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Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
Garments washing imran personal
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Garments washing imran personal

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  • great sir. but one thing if you will mention the process of controlling pH and formaldehyde in garment during washing in the in-house lab, i ll be very grateful to you. thank you sir.
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  • Thanks for sharing an educative technical information! Really appreciate it..
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  • I like your process, It,s really informative. thanks
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  • 1. 90Questions Answers of Garments Washing. Advised by: Engr. Md. MAHFUZUR RAHMAN, MEMBER OF IEB,ITET Sr. Lecturer, DIU . Submitted by: Md.Imran Hasan Student of 13th batch TE dept. IMRAN 1.Definition of garment washing? Definition: The technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook comfortable and fashion of the garments is called garment washing. Or, It is a technology by which outlook, size, comfort & fashion of garments / apparels are change of modified and given old garment effect is called Garment Washing. 2.Write the purpose of washing? Purpose of washing/Best wash look is the best touch of a garment - This may be explained in the following way:-  Washing process of garment is done to create wash look appearance. After washing the garments create a new looks which seems the new touch of fashion.  By the washing technique, faded/old look, color or tinted affect is created in the garments which also seem the best touch of garments.  Washing technique creates new fashion such as tagging, grinding, destroy, Blasting, whickering, permanent wrinkle, deep dye, tie dye, P. P spray, hand crapping, P.P spoonzing etc. This also seems the best touch of garments.
  • 2.  The main and important function of washing is to reduce size materials as a result the garment become size free and become soft hand feel.  When these soft garments are touched then it seems to best touch of garments.  To attraction the customers/Buyer by different types of Fashionable washing and market developments.  Due to washing, shrinkage occurs in the garments. There is no possibility of further shrinkage of the wash garments.  Any dirt, spot or germ if added in the garments during manufacturing is also removed due to washing. 3.Write different types of dry processing ? Different types of dry processes are-  Sand Blasting  Hand Scraping  Permanent wrinkle  Over all wrinkle  P.P Spray  P.P Sponging  Grinding & Destroy  Broken & Tagging 4. Write different types of wet processing? Different types of wet processing are-  Normal wash/Garments wash/Rinse wash  Pigment wash  Caustic wash  Enzyme wash (Boi wash &Boi polishing)  Stone wash  Bleach wash (Ice wash& snow wash)  Stone Enzyme wash  Acid wash  Silicon wash  Dip Dyeing
  • 3.  Tie & Dye etc. 5.Write the machine name which are used in washing plant?Machine which are used in washing plant:  Sample washing Machine (Horizontal / Vertical Type)  Washing Machine (Side loading)  Washing Machine (Front loading)  Hydro extractor Machine  Dryer Machine (Steam)  Dryer Machine (Gas)  Chemical Mixture Machine  Industrial Oven (Gas/Electric)  Boiler  Submersible Pump  Grinding Machine  Tagging Machine  Steam chamber for crinkle  E.T.P (Effluent Treatment Plant)  Generator  Sand Blasting Gun  Sand Blasting chamber  Spray gun and dummy  Screw compressor 6.Write the chemical names which are used in washing plant? Chemical names which are used in washing plant: o Enzyme o Acetic Acid o Detergent o Antistain o Bleaching powder o Sodium hyposulfite o Caustic Soda o Soda Ash
  • 4. o Sodium Bicarbonate o Potassium permanganate o Cationic / nonionic Flax softener o Micro Emulsion Silicon o Salt (sodium chloride) o Buffer o Hydrogen peroxide o Stabilizer o Fixing agent o Catanizer o Optical Brightner o Resin o Sodium Metabisulphite o Desizing agent 7.What is the purpose of normal wash? Purpose of normal wash: 1.To remove dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities from the garments. 2.To remove starch presents on the garment fabrics. 3.For soft feeling to wear the garments after purchasing. 4.To achieve buyer washing standard. 8.Describe the first step & 2nd step of normal / garment wash? Washing process of normal wash: First step: Lot size: -....................... 70 kg Twill/Canvas Garment. Add water at L: R = 1: 8-10.............. 560 - 700 Liter. Machine Running. Add detergent at 0.5 gm / liter ............ 280-350 gm. Temperature........... Sometime cold & sometime 40°c to 60°c. Time .............................. 5 to 10 minutes. Drop the liquor. cold wash
  • 5. 2nd Step: Add water at L: R = 1: 6 ......... 420 liter. Washing machine running Add Flax softener at 0.6 gm / liter.... 252 gm. Add Acetic Acid at 0.5 gm / liter ...... 210 gm. Time................................... 5 to 10 minutes. Drop the liquor. Unload the Garments on trolley. 9.What is the function of Hydro extractor machine? Function of hydro extractor machine: Hydro-extraction the garments to remove excess water from the washed Garments. 10.What is the purpose of silicon wash? Purpose of silicon wash: 1.To give durable softness & elastic handle properties. 2.To increase anti pilling affects, dimensional stability, and tear resistance. 3.To improve wear and easy care properties. 11.Write different between normal wash and silicon wash? Difference between normal wash and silicon wash is given bellow: Normal wash. Silicon wash To remove dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities from the garments. To give durable softness & elastic handle properties. To remove starch present on garments fabrics. To increase anti pilling affects & dimensional stability. For soft feeling to wear the garments after purchasing. To increase tear resistance property.
