Strategy Focused Organization - ABC Company 06052010

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Step by Step Approach to make ABC company a Strategic Focus Organization and Gain Competitive edge …

Step by Step Approach to make ABC company a Strategic Focus Organization and Gain Competitive edge
Using Strategic Framework , KPIs, Scorecard and Dashboard

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  • 1. Gaining Competitive Edge Gaining Competitive Edge Using Strategic Management Framework, KPIs, Scorecard and Operational Excellence Step by Step approach using Example of ABC Company “Your biggest competitor is your own view of the future” Prepared By: Imran Javed Dar MBA, BSc. Engineer, PMP, SSGBOracle Database, Oracle BI, MicroStrategy, Microsoft SQL Server, Sun Solaris, SAS, Teradata Certified Professional Imranjdar@yahoo.com ABC Company| Executive Summary 1
  • 2. Gaining Competitive EdgeTable of ContentsI. Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................................ 3II. Business Problems .............................................................................................................................................. 4III. Solution –Strategic Framework and Operational Excellence ......................................................................... 5IV. Strategy Formulation ...................................................................................................................................... 6 A. Capture Vision - Where we want to go? ........................................................................................................ 8 B. Customer Segmentations for ABC Company/ABC COMPANY ........................................................................ 9 C. Strategic Analysis – Where are we now? ....................................................................................................... 9 1. Summary of ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ Strategic Analysis Score/position ................................ 10 2. Which Businesses to Enter?...................................................................................................................... 10V. Strategy Implementation.................................................................................................................................. 12 A. Performance Measurement ......................................................................................................................... 14 1. Strategy Map for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ .............................................................................. 14 2. Draft Scorecard for ABC COMPANY (developed by ABC Company) ........................................................ 15 3. Key Performance Indicators ( develped by ABC Company) ..................................................................... 16 4. Interactive Sales Analytics Dashboard (developed & used in ABC Company) ........................................ 17 5. Employee Productivity Monitoring System (developed & used in ABC Company) ................................. 19 6. Service Level Management (defined and maintained by ABC Company IT) ............................................ 20 7. Customer Complaints/Requests Monitoring System (developed & used in ABC Company) ................... 21 B. Operational Effectiveness............................................................................................................................. 22 C. Supportive Strategic Information System (SIS) Architecture ....................................................................... 23VI. Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................... 24VII. Appendices ................................................................................................................................................... 25 1. Key Performance Indicators used in ABC COMPANY Scorecard – complete list...................................... 25 2. Steps to Formulate Strategy for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ....................................................... 26 3. Project Management Methodologies and templates developed in ABC Company ................................. 32 ABC Company| Executive Summary 2
