needs. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 401 Learning Objective 4 21. Herzberg’s two-factor model stresses job characteristics and individual practices in addressing the question of what motivates behavior. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 402 22. It could be argued that some of the $40 billion lost annually in employee theft has its roots in feelings of inequity. ANSWER: T, Application, Easy, p. 406 23. According to Herzberg, motivators lead to superior performance only if no dissatisfiers are present. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 403 24. Hygiene factors are the nontask characteristics of the work environment that create dissatisfaction. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Easy, p. 402 25. Noncash recognition programs are primarily a way for employers to avoid spending money on salary increases. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 403 26. When people are dissatisfied, they usually do something about it. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Easy, p. 406 Learning Objective 5 27. According to Maslow, high level needs must be satisfied before lower level needs. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Easy, p. 407 28. Stephen Goodson owns and operates an industrial distribution firm. He organizes and pays for the company’s intramural sports program. According to Maslow, Stephen is trying to satisfy his employees’ esteem needs. ANSWER: F, Application, Easy, pp. 407–408 29. Motivational programs that satisfy higher level needs probably are less meaningful to employees in developing countries because their lower level needs have not been adequately satisfied. ANSWER: T, Application, Moderate, p. 408 30. The satisfaction-progression hypothesis states that a need continues to be a motivator 113
  4. 4. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION even after a level of satisfaction has been attained. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Easy, p. 409 31. Managers cannot eliminate the frustration level employees feel associated with the lack of upward career mobility during company downturns. ANSWER: F, Application, Moderate, p. 410 Learning Objective 6 32. To be motivators, rewards must be aligned with the things that employees value. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 411 33. Feedback is essential to motivation regardless of whether employees are performing well or poorly. ANSWER: T, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 410 34. Insufficient rewards actually motivate employees, causing them to do a little extra. ANSWER: F, Knowledge, Easy, pp. 410–411 Multiple Choice Questions Preview 1. When BMW made the decision to modernize their facilities, which of the following amenities created a more pleasant work environment? a. addition of a work out facility b. enhancement of the employee break area with a popcorn machine c. creation of more appealing landscapes d. improved lighting ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 384 2. To motivate their employees and align their efforts with the needs of the business, BMW managers and union leaders designed a new pay system. Which of the following was a feature of the new system? a. an account of overtime hours in lieu of overtime pay b. an annual bonus based on a minimum of three ideas that actually produced cost savings c. salary continuation when the plant is closed d. all of the above ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 384 114
  5. 5. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION Learning Objective 1 Understanding Motivation and Satisfaction 3. Any influence that stimulates, directs, or maintains goal-directed behavior is known as __________. a. reinforcement b. individual differences c. motivation d. a goal stimulus ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 384 4. The question of what motivates people at work is a fundamental one that has long been of interest to managers and researchers alike. Which of the following is not one of the generally accepted categories of theories that offer some insight into this complex topic? a. theories about individual differences b. theories about the design of the job c. theories about how managerial behavior affects motivations d. theories about key performance indicators ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Easy, p. 385 5. What approach to motivating employees focuses on how the behaviors of managers influence the satisfaction and motivation of their employees? a. managerial approach b. individual differences approach c. job design approach d. organization approach ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Easy, p. 385 6. Tyrone Reaves, a food-service manager for Hampton Corporation, sets goals for his employees including maintaining food portion sizes, ensuring dining room cleanliness, and improving cashier’s speed. When employees reach their goals they receive rewards and when they don’t, he discusses with the employees how they can improve their performance. What approach to understanding motivation is Reaves taking with his employees? a. individual differences b. job design c. managerial approach d. organizational design ANSWER: C, Application, Difficult, p. 385 115