  • 6. To achieve buyer washing standard To improve wear and easy care properties. 12.Describe the desizing process of silicon wash? Desizing process of silicon wash: Lot weight (Approx 125 Pecs) ............ 60 kg. Add water at L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 Liter Machine Running. Add Desizing agent at 0.6 gm / liter ............ 360 gm. Add Detergent at 0.5 gm / liter.................... 300 gm. Temperature.......................... 40--50°c. Time ................................10-- 20 min. Drop the liquor Rinse one time 3 minutes. 13.Describe the softening process of silicon wash? Softening process of silicon wash: Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter. Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm / liter ............ 288 gm. Cationic Softener at 1 gm / liter.............. 480 gm. Silicon (ME) at 0.5 gm / liter ................ 240 gm. Temperature.......................... 40°c Time................................ 15 to 20 min. Drain the bath. Then unload the garments on trolley. 14.Write the chemical name which is used in pigment wash / caustic wash. CHEMICAL USED IN PIGMENT WASHING AND THEIR FUNCTION CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH) :- • Caustic created the role in bleach technique without color change the garments. • Caustic has a cleaning power which is more powerful then soda Ash.
  • 7. • Fading affect/old looking affect come rapidly on garments SODA ASH (Na2Co3) : • Soda ash created alkaline medium for the breakdown of pigment dye. • It has also a cleaning power. • It has also help color fading affect of garments. Detergent: Here detergent is used to remove impurities from the Garment fabric surfaces and temperature helps detergent to enhance its action. Detergent removes the impurities from the garments fabric surface. During coming these impurities, some pigment will be washed out from the pigment dyed or printed area of the garments. As a result fading affect will be developed. Acidic Acid (CH3COOH): Acidic Acid is used to neutralize the garment from alkaline condition and to control the pH value in wash bath. Flax Softener (Cationic, anionic): Softener is used to make the garments treated textiles is surface feel that is bath sickly and soft and also provides excellent lubricating properties CHEMICAL USED IN CAUSTIC WASH AND THEIR FUNCTION CAUSTIC SODA (NaoH): • Caustic created the role in bleach technique with color change the garments. • Caustic has powerful cleaning power. • Fading affect/old looking affect come rapidly on garments. ACIDIC ACID(CH3COOH): Acidic Acid is used to neutralize the garment from alkaline condition and to control the pH value in wash bath. DETERGENT: Here detergent is used to remove impurities from the garments fabric surfaces and temperature helps detergent to enhance its action. During these impurities, some color will be washed out from the colored fabric garments. As a result fading affect will be developed.
