Let the waste of the “sick”
not contaminate the lives of
• Categories of Biomedical Waste
• Problem associated with Biomedical waste
• Need for Biomedical Waste Management
• Step to manage hazardous waste
• Treatment techniques
• Biomedical waste management in India
• Environmental legislation
Biomedical Waste (BMW)
• Solid waste generated during the
diagnosis, testing, treatment, research or
production of biological products for
humans or animals (WHO)
• WHO estimates
– 85% of hospital waste is non-hazardous
– 10% is infectious
– 5% is non-infectious but consists of hazardous
chemicals like methylchloride and formaldehyde.
TYPES OF BIOMEDICAL WASTES
WASTE CATEGORY TYPE OF WASTE
Category No. 1 Human Anatomical Waste
Category No. 2 Animal Waste
Category No. 3 Microbiology & Biotechnology Waste
Category No. 4 Waste Sharps
Category No. 5
Discarded Medicine and Cytotoxic
Category No. 6 Soiled Waste
Category No. 7 Solid Waste
Category No. 8 Liquid Waste
Category No. 9 Incineration Ash
Category No.10 Chemical Waste
PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH BMW
ORGANISM DISEASES CAUSED RELATED WASTE ITEM
HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis
AIDS, Infectious Hepatitis,
Infected needles, body
Fluids, Human excreta, soiled
linen, Blood, body fluids.
Typhoid, Cholera, Tetanus
fever, endocarditis, skin
and soft tissue infections
Human excreta and
body fluid in landfills and
hospital wards, Sharps such
as needles, surgical blades in
Kala Azar, Malaria
Human excreta, blood and
body fluids in poorly
managed sewage system of
NEED FOR BMW
Nosocomial infections in patients from poor
infection control practices and poor waste
Drugs which have been disposed of, being
repacked and sold off to unsuspecting buyers.
Risk of air, water and soil pollution directly
due to waste, or due to defective incineration
emissions and ash.
Risk of infection outside hospital for waste
handlers and scavengers, other peoples.
SEGREGATION :- to segregate the wastes.
Colour Coding Type of Container
Yellow Plastic Bag
Plastic Bag / punch
Black Plastic Bag
• Transportation of BMW can be divided into
internal and external transportation.
• INTERNAL: it is for yellow ,red ,blue and white
• EXTERNAL: it is for the general waste collected
in the black coloured plastic bags.
TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
PROCEDURES MAIN FUNCTION
Incineration burn trash and other types of waste
until it is reduced to ash.
Autoclaving and Shredding It uses a combination of heat, steam
Chemical treatment Using sodium hypochlorite
solution, bleaching powder, savlon
and then discharged into
Irradiation technique Involve the expose to UV radiation
and ionizing radiation
Bio medical waste
management in India
Biomedical waste (management and handling) rule
1998, prescribed by The Ministry of Environment and
Forests, Govt of India, came into force on 20th July
This rule applies to those who generate, collect,
receive, store, dispose, treat or handle bio medical
waste in any manner.
Thus bio medical waste should be segregated into
containers/bags at the point of generation of waste.
Thus Colour Coding & type of containers used for
disposal of waste is came into existence which is
shown as follows. 12
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
The Biomedical Waste (Management & Handling)
The Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling)
The Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling)
The National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act,
• Safe and effective management of waste is not only
a legal necessity but also a social responsibility.
• Proper collection and segregation of biomedical
• Try to reduce the waste generation.
• Individual awareness and participation.
• Use recycle products.
• Label with agent, concentration and
• Communicate about workplace hazards.