  6. 6. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 7. Which approach to motivating employees concentrates on key characteristics of the tasks of the position? a. managerial approach b. individual design c. job characteristics d. organizational design ANSWER: C, Application, Easy, p. 385 8. Juan Garcia, a technical writer for West Daily News, telecommutes to enable him to take care of his disabled son. He has the discretion to schedule his work hours each day so long as the daily deadline for his editorial column is met. Which approach to job satisfaction and motivation does this illustrate? a. organizational design b. job characteristics c. individual design d. managerial approach ANSWER: B, Application, Moderate, p. 385 9. Organizational practices that affect motivation include all of the following except __________. a. the human resources management policies b. strategic planning c. the reward structure including bonuses or promotions d. appropriate benefits ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 386 10. Victoria Lawrence is an oncology nurse specialist at a large medical clinic. She has become discouraged lately with the benefits given to recently-hired nurses, believing they are receiving much more of a generous package of bonuses, child care, training, and paid vacations than those nurses who have been at the clinic for many years. What approach to motivation should the physicians employ in order to retain Victoria? a. managerial approach b. organization approach c. individual differences approach d. job design approach ANSWER: B, Application, Difficult, p. 386 11. __________ are the needs, values, personalities, and other personal characteristics that employees bring to their jobs. a. Content approaches to motivation b. Individual differences c. Job characteristics d. Process approaches to motivation ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Easy, p. 386 116
  7. 7. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 12. One employee of a firm is motivated by money, while another employee of the same organization works every day because it offers challenges and stretches her competencies to the limit. These variations can best be explained by __________. a. motivations b. individual differences c. job characteristics d. abilities ANSWER: B, Application, Moderate, p. 386 Learning Objective 2 Managerial Approach 13. A good manager is someone who does all of the following except: a. provides employees with praise and recognition. b. leaves employees alone to do their work. c. inspires employees with one-on-one communication. d. gives employees specific and challenging goals. ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 386 14. What theory states that managers can direct the performance of their employees by assigning specific, difficult goals that employees accept and are willing to commit to? a. goal-setting theory b. reinforcement theory c. extinction theory d. none of the above ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 387 15. NCCI developed a goal-setting system that includes which of the follow attributes? a. linking goal achievement with salary increases b. one set of goals was focused on job-specific productivity goals the employee needed to meet c. one set of goals was focused on the extra contributions to the organization the employee needed to make d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 387 16. In addition to motivating employees, NCCI enjoyed all of the following benefits except: a. lower employee turnover. b. increased customer satisfaction. c. an alignment of employee effort and the organization’s business objectives. d. higher employee productivity. ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 388 117
  8. 8. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 17. Which of the following statements does not correctly describe goal-setting theory? a. The theory focuses attention on the consequences of behavior. b. Team goals can improve group performance. c. If the goals are too easy or so difficult that employees reject them as impossible, the goals will have no motivational effects. d. Goal setting works best when employees receive timely feedback about the progress they are making toward achieving their goals. ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Difficult, pp. 389–390 18. Goal setting should consider all of the following except __________. a. specificity of goals b. difficulty of goals c. equity of goals d. timeliness of feedback ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 388–390 19. One of the benefits of goal setting is that __________. a. employees are energized to exert more effort b. employees are actively involved in developing alterative strategies to achieve goal c. employees’ attention is directed towards important activities d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 389–390 20. Management by objectives (MBO) can be a successful motivator of employees if all of the following exist except: a. employees have the competencies to achieve the goal. b. managers and employees review past performance and identify objectives for the future. c. employees receive rewards for achieving the goal. d. managers set the goals with the understanding that future performance evaluations and rewards will be based on job market conditions. ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 389 21. __________is a signal that tells employees that they are doing well and should continue with their current approaches or that they aren’t doing very well and should try new approaches. a. Goal setting b. MBO c. Goal acceptance d. Feedback ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Easy, p. 390 118