  • 8. Flax Softener (Cationic, anionic): Softener is used to make the garments treated textiles is surface feel that is bath sickly and soft and also provides excellent lubricating properties. 15.Write the chemical name which are used for Enzyme wash? Chemical which are used for enzyme wash:  Desizing agent  Detergent  Anti back staining agent  Acidic acid  Cationic softener  Chlorine bleach  Soda ash  Sodium hypo sulphite  Sodium bi carbonate  Silicon (ME) 16.Write the desizing / first step process of caustic wash process. Desizing process of caustic wash:  Lot size: - ...................... 80 kg.  Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 640 Liter  Machine Running.  Add Caustic soda (NAOH) at 1.60 gm / liter …. 1024 gm.  Add Detergent.............. at 0.8 gm / liter ......... 432 gm.  Temperature........... 50°c to 60°c.  Time (Depend upon the shade) ....... 20 to 60 min.  Drop the liquor.  Wash cold water for 3 min. 17. What is the standard r.p.m of washing machine? The standard r.p.m of washing machine is 28-35. 18. Write the chemicals name which are used for softness of garments? Chemicals which are used for softness of garments:
  • 9.  Cationic softener  Silicon  Enzyme 19.Write the chemicals name which are used for good quality hand feel? Chemicals which are used for good quality hand feel are- Cationic softener Silicon Enzyme 20.What chemical used for protect bleeding / staining on garments? Anti back staining agent is used for the protection of staining / bleeding on garments. 21.What process is done for remove starch / sizing materials from the garments? Desizing process is done for removing starch / sizing materials from the garments. 22.Why acitic acid is used in Enzyme bath? Acitic acid is used in Enzyme bath to neutralize the garments from alkaline condition and to control the pH value of the bath. Or, Acitic acid is used in Enzyme bath to create acitic medium for the better action of enzyme and flax softener. 23.Write different between steam dryer & gas dryer. Steam dryer Gas dryer Low production rate. High production rate. Generally light garments are used for Generally Heavy garments are used
  • 10. dry . for dry. No risk of yellowish formation. May be form yellowish effect on the garments. 24.Describe the Desizing process of Denim Long Pant? Desizing process of Denim Long Pant: Lot weight (80 Pecs) ............ 60 kg denim long pant. Add water at L: R = 1: 9.............. 540 Liter Machine Running. Temperature.......................... 60°c. Add Desizing agent at 0.6 gm / liter ............ 324 gm. Add Detergent at 0.8 gm / liter.................... 432 gm. Time ................................15- 25 min. Drop the liquor. Wash 1 time by cold water 25.Describe the Enzyme bath process of Denim Long Pant by Acid Enzyme? Enzyme bath process of Denim Long Pant by Acid Enzyme is given bellow: Add water at L: R = 1 : 8 ........... 480 Liter Temperature .............................. 45°c. Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm / liter ... 270 gm. Add Anti Back staining at 0.6 gm / liter .... 270 gm Add Acid Enzyme at 2.00 gm / liter ... 900 gm. Time... (Depend upon the shade)……..30- 60 min. Increase temperature to 90°c and run 1 minute (enzyme killing). Drain the bath. Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes 26.Describe the Enzyme bath process of Denim Long Pant by Neutral Enzyme.
  • 11. Enzyme bath process of Denim Long Pant by Neutral Enzyme is described bellow: Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter Temperature................................ 45°c. Add Acetic Acid at 0.3 gm / liter..... 135 CC. Add Anti Back staining at 0.6 gm / liter ... 270 gm. Add Neutral Enzyme at 2.00 gm / liter ... 900 gm. Time... (Depend upon the shade)….40- 80 min. Increase temperature to 90°c and run 1 minute (enzyme killing). Drain the bath. Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes 27.How can do the killing of Enzyme in Enzyme bath? For killing of Enzyme in Enzyme bath the temperature is increased to 90oC and run for 1minute. 28.Why chlorine bleach is use in Denim wet processing? Chlorine bleach is used in Denim wet processing for the better bleach action on garments. Because we know that chlorine has strong bleaching power. So that it can easily create bleaching effect on garments. 29.What chemical is used for neutralization of chlorine bleach? Sodium hypo sulphite is used for neutralization of chlorine bleach. 30.Write the main 5 function of Enzyme wash. The main 5 function of Enzyme wash: 1.It remove size material from the garments. 2.Enzyme attack as chemically not mechanically for this reason low damage / wastage than stone wash. 3.Enzyme improve the anti pilling properties. 4.It attacks more the surface of the fabrics and gives a very smooth surface. 5.It increase the color fastness and rubbing fastness properties. 31.What is the action of Enzyme on Garments?
