Information Processing Center April 20, 2007 WSN: A link between the sensory world and the digital world Internet Aggregator Cloud Earliest: In 1994 DARPA funded research on „Low Power Wireless Integrated Micro sensor‟ Base Station Sensor Nodes In 2003, Technology Review from MIT, listed WSN on the top, among 10 emerging technologies that would impact our future 2 A Typical Architecture
• “A sensor network is a deployment of massive numbers of small, inexpensive, self- powered devices that can sense, compute, and communicate with other devices for the purpose of gathering local information to make global decisions about a physical environment”.
Structural Health Monitoring Smart Buildings Precision Agriculture Mobile Urban Sensing Wildlife sensing
Mobile GatewayData CaptureMobile Device Real Time Patient Monitoring
• Bases on research paper by Amrita University for landslide detection.• Implemented at Munnar, Idukki, Kerala, India.• Collects data such as moisture, vibration and movement .• Embedded 15 meters beneath the earth at different points.
• Leachs storm petrels spend much of their lives out on the waters of the South Atlantic, heading north and to shore in the springtime to mate.• Once on dry land, the male digs a shallow, narrow burrow, 2 to 6 centimeters below ground, 3 to 6 cm across, and anywhere from 30 cm to 2 meters long.• Here the female will lay just one egg. Both parents will occasionally leave the nest to fly back out to deep waters to feed.
David Culler and his team at UC Berkeley have deployedsince 2002 a network of more than 20 motes on the GreatDuck Island to monitor the island’s habitat and the breedinghabits of Leach Storm Petrels
• Passive infrared (PIR) sensors directly measure heat from the seabird• Temperature/humidity sensors measure variations in ambient conditions resulting from prolonged occupancy
• In December 2004, the OSU DARPA-NEST team headed by Anish Arora completed the first demonstration and experiments of ExScal.• Demonstration covered an area 1.3km by 300m with about 1000 sensor nodes and around 200 backbone nodes• One possible application: detection & classification of multiple intruder types over an extended perimeter.
OTHER APPLICATION OF WSN temperature SED monitoring lighting control environmental access control Sink monitoring SED SED M2M communications BUILDING SENSOR AUTOMATION NETWORKSpatient mousemonitoring keyboardfitness joystickmonitoring PERSONAL PC & HEALTH CARE PERIPHERALS process security control HVAC asset & RESIDENTIAL/ lighting control LIGHT environment INDUSTRIAL COMMERCIAL access control management CONTROL CONTROL lawn & garden irrigation
„Smart dust‟ to explore planets:Tiny “smart” devices that can be borne on thewind like dust particles could be carried inspace probes to explore other planets, UKengineers say. The devices would consist ofa computer chip covered by a plastic sheaththat can change shape when a voltage isapplied, enabling it to be steered. Details werepresented at the National Astronomy Meetingin Preston. John Barker, from the University ofGlasgow, said the particles could use wirelessnetworking to form swarms.
I. “Landslide Detection & Early Alarm system” by Amrita UniversityII. “Great Duck Island project petrel habitat analysis” by UC Berkeley.III. Stephan Olariu, “Information assurance in wireless sensor networks”, Sensor network research group, Old Dominion University.IV. C. Chong and S. P. Kumar, “Sensor Networks: Evolution, Opportunities, and Challenges”, in Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 91, no. 8, Aug. 2003.V. G. Anastasi, M. Conti, M. Di Francesco, “The MAC Unreliability Problem in Duty-cycled IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks (Extended version)”, DII-TR-2009-04, available online at: http://info.iet.unipi.it/~anastasi/papers/DII-TR-2009-04.pdfVI. Network Simulator Ns2, http://www.isu.edu/nsnam/nsVII. ON World Inc, “Wireless Sensor Networks – Growing Markets, Accelerating Demands”, July 2005, http://www.onworld.com/html/wirelesssensorsrprt2.htm
VIII.IEEE Standard for Information technology, Part 15.4; Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal AreaIX. Networks (LR-WPANs), IEEE Computer Society, 2006J. Hui and P. Thubert. Compression Format for IPv6 Datagrams in 6LoWPAN Networks. Internet Draft (Work in Progress), December 2008.X. IPv6 over Low power WPAN (6lowpan) Working Group. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/6lowpan-charter.html.XI. M. Harvan. Connecting Wireless Sensor Networks to the Internet - a 6lowpan Implementation for TinyOS 2.0. Master’s thesis, School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, May 2007