  9. 9. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 22. __________ theory suggests that behavior is a function of its consequences. a. Equity b. Goal setting c. Reinforcement d. Two-factor ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 390 23. The reinforcement model has a basic process by which a person’s __________ to a __________ results in specific __________, which in turn shape future behaviors. a. consequence; stimulus; responses b. response; consequence; stimuli c. response; stimulus; consequences d. stimulus; response; consequences ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 391 24. Which of the following statements does not correctly describe reinforcement theory? a. Reinforcement theory is a process by which rewards and punishments influence behavior. b. Positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement are consequences that strengthen or maintain behaviors. c. Whether a consequence is pleasant or unpleasant is determined by two factors: the action that follows the behavior and the nature of the outcome. d. The correct sequence of the reinforcement process is as follows: stimulus, consequences, response, future behavior. ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 391 25. __________ relies on three basic principles: measurable behavior, types of consequences, and stimulus of reinforcement and punishment. a. Job enrichment b. Behavior modification c. Equity d. Goal congruence ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Easy, pp. 390–392 26. Sabrina Nuygen is the marketing director for a large advertising agency. Sabrina has always believed in the reinforcement model of motivation. Accordingly, Sabrina’s management style emphasizes __________. a. behavior modification without the use of punishments b. intrinsic rewards c. satisfaction of higher-order needs d. the application of rewards and punishments ANSWER: D, Application, Easy, p. 390 119
  10. 10. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 27. __________ is an attempt to discourage a behavior by the application of negative outcomes whenever it does occur. a. Extinction b. Punishment c. Negative reinforcement d. Positive reinforcement ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 392 28. __________ occurs when a person engages in behavior to avoid unpleasant consequences. a. Engaging behavior b. Positive reinforcement c. Extinction d. Negative reinforcement ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Easy, p. 393 29. __________ is not one of the four types of consequences that can modify behavior. a. Extinction b. Punishment c. Termination d. Negative reinforcement ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 391 30. __________ is the absence of any reinforcement following the occurrence of a behavior. a. Extinction b. Negative reinforcement c. Punishment d. Abstention ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 392 31. Bobby Joe Worth is from a small, rural town in Georgia. Bobby Joe is teased often by his East Coast friends because he speaks with a strong southern accent. Bobby Joe practices behavior modification by never responding to their comments. In essence, Bobby Joe is trying to stop the undesired comments through __________. a. the collaboration style b. engaging behavior c. extinction d. iteration ANSWER: C, Application, Moderate, p. 392 120
  11. 11. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 32. Although the reinforcement model has many positive features, it also has some drawbacks. However, __________ is not one of the problems typically associated with the reinforcement model. a. it puts a heavy emphasis on external rewards b. it fails to recognize the number of people motivated by the job itself c. it oversimplifies behavior and behavior change d. it does a poor job of describing conditions that lead to behavior change ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, pp. 390–392 33. When does extinction usually occur? a. when the positive reinforcement that once normally resulted from the behavior is removed b. when all negative reinforcements have failed to change bad behavior c. when all positive reinforcements stop encouraging workers to perform better d. when employees become non-responsive to any stimulus ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Difficult, pp. 392–393 34. Corning Inc. motivated its employees during an industry downturn by setting business unit goals. Which of the following was not a component of their goalsharing program? a. Specific performance goals for employees in each business unit were set. b. A clear “line of sight” was created between the corporate goal and the employee. c. The entire business unit had to achieve its goals for each individual to be rewarded. d. Bonuses were tied to the overall performance of the company. ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 394 35. Corning Inc. enjoyed all of the following benefits from its goalsharing program except: a. hard-working employees no longer feeling discouraged because their reward was not tied to the company’s overall financial performance, which is outside their control. b. improved cash flow. c. motivated employees that eventually succeeded in executing the company’s turnaround strategy. d. long-term success which is tied to employees’ continuing improvement year after year. ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 395 36. The management consulting group you contracted with to analyze how to increase productivity in your insurance company just suggested that one action you should take immediately is to try to determine the outcomes or rewards each one of your employees value. The consulting group is suggesting that you use the __________ theory (model) to motivate your employees to increased performance. a. Maslow’s needs hierarchy b. equity c. Herzberg’s two-factor d. expectancy ANSWER: D, Application, Difficult, p. 394 121