  • 12. The action of enzyme during enzyme wash, it hydrolysis the cellulose, at first it attacks the having projecting fiber and hydrolyzed them. Then it attacks the yarn portion inside fabric and partly hydrolyzed the yarn portion and faded affect is produced. 32.What is standard time for bleaching in Bleaching bath of Denim Garments? The standard time for bleaching in bleaching bath of Denim Garments is 12- 15 minutes. 33.What types of Enzyme used in Bangladesh? Mainly two types of enzyme used in Bangladesh. One is Acid Enzyme (liquid) and another is Neutral Enzyme. Neutral Enzyme is two types- a). Powder form b). Liquid form i.e. SL Enzyme. 34.Write different between Acid Enzyme & Neutral Enzyme. Difference between Acid Enzyme & Neutral Enzyme: Acid Enzyme Neutral Enzyme Acid enzyme color is slightly brown. Enzyme is slightly white powder form. pH range is 4.5-5.5 pH range is 6-7. Temperature- 40oc – 55oc . Temperature – 40oc–60oc. Time required 25 min to 50 min. Time required 40 to 70 min. Enzyme affects come within short time. Enzyme affects come slowly Staining /Bleeding occurs more in garments Less staining/bleeding on garments
  • 13. Production is high. Production is less. Used for medium and light shade. Used for dark shade. 35.How can control the pH value in garments? By the appropriate use of acidic acid, buffer and hydrogen peroxide we can neutralize the garments from alkaline condition and therefore can control the pH value in garments. 36.What types of Enzyme is suitable for Dark shade Enzyme wash of Denim Long Pant & why? Neutral Enzyme is suitable for Dark shade Enzyme wash of Denim Long Pant Because 37.What type of Enzyme is suitable for medium / light shade Enzyme wash of Denim skirt? Acid Enzyme is suitable for medium/ light shade Enzyme wash of Denim skirt. 38.Write Desizing process of twill Long Pant for Enzyme wash. Desizing process of twill Long Pant for Enzyme wash: Lot weight (Approx 125 Pecs) ............ 60 kg twill long pant. Add water at L : R = 1 : 10 .............. 600 Liter Machine Running. Add Desizing agent at 0.6 gm / liter........ 360 gm. Add Detergent at 0.5 gm / liter ............... 300 gm. Temperature.......................... 50-60°c. Time ........................................10- 20 min. Drop the liquor. Rinse one time 3 minutes 39.Write Enzyme bath process of Twill Long Pant Enzyme wash. Enzyme bath process of Twill Long Pant Enzyme wash: Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter
  • 14. Temperature.......................... 45°c. Add Acetic Acid at 0.5 gm / liter.............. 240 gm. Add Acid Enzyme at 1.2 gm / liter ............ 600 gm. Add Anti stain at 0.50 gm / liter ...........,,.. 240 gm. Time (Depend upon the standard).... 30 to 60 min. Increase temperature to 90°c and run 1 minute. Drain the bath. Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes. 40.Write main process of stone Enzyme wash for Denim Long Pant. STONE ENZYME WASH Now in our Bangladesh maximum Denim garment is washing STONE ENZYMEWASH. It is most popular wash for Buyer. A process of stone enzyme wash of 60 kg batch of Denim Long Pant as mentioned below: First Step :- PRE-TREATMENT / DESIZING Batch size....................... 60 kg Denim Long Pant. Add water at L: R = 1: 9.............. 540 liter. Start the machine. Temperature.................... 60°c Add Desizing agent at 0.6 gm / liter .......... 324 gm. Add Detergent / Antistain at 1 gm / liter ... 540 gm. Time................................ 15 to 25 min. Drop the liquor Second Step : HOT WASH Add water at L: R = 1: 9.............. 540 liter. Temperature.................... 60°c Time................................ 5 min. Third Step : Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 liter. Add pumic stone at ½ vol of garments. Add Enzyme at 1.50 gm/liter ..................... 720 gms. Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter ..................... 288 gms.
  • 15. Add Antistain at 0.8 gm/liter ..................... 384 gms. Temperature............................. 40°c to 50°c. Time (Depend upon the shade) .......... 60 to 70 min. Then temperature raise to 90°c for 1 minute. Drop the liquor. Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes. Then pumic stone out from washing machine Fourth Step : BLEACHING Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 liter. Machine running. Add bleaching powder (k.c.i) at 10 gm/liter ..................... 4800 gms. Add soda ash at 5 gm/liter................. 2400 gms. Temperature ....................................... 60°c. Time (Depend upon the shade) ...... 12 to 15 min. Drop the liquor. Rinse twice, each 3 minutes Fifth Step :- NEUTRAL WASH Add water at L: R = 1: 9..... 540 liter. Add sodium hypo sulphite at 3 gm/liter ..................... 1620 gms. Temperature ......................... 40°c. Time ............................... 10 to 12 min. Drop the liquor. Rinse one Sixth Step :- SOFT WASH Add water at L: R = 1: 8 .......... 480 liter. Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter... 288 gms. Cationic softener at 1 gm/liter.... 480 gms. Time................................ 5 min. Drop the liquor. Unload the garments to trolley. Seventh Step :- Hydro-extractor Machine
  • 16. Hydro-extraction the garment to remove excess water from the washed garments Eighth Step : Drying Machine Load 40 kg garments Set temperature........ 75°c to 85°c. Time.......................... 35 to 40 min. Time.......................... 10 minutes in cold dry. Ninth Step : Delivery After quality checking garment will be delivery 41.What is the perfect temperature for Acid Enzyme and Neutral Enzyme? The perfect temperature for Acid Enzyme and Neutral Enzyme is 45oc. 42.Write different types of washing faults. Different types of washing faults are-  Color shade variation.  Crease Marks.  After wash hole.  Very dark & very light.  Bleach Spot.  Bottom hem & course edge destroy.  Running shading.  Over blasting / low Blasting.  Over grinding / low grinding.  Bad smell due to poor neutralization.  Poor hand feel.  To high hairiness.  Poor brightness.  High or low affect / abrasion on garments.  Spot on garments.