  • 3. Gaining Competitive EdgeI. Executive SummaryABC Company is under immense pressure from external and internal environments. ABC Companymust change its planning methodologies, review customer segmentations and optimize operations forsurvival and competitive success.These are some of the problems and their effects, that are observed in ABC planning and operations. Root Causes ResultsProblems in Business Planning  Management provides targets without the strategic  High turnover of customers framework to achieve them  Sales missing targets  Business planning is based on financial plans which tells  High operational costs “what should we spend, “rather than “what should we do.”  Project cost overrun  Low Employee ProductivityProblems in Business Execution  Firefighting and reactive approach for decisions at middle management  Ineffective use of corporate resources  Employee productivity is not monitored  Limited visibility over operations & targets  Poor customer care and customer segmentation, customer feedback is not maintained  Poor or no Project ManagementIn this paper, I have provided step by step approach to transform ABC to a strategy focusedorganization by using following framework. Strategy Formulation Implementation Operational Excellence Where are we now?  How we Go There?  Optimize way to perform business activities? Where we want to go?  Systems / procedures developed & used in What are the options? ABC Company ITI have also discussed performance monitoring systems we have are using in ABC Company to ensureoperational excellence and we can use them for our other Business Units /Departments of ABCCompanyThanks.Imran JavedABC Company ABC Company| Executive Summary 3
  • 4. Gaining Competitive EdgeII. Business ProblemsExternal and internal environments are very challenging for both ABC Company and ABC COMPANY.ABC Company is using traditional business planning and budgeting processes which were designed fora world in which change was a slow and gradual process.Problems with traditional planning system includes  Financial plans and budget performance reviews are backwards looking  Budgets are disconnected from the strategy  Strategy is often developed in the form of a report that cannot be easily communicated  Employees are not aware of, and committed to corporate/BU strategy and goals  Conflicts between BU initiatives with corporate big pictureABC Company does not have an integrating strategy to use all its internal factors (Management,Finance, HRM, Information Systems and operation) to avail market opportunities and avoid marketthreats.ABC Company is not using Project Management methodologies, Knowledge management andemployee productivity monitoring systems  Projects are running over costs  Repeated and delayed tasks are causing high operational costsInappropriate customer segmentation and customer care  High customer turn over  Low customer satisfaction  Low repeat sales to existing customers ABC Company| Business Problems 4
  • 5. Gaining Competitive EdgeIII. Solution –Strategic Framework and Operational ExcellenceABC Company /ABC COMPANY should use an integrating strategy to use all its internal forces(Management, Finance, HRM, Information Systems and operations) to respond to market challenges.I suggest following integrated and consistent management framework to implement planningprocesses that deliver the value and effectiveness necessary for world-class execution. Capture Vision: Where to Go? - Strategy Formulation Where are we Now? What are options? How to Position Business Customer Segmentation Strategic Analysis Strategic Choices Best Product Tier 1: Exclusive Partnership Input Stage Select Feasible Strategy Total Customer Solution Tier 2: Strategic Partnership Output Stage Review Strategic Choices System Lock In Tier 3: Project Solution Seeker Matching Stage Which Business To Enter Business Mission & Scope Tier 4: Body Shoppers Operation Objectives: How we go there? - Strategy Implementation Align Core Activities Performance Measurement Strategic Information System HR Strategy Operational Effectiveness Strategy Maps ABC COMPANY Value Chain Supporting HR Customer Targeting Balanced Scorecard Draft of SIS Architecture Innovation Key Performance Indicators SIS Implementation Methodology ABC Company| Solution –Strategic Framework and Operational Excellence 5
  • 6. Gaining Competitive Edge IV. Strategy Formulation Where are we now? Where we want to go? What are the options?Give us clear vision that we may know where to stand and what to stand for – because unless we stand for something, we may fall for anything (Peter Marshal) ABC Company| Strategy Formulation 6
  • 7. Gaining Competitive Edge ABC Company| Strategy Formulation 7
  • 8. Gaining Competitive Edge A. Capture Vision - Where we want to go?ABC Company can choose desired strategic position and related strategies from three optionsrepresented in the triangle below.We should make concerted and deliberate efforts to push the ABC Company closer to Total CustomerSolutions and whenever possible seek and seize opportunities for a System Lock-In. Advantages  Exclusive sales  Create barriers for competitors  Suppliers lock-in  Customers lock-in Concerns  Mindset change require for middle mgmt  Gradual process  Opportunity base Advantages  Huge Potential for growth  Existing Customers will buy new products  Market and product experience  More Revenue Concerns  Initially additional Financial and Human Resource will be required ABC Company| Strategy Formulation 8