  12. 12. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 37. Examples of behavioral choices that are related to work performance include all of the following except: a. whether to go to work or call in sick. b. whether to leave work at the official quitting time or stay late. c. whether to exert a great deal of effort or to work at a more relaxed pace. d. All are examples of behavioral choices. ANSWER: D, Application, Easy, p. 394 38. According to expectancy theory, when making behavioral choices, employees normally consider all of the following questions except: a. If I make an effort, will I be able to perform the intended behavior? b. If I perform the intended behavior, what will be the outcomes? c. How difficult are the goals established by the manager? d. How much do I value the consequences associated with the behavior? ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 395 39. __________ refers to a person's estimate of how likely it is that a certain level of effort will lead to the intended behavior or performance result. a. Expectancy b. Instrumentality c. Valance d. Goal-setting ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 395 40. __________ is the perceived usefulness of performance as a means for obtaining desired outcomes (or avoiding undesired outcomes). a. Expectancy b. Instrumentality c. Valance d. Equity ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 395 41. To be willing to expend the effort needed to achieve the desired performance, employees must believe that the performance is instrumental to them. Which of the following questions posed by employees is not an example of instrumentality? a. If I make more sales, will my pay be greater? b. If I develop an innovative product design, will I receive public recognition for this accomplishment? c. If I put in more effort, will I get promoted? d. If I arrive to work on time, will anyone else care? ANSWER: C, Application, Difficult, pp. 395–396 122
  13. 13. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 42. The __________of an outcome associated with performance is the weight that a particular employee attaches to a consequence. a. expectancy b. valence c. instrumentality d. recognition ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Easy, p. 395 43. To find solutions to troublesome theft behavior problems, Northwest interviewed its employees. Based on the interview results, management took which of the following actions? a. offered rewards to employees for whistle-blowing on their coworkers b. installation of video surveillance c. declared an amnesty day for anyone returning stolen merchandise d. hired a private detective to work incognito as an employee ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 397–398 44. Tying monetary awards to performance can be dangerous when used incorrectly. Which of the following examples illustrates this point? a. incentive programs that lead to unethical behavior b. safety programs that are linked to reported accidents or injuries may motivate employees to not report an incident c. incentive programs that lead to illegal behavior d. All of the above are illustrations of incorrect behavior being motivated by a poorly designed incentive program. ANSWER: D, Application, Difficult, p. 398 Learning Objective 3 Job Design Approach 45. __________ states that employees are more satisfied and motivated when their jobs are meaningful, when jobs create a feeling of responsibility, and when jobs are designed to ensure that some feedback is available. a. Equity theory b. Expectancy theory c. Three-factor theory d. Job characteristics theory ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 399 123
  14. 14. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 46. The job characteristics theory states that there are critical psychological states needed to create high levels of motivation in the workplace. Which of the following is not needed according to this theory? a. experienced meaningfulness b. experienced responsibility c. knowledge of actual work results d. opportunity for advancement ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 399 47. The degree to which employees perceive their work as valuable and worthwhile is known as __________. a. autonomy b. growth need strength c. experienced meaningfulness d. knowledge of results ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 400 48. According to the job characteristics theory, __________ is the degree to which a job involves completion of an identifiable piece of work. a. attribution b. task significance c. centrism d. task identity ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 400 49. __________ is the degree to which a job includes a range of different work activities or requires the use of a number of skills and talents. a. Divestment b. Skill variety c. Exposure d. Task identity ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Easy, p. 400 50. The job characteristics theory argues that the three critical psychological states are affected by five key job characteristics. Which of the following is not considered a key job characteristic according to this model? a. skill variety b. task identify c. task significance d. career progression ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 399 124