  • 17.  Out of range / level of pH value of garments 43.Write the function of Anti stain, Detergent, Potassium Permanganate, Micro Emulsion Softener, Hydrogen Peroxide, Optical Brightener and desizing agent. Anti stain: Anti stain is used to prevent the staining on weft yarn of the denim (white yarn), white pockets of garment, levels, and contacted fabrics of garment and increased the brightness of fabrics; it is also acts as anti- creasing agent. Detergent: Chemical character is fatty alcohol poly glycol ether in an aqueous, glycolic solution. Detergent is widely applicable in the continuous and discontinuous pretreatment of all types of fiber and their blends. To remove impurities, mineral oil contamination and sizes from the garments scouring of goods for dyeing and printing fully white and colored articles. Potassium Permanganate: Chemical character is fatty alcohol poly glycol ether in an aqueous, glycolic solution. Detergent is widely applicable in the continuous and discontinuous pretreatment of all types of fiber and their blends. To remove impurities, mineral oil contamination and sizes from the garments scouring of goods for dyeing and printing fully white and colored articles. Emulsion Softener: Amino Silicon is a textile finishing agent consisting mainly of amino modified silicon. When applied on fabrics, it gives durable softness, lubricity, elastic handle, anti-pilling, dimensional stability, tear resistance and fabric to be cut and sewn more easily allows and improving wear and easy care properties. Hydrogen Peroxide: Hydrogen peroxide creates the prime role in bleach wash technique .In alkaline medium, hydrogen peroxide breaks up and gives some per hydroxhyl ion,which discolor the coloring materials and as a result fading affect is developed. Hydrogen per oxide is used in scouring, bleaching
  • 18. bath for white/ready for dyeing of gray fabric garments. It is used also neutralized the garment from alkaline condition . Optical Brightener: Two types of optical brightener are used in the washing plant– a)Red brightener. b) Blue brightener. Mainly optical brightener is used for improve the brightness of garments. Desizing Agent:Desizing agent is used to remove mainly starches, cmc, waxes, fats pectin’s, minerals & unfixed indigo dye from denim, twills, poplin & canvas fabrics etc. 44.Describe only bleaching process of Bleach wash of Denim Long Pant. Bleaching process of Bleach wash of 60 kg Denim Long Pant is given bellow: Lot size ………………60 kg Denim Long Pant. Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 liter. Machine running. Add bleaching powder (k.c.i) at 10 gm/liter ..................... 4800 gms. Add soda ash at 5 gm/liter ............... 2400 gms. Temperature............................. 60°c. Time (Depend upon the shade) ....... 12 to 15 min. Drop the liquor. Rinse twice, each 3 minutes 45.What do you know about pumic stone? Pumic stone:  The pumic stone are the perforated stones, produced from volcanic explosion.  At first these stones are soft but becomes cold, it becomes the stones with rough surface  Pumic stones float on water.  Pumic stones come from Indonesia and Turkey.  Indonesia stone color is slightly brown and Turkey stone is white color.