  • 9. Gaining Competitive Edge B. Customer Segmentations for ABC Company ABC Company can initially segment its customers in following four tiers and follow specific strategy foreach tier of customers.Customers Strategy to Follow AdvantagesExclusive Partners Exclusive exchange / Customer will develop our product and attract proprietary standards more customersStrategic Partners Customer Integration / Customer will buy more products/services Product DevelopmentProject Solution Best Product or Customer will pay extra premium to us for differentSeekers Differentiation product/serviceBody Shoppers Low Cost Strategies Customer base will increaseC. Strategic Analysis – Where are we now?ABC Company should use following processes divided in two stages to formulate strategy. 1- Analysing company internal factors (strengths & weakness), external factors (Opportunities & Threats) and competitive factors 2- Comparing different factors and find feasible strategies. ABC Company| Strategy Formulation 9
  • 10. Gaining Competitive Edge Input Stage Matching Stage •Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) •IE Matrix •External Factor Evaluation (EFE) •SWOT Matrix •Porter 5 Forces Analysis •SPACE Matrix •Competitive Profiling Matrix (CPM) •Grand Strategy MatrixBelow table is summary of ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ score and position for internal, externaland competitive analysis. Using these same procedures we can analyze all ABC COMPANY businessunits/departments and find feasible strategies. This shows that ABC Company should follow Growthand maintain strategies.Please see the appendix (page # 26) for details analysis. 1. Summary of ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ Strategic AnalysisScore/position Stage Method Benefit Score / Position Suggestions Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) Analyze Strength & Weakness 2.22 / 4 Average need improvement Analyze Market opportunities & External Factor Evaluation (EFE) 2.85 / 4 Indicate good market conditionsInput Stage Threat Capable to outperform Competitive Profiling Matrix (CPM) Competitor Analysis 2.8 vs. 1.85 competitors Compare Internal & External IE Matrix Region: V Maintain & Growth environment Use strength to avail SWOT Matrix Find strategies matching SWOT N/A opportunitiesMatching Analyze Financial Strength,Stage Environment Stability, Industry Region: Market Penetration / Market SPACE Matrix Strength and Competitive Aggressive Development advantage Market Penetration / Market Grand Strategy Matrix Evaluate All strategies Region: I Development2. Which Businesses to Enter?Top management should asses the strength and weakness of current business portfolio, in order toprioritize the resources and identify the opportunities for diversification and divestment. ABC Company| Strategy Formulation 10
  • 11. Gaining Competitive Edgea) The Growth Share Matrix - Boston Consulting Group Matrix for ABCCompany/BUSINESS UNIT XYZThe BCG/ the growth-share matrix is used to decide where to allocate cash.Implications of Strategic Positioning from Growth Share MatrixAbove analysis shows currently ABC Company does not have any cash cows to take cash for investing inother projects ABC Company may need financing from other sources to work on other initiatives likeBUSINESS UNIT XYZ or total customer solutions for ABC Company. ABC Company should also struggleto move its business from question marks to Stars quadrant. ABC Company| Strategy Formulation 11
  • 12. Gaining Competitive Edge V. Strategy Implementation How we go there? Framework that translate strategy into operational objectives and drive performanceBetween 70% and 90% of organizations that have formulated strategies fail to execute them.7 out of 10 CEOs, who fail, do so not because of bad strategy, but because of bad execution ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 12
  • 13. Gaining Competitive EdgeMind Map for Strategy Implementation ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 13
  • 14. Gaining Competitive EdgeA. Performance MeasurementFollowing leading edge systems and procedures we have developed and implemented in ABC CompanyIT and strongly recommend that ABC COMPANY should also use the same for effective strategicimplementation.  Strategy Maps  Balance Scorecard  Key Performance Indicators KPIs  Interactive Sales Analytical Dashboard  Employee Performance Monitoring System  Service Level Monitoring Systema) Scorecard and Strategy Map for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZStrategy map is a visual representation of ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ strategy. It can be used totranslate the strategy to all members in their organization so that they can all understand it andimplement it efficiently.While a Balanced Scorecard provides a framework to describe and implement strategies. It can bethought of as the "strategic chart of accounts" for ABC Company. 1. Strategy Map for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 14
  • 15. Gaining Competitive Edge2. Draft Scorecard for ABC COMPANY (developed by ABC Company) Scorecard of all Business units Scorecard /status at any date Target achieved status Trends of actual increase/decrease Perspective Benefits: Measure and keep track of performance of each BU/department Define and monitor status and progress of each objective towards company vision. Standard platform for reporting and communication Objectives Measures ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 15