  15. 15. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 51. According to the job characteristics model, when a job provides the individual substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling work and determining the procedure to be used in carrying out tasks, _________ is present. a. utilitarianism b. growth need strength c. autonomy d. knowledge of results ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 400 52. Whole Foods Markets has grown significantly since it opened. Which of the following statements does not correctly characterize how the owners have used their strategic action competency to achieve this growth? a. The company uses a democratic style of management. b. The employees get so much financial information that they are “insiders” according to the SEC’s definition. c. Strong guidance from the owners, issued in the form of mandates, assures consistency in the product line. d. Jobs are organized around self-managed teams. ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Difficult, pp. 400–401 53. The desire for personal challenge, accomplishment, and learning is known as __________. a. job enrichment b. growth need strength c. equity theory d. skill variety ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 401 54. __________ is present when a job has a substantial impact on the goals or work of others in the company. a. Autonomy b. Feedback c. Task significance d. Task identity ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 400 55. When the three critical psychological states are present in a job, the personal and work outcomes that are experienced by the employee include all of the following except __________. a. high satisfaction with the work b. high compensation c. high-quality work performance d. low absenteeism ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Easy, p. 399 125
  16. 16. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 56. Knowledge of results __________. a. provides feedback from the task itself b. provides employees with information, or feedback, about how well they are doing c. can come from from other sources, such as customer satisfaction surveys d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 400 Learning Objective 4 Organization Approach 57. The relationship between job satisfaction and productivity among accountants and engineers was the initial focus of one researcher. This study led to the development of __________ model. a. expectancy theory b. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs c. Herzburg’s two-factor theory d. McClelland’s learned needs ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 402 58. In Hertzberg’s theory, all of the following are motivator factors except __________. a. challenge of the work itself b. responsibility c. salary d. advancement ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 403 59. In Hertzberg’s theory all of the following are hygiene factors except __________. a. supervision b. recognition c. job security d. company policies ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 402 60. Jasmyn is a bright marketing employee who works extremely hard. She is unhappy about what she believes are some of the company’s restrictive vacation policies. Apparently, management should do something about __________ that affect Jasmyn’s __________. a. hygiene factors; dissatisfaction b. motivator factors; satisfaction c. hygiene factors; motivation d. affiliation needs; self-esteem ANSWER: A, Application, Moderate, p. 402 126
  17. 17. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 61. The __________ theory is concerned with how employees make judgements about whether the organization is treating them fairly. a. expectancy b. reinforcement c. equity d. learned needs ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 404 62. Research on the equity theory suggests that individuals mentally compare the ratios of their inputs and outcomes to the ratios of others doing similar work. What are considered “inputs” according to this model? a. feelings of meaningfulness b. responsibility c. time and effort d. promotions ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 404 63. Research on the equity theory suggests that individuals mentally compare the ratios of their inputs and outcomes to the ratios of others doing similar work. What are considered “outcomes” according to this model? a. education b. commitment to the organization c. promotions d. time ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 404 64. __________ is not a typical response of an employee who is attempting to reduce feelings of job inequity. a. Decreasing their inputs b. Distorting reality by rationalizing c. Doing nothing d. Leaving the situation ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 406 65. Ryan feels he is paid too little for the hours and effort he puts into his job. Which of the following actions is not a potential behavior suggested by the equity model? a. Ryan can take more coffee breaks and slow down his performance. b. Ryan can continue as before, while convincing himself that this is an easy job and that he really isn’t working very hard. c. Ryan can work harder. d. All of the above ANSWER: D, Application, Moderate, p. 406 127
