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Air pollution & control

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IMRAN ZARDARI

IMRAN ZARDARI
INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING & MANAGEMENT
MEHRAN ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY JAMSHORO SINDH

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Air pollution & control Air pollution & control Presentation Transcript

  • BYIMRAN ZARDARI (12IEEM12)
  •  Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.
  • 5 Major Pollutants:1.) Carbon Monoxide2.) Sulfur Dioxide3.) Nitrogen Dioxide4.) Particulate Matter5.) Ground Level Ozone
  •  Carbon Monoxide• colorless, odorless• produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels• present in car exhaust• deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision
  •  Sulfur Dioxide• produced when coal and fuel oil are burned• present in power plant exhaust• narrows the airway, causing wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in those with asthma
  •  Nitrogen Dioxide• reddish, brown gas• produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere• present in car exhaust and power plants• affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection
  •  Particulate Matter• particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere• present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc.• can build up in respiratory system• aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection
  •  Ground Level Ozone• at upper level, ozone shields Earth from sun’s harmful UV rays• at ground level, ozone is harmful pollutants• formed from car, power and chemical plant exhaust• irritate respiratory system and asthma; reduces lung function by inflaming and damaging lining of lungs
  •  Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic sources (human activity) Natural sources
  •  Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel "Stationary Sources“ "Mobile Sources“
  •  "Stationary Sources“ › include smoke stacks of power plants › manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators › as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices › traditional biomass burning is the major source of air pollutants › traditional biomass includes wood, crop waste
  •  "Mobile Sources“ include motor vehicles, marine vessels, aircraft and the effect of sound etc.
  •  Natural sources Dust from natural sources, usually large areas of land with little or no vegetation Methane, emitted by the digestion of food by animals, for example cattle Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earths crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas that is formed from the decay of radium.
  •  It is considered to be a health hazard Radon gas from natural sources can accumulate in buildings, especially in confined areas such as the basement and it is the second most frequent cause of lung cancer, after cigarette smoking Smoke and carbon monoxide from wildfires
  •  respiratory infections heart disease lung cancer difficulty in breathing Coughing Both indoor and outdoor air pollution have caused approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide
  •  The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere. For Particulate control Mechanical collectors “Dust cyclones & multi cyclones Electrostatic precipitators “An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge”
  •  Particulate scrubbers “Wet scrubber is a form of pollution control technology. The term describes a variety of devices that use pollutants from a furnace flue gas or from other gas streams. In a wet scrubber, the polluted gas stream is brought into contact with the scrubbing liquid, by spraying it with the liquid, by forcing it through a pool of liquid, or by some other contact method, so as to remove the pollutants”
  •  Baffle spray scrubber Cyclonic spray scrubber Ejector venturi scrubber Mechanically aided scrubber Spray tower Wet scrubber
  • Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollution#Sources