  • 19.  Pumic stones are available in 3 size i.e. small 2-3 cm, medium 3-5 cm and largesize 5-7 cm.  Two to Three times can be used are pumic stone. Every bag contain 22 kg to 25 kgand price 400/= to 425/=/ bag. 46.Write the approx Enzyme and Silicon wash charges for Twill Men’s and Boy’s Trouser separately. Approx rate for Enzyme and Silicon wash for twill Men’s and Boy’s Trouser is Enzyme wash: Kids / Boy's item - us$ 1.80 - $ 2.25 / DOZ Adult item - us$ 2.25 - $ 2.75 / DOZ Silicon wash: Kids / Boy's item - us$ 1.25 - $ 1.75 / DOZ Adult item - us$ 1.50 - $ 2.00 / DOZ 47.Why we run the dryer with garment after dry 10 -15 minutes in cold position? We run the dryer with garment after dry 10 to 15 minutes in cold position to cold the garments. 48.Which dryer is suitable to dry white readymade garments and why? Steam dryer is suitable to dry white readymade garments because there is no risk of yellowish formation on the garments. 49.Describe the risk/ problem of gas dryer. If we use gas dryer then there is a great possibility of yellowish formation on the garments. 50.Describe the fault/ problem of garments if Excess load in the washing machine.
  • 20. 51.What are the reasons of after wash hole? 52.What is the standard r.p.m (inner drum) of industrial dryer? 53.If inner drum r.p.m of washing machine and dryer machine is too high, what types of effect on garments? 54.What is the standard L:R for Desizing, Enzyme bath and Softener bath? Standard L:R for desizing is 1:9 ,for Enzyme bath= 1:8 and for Softener bath= 1:8 55.Write the name of steps of stone Enzyme wash process of Denim Long Pant. Steps of stone Enzyme wash process of Denim Long Pant are given bellow:  Pretreatment/ Desizing  Hot wash  Enzyme  Bleaching  Neutral wash  Soft wash  Hydro extractor machine  Drying machine  Delivery STONE ENZYME WASH Now in our Bangladesh maximum Denim garment is washing STONE ENZYMEWASH. It is most popular wash for Buyer. A process of stone enzyme wash of 60 kg batch of Denim Long Pant as mentioned below: First Step :- PRE-TREATMENT / DESIZING  Batch size....................... 60 kg Denim Long Pant.  Add water at L: R = 1: 9.............. 540 liter.
  • 21.  Start the machine.  Temperature.................... 60°c  Add Desizing agent at 0.6 gm / liter .......... 324 gm.  Add Detergent / Antistain at 1 gm / liter ... 540 gm.  Time................................ 15 to 25 min.  Drop the liquor Second Step : HOT WASH  Add water at L: R = 1: 9.............. 540 liter.  Temperature.................... 60°c.  Time................................ 5 min. Third Step : Enzyme  Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 liter.  Add pumic stone at ½ vol of garments.  Add Enzyme at 1.50 gm/liter ..................... 720 gms.  Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter ..................... 288 gms.  Add Antistain at 0.8 gm/liter ..................... 384 gms.  Temperature............................. 40°c to 50°c..  Time (Depend upon the shade) .......... 60 to 70 min.  Then temperature raise to 90°c for 1 minute.  Drop the liquor.  Rinse Twice, each 3 minutes.  Then pumic stone out from washing machine Fourth Step : BLEACHING  Add water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 liter.  Machine running.  Add bleaching powder (k.c.i) at 10 gm/liter ..................... 4800 gms.  Add soda ash at 5 gm/liter................. 2400 gms.  Temperature ....................................... 60°c.  Time (Depend upon the shade) ...... 12 to 15 min.  Drop the liquor.  Rinse twice, each 3 minutes
  • 22. Fifth Step :- NEUTRAL WASH  Add water at L: R = 1: 9..... 540 liter.  Add sodium hyposulphite at 3 gm/liter ..................... 1620 gms.  Temperature ......................... 40°c.  Time ............................... 10 to 12 min.  Drop the liquor.  Rinse one Sixth Step :- SOFT WASH  Add water at L: R = 1: 8 .......... 480 liter.  Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter... 288 gms.  Cationic softener at 1 gm/liter.... 480 gms.  Time................................ 5 min.  Drop the liquor.  Unload the garments to trolley. Seventh Step :- Hydro-extractor Machine  Hydro-extraction the garment to remove excess water from the washedgarments Eighth Step : Drying Machine :  Load 40 kg garments  Set temperature........ 75°c to 85°c.  Time.......................... 35 to 40 min.  Time.......................... 10 minutes in cold dry. Ninth Step : Delivery  After quality checking garment will be delivery 56.Write the name of steps of Enzyme wash process of Denim Dark Enzyme wash process. Steps of Enzyme wash process of Denim Dark Enzyme process:  Pretreatment / Desizig
  • 23.  Enzyme  Softening  Hydro extractor machine  Drying machine  Deliver 57.Write the flow chart of Medium Enzyme shah wash of Denim Readymade Garments. Flow chart of Medium shade enzyme washes of Denim Readymade Garments- Pretreatment / Desizing Enzyme Bleaching Neutral wash Soft wash Hydro- extractor machine Drying machine Delivery. 58.Write the chemical name of Acid wash process. Chemicals used in Acid wash process are-  Desizing agent  Detergent  Potassium permanganate  Sodium Matabisulphite  Phosphoric acid  Acetic acid  Softener 59.What is the standard stock solution of P.P solution? The standard stock solution of P.P solution is 0.4% i.e. 100 Liter water 400 grams potassium permanganate. 60.How do you neutralization of P.P treatment garments?