  • 16. Gaining Competitive Edge3. Key Performance Indicators ( develped by ABC Company)My suggested balanced scorecard for ABC COMPANY has - Four Perspectives Benefits:  Financial Set target & measure performance of key process  Customer  Internal Process Monitor strategic initiatives progress  Knowledgebase Quickly find out if any objective/perspective is falling short of target - 22 Key Performance Indicators / Objectives and their relative weightPerspective Measures to track objective progress and their relative weight Measures - 75 % Objectives % Target Cus tom er acquis ition Propos al Win rate 100 25 Num ber of new cus tom ers 20Below is the extract of KPI list. Please see the appendix for complete KPI list % of cus tom ers with m ore than 1 product 100 Cus tom er retention Key account retention 100 15 Num ber of loyalty s chem es run 20 Cus tom er profitability Percentage of unprofitable cus tom ers 10 25 Cus tom er profitability percentage 100Customer 25 Cus tom er s atis faction Cus tom er s atis faction percentage 100 Num ber of unres olved is s ues 15 25 % SR es calated 20 % Services m et SLA 100 % project com pleted on tim e & budget 100 Market Share % key cus tom ers within target m arket 20 10 Market s hare by dollars 10 Im prove project m anagem ent practices Budget allocated to budget s pent ratio (%) 100 Quality of project res ults as s een by s takeholders 100 Inrternal 10 Tim e allocated to tim e s pent ratio (%) 100 Res ource s hortage 100 % project com pleted on tim e & budget 100 Im prove s ub-contract m anagem ent % Procurem ent Reques ts Met Target 100 % Procurem ent Contracts with Dis putes 100 10 % Suppliers Meeting Service Levels 100 % of bus ines s proces s defined and doccum ented 100 Im prove & m aintain bus ines s proces s functionality 10 % of bus ines s proces s es autom ated 100 30 Lower proces s cos ts 15 Em ployee efficiency 100 Im prove product quality 10 No of bugs or defects / product 100 Internal Innovation % Sales from new products 100 10 Tim e to breakeven point 2 Tim e to m arket new product 10 Better pre-s ales operations No of days to addres s new lead 100 Num ber of new leads per m onth 100 15 Succes s rate of s ales lead 100 % of of non-junk leads 100 % leads los s to com petitor 20 ABC Company| Strategy Implementation Im plem ent s trategic inform ation s ys tem s 16 10 Im plem ent s trategic inform ation s ys tem s 100
  • 17. Gaining Competitive Edge4. Interactive Analytics Dashboard (developed & used in ABC Company)Company Mobile Business AnalyticsCountry Level Statistics ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 17
  • 18. Gaining Competitive EdgeABC Company| Strategy Implementation 18
  • 19. Gaining Competitive Edge5. Employee Productivity Monitoring System (developed & used in ABC Company)ABC Company IT has developed and using this system to assign tasks to employee and monitor time spent by employee on task. Time spent in each BU Benefits: Total man days in each project Labour Cost of each project/activity can be calculated Employee time is logged on Activity/Project wise Employee Activity reports can be generated Project total man days Employee time distribution Employee Productivity can be monitored ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 19
  • 20. Gaining Competitive Edge Business Indicators6. Service Level Management (defined and maintained by ABC Company IT) Database Availability Benefits: Define Business Services Make Service Level Agreement Business Services Monitor Service Level Ensure and measure quality of Service Website Availability ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 20
  • 21. Gaining Competitive Edge Complaint type7. Customer Complaints/Requests Monitoring System (developed & used in ABC Company) Time to close a task/call Customers Call Status ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 21
  • 22. Gaining Competitive Edge B. Operational Effectiveness“How to make it happen” depends first and foremost on the proper alignment of the core activities of thebusiness.Below are the processes which we have implemented in ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ IT department and Istrongly suggest implementing these processes in other business units of ABC COMPANY also.The core activities of the firm are embodied in three processes:ABC Company IT has have developed and implemented following system & procedures to ensure operationaleffectiveness. We can also use these systems across entire ABC COMPANY to help other BUs to improveoperations. System developed & used in ABC Business Benefits Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ IT  Employee time is logged on Activity/Project wise Employee Time Tracking & Productivity  Labor Cost of each project/activity can be calculated Monitoring System  Employee Activity reports can be generated  Employee