  18. 18. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 66. Lindsey told you: “I never thought I would get the networking assignment. I thought that I didn’t have the experience, and I’d made too many mistakes on the previous assignment. Kyle should have received it.” In this example, inequity is due to __________. a. equal inputs, but unequal outcomes b. unequal inputs, but equal outcomes c. unequal inputs and unequal outcomes d. none of the above ANSWER: C, Application, Difficult, pp. 404–405 67. Kelli told you: “I never thought I would get the networking assignment. I thought that I didn’t have the experience, and I’d made too many mistakes on the previous assignment. Sandy should have received it.” You should conclude that __________. a. Kelli is experiencing underpayment inequity b. Sandy is experiencing overpayment inequity c. Kelli is experiencing equity d. Kellii is experiencing overpayment inequity ANSWER: D, Application, Difficult, pp. 404–405 68. Bill Frost owns and operates a small industrial supply company. Bill uses a merit pay system to reward employees. If employees do not feel motivated, it could be said that the__________ model of motivation explains this poor performance. a. content b. hierarchy of needs c. disequilibrium d. equity ANSWER: D, Application, Difficult, p. 404 69. There are alternatives available to employees who want to reduce their feeling of inequity. Which of the following is not considered an acceptable response to inequity? a. leave the situation (quit the job) if the inequities can’t be resolved b. distort reality by rationalizing that the inequities are justified c. modify their comparisons by choosing another person to compare themselves against d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 406 70. Even if an organization gives all employees the same rewards, some people will believe they are being treated unfairly according to the _________ model. a. equity b. process c. hierarchy of needs d. two-factor ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Easy, p. 404 128
  19. 19. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 71. Intuit’s Thanks Program is characterized by __________. a. an annual banquet to recognize the top performers b. small awards—such as gift certificates to restaurants, movie tickets, and written thank- you notes from managers c. being designated as Employee of the Month with a special parking spot d. a cash bonus ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 403 72. Intuit managers __________. a. have the authority to decide which employees receive the Thanks Program awards b. are all expected to use the small rewards concept to recognize their workers c. should link the award to the achievement of a business objective d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 403 73. Over 70% of managers from 34 organizations agreed that __________. a. providing nonmonetary recognition can actually improve employee performance b. there should be equal pay for equal education levels c. feature-rich employee benefit plans motivate employees d. open door policies provide dissatisfied employees an avenue to get even ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 404 74. According to the equity theory, employees make which of the following comparisons? a. the fairness of the inputs and outcomes they receive from their job b. the fairness of their inputs and outcomes compared to other employees in the company c. the fairness of their inputs and outcomes compared to other employers they have worked for d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 405–406 75. If employees feel underrewarded they will deal with their dissatisfaction in which of the following ways? a. complain to their coworkers about the unfair ways the company treats the employees b. work on higher visibility projects to obtain recognition and rewards c. feel justified in doing something to sabotage the company d. all of the above ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 406 129
  20. 20. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION Learning Objective 5 Individual Differences Approach 76. Which of the following theories considers individual differences in terms of needs as important for explaining what motivates people? a. Maslow’s hierarchy b. Equity theory c. Herzberg’s theory d. all of the above ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 407 77. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs contains five categories of needs, including all of the following except __________. a. affiliation b. security c. equity d. self-actualization ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Easy, p. 407 78. Psychologist Abraham Maslow believed people have five types of needs, which he arranged in a hierarchy of needs. Why did Maslow arrange these needs in this manner? a. Maslow believed needs are met in a chronological order, starting with infancy to old age. b. Maslow suggested that, as a person satisfies each level of needs, motivation shifts to satisfying the next higher level of needs. c. Maslow hypothesized that our needs are met over the years as we progress academically. d. All of the above are among Maslow’s conclusions. ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 407 79. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs predicts a dynamic, step-by-step process in which a continuously evolving set of needs motivates behavior. Research supports Maslow’s view that __________. a. all needs must be satisfied simultaneously b. high-level needs must be satisfied to gain employee satisfaction c. people must meet their needs in the defined sequence to be satisfied d. until basic needs are satisfied, people will not be concerned with higher level needs ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 409 80. Although Mike Sanderson was a brilliant keyboard player, he felt frustrated making a living playing '60s hits with a bar band. The frustration-regression hypothesis would suggest that __________. a. he would sabotage his career b. self-actualization needs would drive him to become more artistic c. lower level needs would reappear and he might focus on security or relationships d. he might regress to the bottom of the needs scale again ANSWER: C, Application, Difficult, p. 409 130