  • 24. We can neutralize the P.P treated garments by applying sodium metabisulphite. 61.Write the precaution of acid wash. Precaution of acid wash:  Maintain the stock solution properly constant when comes socking the stone.  No water licks in to the machine when treated pumic stone & garments in to the machine.  Not excess load the garments in the Acid wash processing.  Add some new stone after finishing on batch to maintain the volume for 2ndbatch. It is a matter of experience 62.What types of dyes used for tinting of readymade garments? Generally Reactive and Direct dyes are used for tinting of Readymade garments. 63.Generally which color is used for tinting? Generally Yellow, Brown, Orange etc color is used for tinting. 64.Write the main tinting process (dying) by Direct dye? Tinting by Direct Dye: First Step: - After different wet processing i.e. Acid wash, Stone wash, Enzyme wash, Stone enzyme wash, Bleach wash take 60 kg garment for Tinting & over dyeing.  Water at L: R = 1: 7.............. 420 Liters  Run the Machine.  Temperature................. 50 - 80°c  Dir. Brown GTL - at 0.04%........... 24 Gms.  Dir. Orange ZTL - at 0.01%........... 6 Gms.  Add Salt at 20 gm / liter ............ 8.40 kg.
  • 25.  Add Leveling agent at 0.5% /........ 210 gm.  Time................................ 10 to 30 mts.  Rinse by cold water 3 minutes Second Step: - FIXING  Batch size .............................. 60 kg.==  Water at L: R = 1: 7.............. 420 Liter  Run the Machine.  Temperature................. 50°c  Add fixing agent at 0.8 %(owf) ... 480 gm.  Time............................................ 10 mts. Third Step: - Softening.  Batch size.................... 60 kg.  water at L : R = 1 : 7 ............................ 420 Liter  Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter ............ 250 gm.  Add Cationic softener at 1 gm/liter ...... 420 gm.  Time................................ 10 mts.  Drop the liquor.  Then unload the garments on trolley. Fourth Step: - Hydro extractor machine.  Hydro extractor machine is used to remove excess water from the garments. Fifth Step: - Dryer machine.  After hydro extraction the garments are sent to drying m/c for complete drying. Sixth Step: - Quality & Delivery. After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery. 65.Write the tinting process (dying) by reactive dyes. Tinting by Reactive dye:
  • 26. First Step: - After different wet processing i.e. Acid wash, Stone wash, Enzyme wash,Stone enzyme wash, Bleach wash take 60 kg garment for Tinting & over dyeing.  Water at L: R = 1: 7.... 420 Liter  Run the Machine.  Temperature................. 60°c  Reactive Red  Reactive Yellow - Brown ......... 100 gm.  Reactive Black -  Leveling agent - at 0.5 gm / liter.......240 gm.  Salt - at 20 gm / liter........... 8.40 kg.  Soda ash at 10 gm / liter ............ 4.20 kg.  Time................................ 20 to 30 mts.  Drop the liquor. Second Step: - Fixing.  Batch size.................... 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1 : 8 .............. 480 Liter  Run the Machine.  Temperature.................................. 50°c  Add fixing agent at1 gm / liter..... 480 gm.  Time............................................. 10 mts.  Drop the liquor. Third Step: - Softening.  Batch size.................... 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1: 7.............. 420 Liter  Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter ............ 250 gm.  Add Cationic softener at 1 gm/liter ...... 420 gm.  Time................................ 10 mts.  Drop the liquor.  Then unload the garments on trolley
  • 27. Fourth Step: - Hydro extractor machine.  Hydro extractor machine is used to remove excess water from the garments. Fifth Step: - Dryer machine.  After hydro extraction the garments are sent to drying m/c for complete drying. Sixth Step: - Quality & Delivery.  After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery. 66.What is standard blowing angle for sand blasting? The standard blowing angle for sand blasting is 10-20 Degree. 67.What are the main ingredients for sand blasting process? The main ingredients for sand blasting process are-  Aluminum oxide(Al2O3)  Sand blasting gun  Sand blasting bed  Sand blasting chamber  Hand gloves  Musk  Uniform  Helmet  Ear flag 68.Write the approximate production / hrs / gun of sand blasting. The approximate production /hrs/gun varies from 25-50 pcs. garments depend on the area, extent to fading.