Productivity can be monitored  Project Scope Management - extra work is avoided Project Management Methodologies /  Accurate Project Costing  Templates  Within budget and on time completion  Customer Satisfaction Management  All customer complaints are logged ABC Company Customer Care Systems  Customer complaints follow-up  Customer support staff performance management  IT Services Performance and Availability can be recorded Service Level Management  Service Level agreements can be made and maintained with customers  All changes made is system/project scope is logged Change Management/Problem  Changes in project scope are handled as separate change order Management Procedures  All problems in system are loggedPlease see the appendices for templates and details of these procedures Project Management Methodologies / Templates ABC Company Customer Care Systems Change Management/Problem Management Procedures ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 22
  • 23. Gaining Competitive Edge C. Supportive Strategic Information System (SIS) Architecture“In the future, there will only be two types of organizations those that understand the use of technology and those that are out of business.” (Bill Gates) Support processes a) ABC COMPANY Value Chain Analysis Value adding processes b) Strategic Information System Draft (SIS) Strategy Executive Tactical Supporting Management Core Systems Dashboard System Systems System Pre-Sales CRM Financials Strategy Mapping Bidding & Contract Management Employee Sales Procurement Productivity Project Management Balance Scorecard System Knowledge HRM Management Service Contracts Benefits: Provides complete picture of where we have been, where we are and where we are going & Goal alignment; highlighting anomalies and providing audit trails; Improved information consolidation process  ABC Company| Strategy Implementation 23
  • 24. Gaining Competitive EdgeVI. ConclusionStrategy focus business planning and proposed framework will allow ABC Company and ABC COMPANYto develop plans and actions based on corporate strategy and focus on execution.  Middle management and employees will know what to do  Management will be more proactive  Customers satisfaction will increase  Corporate resources will be used effectively  All employees will understand the work for the mission of businessPerformance measurement tools developed and used in ABC Company has helped XYZ Business Unit ingreat way. These tools will help ABC COMPANY also to  Measure Sales Performance and trends over years  Analyse different markets and customers  Find Cost of each project/task  Monitor Performance of each employee & employee activity history  Define IT Service Levels and monitor them  Types and time spent on customer complaints/calls are loggedABC Company IT has also empowered its customers to analyse their 5 years of sales/market data andoptimize their business decisions. We can use similar methodology to enable ABC COMPANY supplierand customer to analyse their transaction with ABC COMPANY on ABC COMPANY portal. ABC Company| Conclusion 24
  • 25. Gaining Competitive EdgeVII. Appendices 1. Key Performance Indicators used in ABC COMPANY Scorecard – complete listPerspective % Objectives % Measures Target Revenue growth and mix Sales growth by segment - Database 20 Customer profitability 40 Product profitability - Umrah 100 Product profitability - DB Consulting 100 35 Percentage of unprofitable customers 10 Percentage of revenue from new customers 100Financial 20 Percentage of revenue from exisitng customers 40 Increase in Net Profit (%) 100 Increase in Revenue (%) 100 Cost reduction/productivity Revenue per sales employee 100 50 Indirect expenses as a cost of sales 15 Asset utilization Working capital ratio 18 15 Reduce payback time 36 Customer acquisition Proposal Win rate 100 25 Number of new customers 20 % of customers with more than 1 product 100 Customer retention Key account retention 100 15 Number of loyalty schemes run 20 Customer profitability Percentage of unprofitable customers 10 25 Customer profitability percentage 100Customer 25 Customer satisfaction Customer satisfaction percentage 100 Number of unresolved issues 15 25 % SR escalated 20 % Services met SLA 100 % project completed on time & budget 100 Market Share % key customers within target market 20 10 Market share by dollars 10 Improve project management practices Budget allocated to budget spent ratio (%) 100 Quality of project results as seen by stakeholders 100 10 Time allocated to time spent ratio (%) 100 Resource shortage 100 % project completed on time & budget 100 Define & manage service level agreements % Internal Services - met SLA 100 % Internal services - with SLA 100 % External services - with SLA 100 10 % External services - met SLA 100 % SRs closed in 1st contact 100 Average SR create to resolve time 30 Improve sub-contract management % Procurement Requests Met Target 100 % Procurement Contracts with Disputes 100 10 % Suppliers Meeting Service Levels 100 Inrternal 30 % of business process defined and