  21. 21. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 81. A recent study in a Bangladesh cotton mill showed that financial rewards were a greater motivator and raised performance more than did recognition and praise. Which one of the following statements might best explain this response? a. Applying U.S. management practices to people from different cultures is useless. b. Motivational programs should be geared to simultaneously satisfying lower and higher level needs. c. Motivational programs that satisfy higher level needs are less meaningful if lower level needs have not been satisfied. d. This behavior is typical of employees from all cultures. ANSWER: C, Application, Moderate, p. 409 82. Beth Babineaux is an employee of a local service firm. Her house has just been destroyed in a fire, and she needs to find a place to live immediately. According to Maslow, Beth is seeking fulfillment of her __________ needs. a. affiliation b. physiological c. equity d. security ANSWER: B, Application, Easy, p. 407 83. Larry Silva has just married, bought a new house, and plans to start a family. Larry has called several life insurance companies to purchase life and long-term disability insurance. According to Maslow, Larry is seeking fulfillment of his __________ needs. a. affiliation b. security c. insurability d. covert ANSWER: B, Application, Easy, p. 408 84. According to Maslow’s theory, when an employee’s dissatisfaction is expressed in terms of frequent absenteeism, low productivity, and stress-related behaviors, this individual’s __________ needs are not being met. a. security b. affiliation c. monetary d. production ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 408 85. When the __________ need is dominant, managers can promote job satisfaction and high-quality performance by providing opportunities for exciting, challenging work and recognition of accomplishment. a. esteem b. affiliation c. equity d. physiological ANSWER: A, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 408 86. When __________ needs are dominant, managers can create a motivating environment 131
  22. 22. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION by involving employees in the decision-making process, restructuring their jobs, or offering them special assignments. a. affiliation b. security c. power d. self-actualization ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 408 87. A key hypothesis of Maslow’s theory is the satisfaction-progression hypotheses. What does this hypothesis propose? a. A satisfied need is no longer a motivator. b. Once a need has been satisfied, another emerges to take its place. c. In general, lower level needs must be satisfied before higher needs become strong enough to motivate behavior. d. All of the above are correct. ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Difficult, p. 409 88. The __________ holds that when individuals are frustrated in meeting higher level needs, the next lower level needs reemerge and again direct behavior. a. dissatisfaction theory b. frustration-regression hypothesis c. progression-satisfaction hypothesis d. regression-frustration hypothesis ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 409 89. Caroline Savannah has been frustrated in satisfying her growth needs in her present job. Caroline copes with her frustration by developing strong interpersonal relationships with her coworkers. Elise’s behavior can best be described by __________. a. the frustration-regression hypothesis b. Herzberg’s two-factor model c. McClelland’s learned needs model d. Vroom’s expectancy model ANSWER: A, Application, Moderate, p. 409 90. Jan Burgess, a high performer in ABC company, has been periodically asking for a promotion, but has been rejected. After each rejection, she has received a salary increase. She has continued to perform very well. This motivational situation can be best explained by __________. a. Maslow's hierarchy of needs b. the fulfillment-progression principle c. the frustration-regression hypothesis d. Jan's desire for strength ANSWER: C, Application, Moderate, p. 409 132
  23. 23. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 91. Frank Gotti, an employee in Random Engineering company, has been periodically asking for a promotion. He has not received one because none have been available. His performance is tops, and his boss intends to keep it that way. According to the frustration-regression hypothesis, his boss should __________. a. tell him to wait until a higher position becomes available b. assure him of promotion when it is available, and meanwhile provide him with some job-related material incentive c. create a higher symbolic, but necessary, position for Frank d. listen and be sympathetic ANSWER: B, Application, Difficult, p. 410 92. According to the frustration-regression hypothesis, when employees are frustrated in fulfilling their needs, managers should __________. a. be empathic listeners, but do nothing b. determine the cause of frustration, but not attempt to remove blockages to need satisfaction c. encourage employees to develop meaningful