doccumented 100 Improve & maintain business process functionality 10 % of business processes automated 100 Lower process costs 15 Employee efficiency 100 Improve product quality 10 No of bugs or defects / product 100 Innovation % Sales from new products 100 10 Time to breakeven point 2 Time to market new product 10 Better pre-sales operations No of days to address new lead 100 Number of new leads per month 100 15 Success rate of sales lead 100 % of of non-junk leads 100 % leads loss to competitor 20 Implement strategic information systems 10 Implement strategic information systems 100 Increase employee productivity 35 Employee productivity ratio 100 Increase employee motivation Involvement in decisions 100 Recognition 100 Access to information 100 15 Encouragement to be creative 100 Support from staff functions 100 Overall satisfaction with company 100 Hire, develop & retain solid performer Key personnal annual turnover percentage 100 Roles unfilled 100Learning & Growth 25 % certified consultants 100 30 Average training days for resource 30 % of trained IT resource 100 Maximum time to fill a job 60 Employee knowledge sharing % IT Roles Documented 100 % IT Resources with Backup 100 10 Knowledge article published 100 Internal/External training event attended 100 Communicate & lead at all levels Resource database updated and accessible 100 10 Internal training & communication events 100 ABC Company| Appendices 25
  • 26. Gaining Competitive Edge 2. Steps to Formulate Strategy for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ a) Internal Factor Evaluation – IFE for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZAbove IFE shows an average score of 2.22 for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ internal factors score. ABC Company| Appendices 26
  • 27. Gaining Competitive Edgeb) External Factor Evaluation – EFE for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZAbove EFE shows a good score of 2.85 indicating good potential for investment.c) Competitive Profile Matrix – CPM for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZAbove CPM matrix shows that following BUSINESS UNIT XYZ initiative is better option than sub-contracting to partners. ABC Company| Appendices 27
  • 28. Gaining Competitive Edged) Internal External Evaluation Matrix – IE for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZAbove IE matrix shows that BUSINESS UNIT XYZ fits in region (V) and suggested strategies for region (V)are Grow and Maintain.e) SWOT Matrix for ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZAbove SWOT matrix shows different strategies to choose to exploit any opportunity or avoid threat. ABC Company| Appendices 28
  • 29. Gaining Competitive Edgef) SPACE Matrix (Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix) for ABCCompany/BUSINESS UNIT XYZUsing values obtained in above analysis in below grid shows that ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZshould follow aggressive strategies. ABC Company| Appendices 29
  • 30. Gaining Competitive Edgeg) Grand Strategy MatrixUsing values obtained in above SPACE analysis in Grand Strategy matrix also shows that ABCCompany/BUSINESS UNIT XYZ should follow aggressive strategies. ABC Company| Appendices 30
  • 31. Gaining Competitive Edgeh) Strategic Choices – what are our options?After analysing organization/BU internal and external factors and SWOT manager should objectivelyevaluate feasible alternative strategies and decide suitable strategy for BU.Based on the analysis manager should also review the strategic options for the company.i) Quantitative Strategic Profiling Matrix – QSPM for ABC Company/BUSINESSUNIT XYZA QSPM uses input information from Stage 1 to objectively evaluate feasible alternative strategiesidentified in Stage 2. A QSPM reveals the relative attractiveness of alternative strategies and, thus,provides an objective basis for selecting specific strategies.Using values obtained in above analysis in below grid shows that ABC Company/BUSINESS UNIT XYZshould follow aggressive strategies. ABC Company| Appendices 31
  • 32. Gaining Competitive Edge 3. Project Management Methodologies and templates developed in ABC CompanyProject Charter Document TemplateProject Scope Statement templateChange Request Form developed and used in ABC Company ABC Company| Appendices 32
  • 33. Gaining Competitive EdgeReferences:Article/book Source/Author MIT Open Courseware Sloan School of Management (Prof. Arnoldo Hax) Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage Barney & Hesterly The Delta Model - a New Framework of Strategy Arnoldo C. Hax, Dean L. Wilde II What is Strategy? By Michael Porter Harvard Business Review The Balanced Scorecard: translating strategy into Robert S. Kaplan, David P. Norton action Focused Business Planning To Create Sustained Chris Rigatuso Corporate Performance Performance measurement of supply chain Rajat Bhagwat , Milind Kumar Sharma management Beyond strategic information systems: towards an Harvard Management Update IS capability ABC Company| Appendices 33