relationships with co-workers d. redirect employees’ behavior toward satisfying a lower level need ANSWER: D, Application, Moderate, p. 410 93. In moving through the needs hierarchy, __________. a. dominant needs change over time b. movement through the hierarchy can go both directions c. when higher level needs cannot be met, lower level needs reemerge d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 409 94. Richard Branson, chairman of the Virgin Group, formed his companies __________. a. to satisfy affiliation needs b. to leave a legacy for his children and grandchildren c. because he had a desire to make a difference d. to create a parallel technical ladder in his industry ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 408 95. A need has been defined as: a. a basic desire that has to be met for a person to feel fulfilled. b. a strong feeling of deficiency in a person’s life. c. differing based upon an individuals abilities and personality. d. all of the above ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 407 133
  24. 24. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 96. Managers can satisfy needs of their employees and thereby reduce frustration by doing which of the following? a. determine the cause of frustration b. remove the blockage to needs satisfaction c. redirect employee’s behavior toward satisfying a lower level need d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 410 97. According to Chef Anthony Bourdain, his kitchen operates according to the classical French model. What attributes exist in this work environment? a. Work teams are created for each key area, such as entrée’s and desserts, with a specialty chef as the team leader for each key area. b. A clear separation exists between work and personal life. c. Rules are rigid and compliance is mandatory. d. All of the above exist in the classical French model. ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 409 98. Chef Anthony Bourdain motivates his staff in which of the following ways? a. Thanks Awards for work that is “above and beyond” b. by showing genuine care and concern for the personal needs of his staff c. frequent resort training opportunities d. all of the above ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Easy, p. 409 Learning Objective 6 Guidelines for Managers 99. All of the following actions enable managers to maximize employee performance through motivation except: a. designing jobs with a high motivating potential. b. clearly indentifying the behaviors and performance achievements that will be rewarded. c. aligning rewards with what employees value. d. providing plenty of feedback, including criticisms about task performance and personal characteristics. ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 410–411 134
  25. 25. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 100. Evidence indicates that enriched jobs tend to be more satisfying than unenriched jobs and redesigning those jobs might enhance employee motivation. All of the following are factors that a manager must consider when redesigning jobs except: a. jobs that involve repetitive tasks requiring few skills might need to be redesigned. b. jobs requiring employees to be personally responsible for their work tend to make the work environment too stressful and therefore might need to be redesigned. c. managers should assess the degree to which employees experience their work as meaningful. d. all of the above ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 410 101. Amber Washington had worked at the local hospital for close to five years without receiving a Christmas bonus. When management made the surprise announcement that each employee would receive a turkey for the holidays, she joined with many hospital employees expressing anger concerning the gesture. Motivation for many fell drastically. All of the following are likely explanations why management erred in the eyes of the employees with this policy except: a. Washington wanted specific and appropriate feedback on how she was performing her job, not a turkey. b. many employees believed that the emergency room nurses should receive more than the outpatient surgery nurses. c. many were disappointed that an inexpensive turkey represented the thanks for a year’s worth of hard work. d. all of the above ANSWER: D, Application, Moderate, pp. 410–411 102. Managers need to understand which of the following about rewards? a. Rewards should be valued by the employee. b. Rewards valued by one employee may not be valued by another employee. c. Align rewards with desired behaviors and goal achievement. d. All of the above ANSWER: D, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 410–411 103. To diagnose and rectify the causes of performance problems, managers should consider all of the following except: a. if the reward system is considered fair and equitable by the employees. b. if the organization’s mission to employees has been clearly communicated. c. the results of an employee satisfaction survey. d. if jobs have been designed with high motivating potential. ANSWER: C, Knowledge, Moderate, pp. 410–411 135
  26. 26. CHAPTER 14: WORK MOTIVATION 104. Feedback is effective when presented in all of the following ways except: a. frequently and constructively. b. by associating the task performance with the personal characteristics of the employee. c. positive feedback when employees are performing well. d. honest constructive feedback when employees' performance is unacceptable. ANSWER: B, Knowledge, Moderate, p. 410 136

×