  • 28. 69.Write the name of protective items for health in the sand blasting process. Protective items for health in the sand blasting process are-  Hand gloves  Musk  Helmet  Ear flag and  Uniform 70.What do you mean by P.P spray?  P.P spray is doing in Denim, Twill, Poplin, Corduroy, generally middle of washi.e. after enzyme wash, stone enzyme wash.  If need some particular area more white then we are doing P.P spray.  After P.P spray need to neutralize the garment Sodium Metabisulphite , thenwhitish effect come on respective area of garments.  Standard stock solution for P.P. spray is 0.4% i.e. 100 liter water 400 gramspotassium permanganate.  P.P. spray is done nozzle and has a switch to start & stop.  For spray on garments need dry air which is supplied from screw compressor and P.P. stock solution tank.  P.P. spray in garment need on chamber, different types of dummy and exhaust fan. 71.What do you mean by P.P sponging?  P.P sponging is doing in Denim, Twill, Poplin, corduroy generally middle of wash i.e. after enzyme wash, stone enzyme wash.  If need some area more white then we are doing P.P. sponging.  After P.P. sponging sodium meta bisulphite is used to neutralize the garments.
  • 29.  Standard stock solution for P.P. sponging is 0.4% i.e. 100 liter water 400 gramspotassium permanganate.  P.P sponging is done manually.  By foam/ fabric pcs wet in p.p.stock solution and rubbing particular area of garments as result fading affects on garments.  P.P. sponging operator must be used Hand gloves, Helmet, Mask, Ear plug &uniform for their safety. 72.What is the purpose of P.P. spray? The purpose of P.P spray is to create more fading affect on particular area of garments. 73.What is the purpose of P.P. sponging? The purpose of P.P sponging is also to create more fading affect on particular area of garments. 74.What do you mean by whiskering? Whiskering: A process of whickering denim/Canvas/Twill/Corduroy garment is deserved below:-  By rubber pattern & sand blasting gun. i.e. rubber pattern set on garment and sandthrough over the pattern by nozzle.  By manually created whisker by sand paper on garment.  Make a pattern just like pacific whisker and put it inside the garment, then rubbingfront side of garment over pattern,  By p.p. spray and p.p. sponging on garments.  Mentioned all process is done on garments fadding effect occurs in garments. 75.What do you mean by tagging?
  • 30. Tagging: Tagging is doing on garment for fashion and value added fashion wear.  Tagging is doing by Tagging machine.  Tagging is doing also by needle & thread & manually.  After wash upper portion of garment shows crease marks and inside of taggingoccurs Dark shade. 76.What do you mean by Grinding? Grinding:  Grinding is doing on garment for mainly old/used look appearance & fashion.  Grinding is doing on hem, pocket edge, west belt, pocket opening, and pocket pluf of garments.  Grinding is done by grinding machine, sand paper by manually. 77. What do you mean by destroy? Destroy:  Destroy is newly fashion on garments.  Destroy is doing by manually.  Different types of machine used for destroy the garments  Grinding machine,Emery cloth, Hacksaw blade, Knife etc.  When destroy is done one garment, it seems to be long time used effect. 78.What types of fabrics are suitable for permanent wrinkle? Fabrics which are suitable for permanent wrinkle are- Generally Denim, Twill, Canvas, Poplin, knit and Polyester fabrics are suitable for permanent wrinkle. 79.Write the chemical name for permanent crinkle on the garments. For permanent wrinkle we use resin on the garments which must be dilute with water. Itmight be 80% water and 20% resin. 80.What is the standard temperature for permanent crinkle on oven?
  • 31. The standard temperature for permanent crinkle on oven is 140- 160 Degree c. 81.What is the standard time is required for permanent crinkle in the oven? The standard time is required for permanent crinkle in the oven is 20-40 mintues. 82.What do you mean by overall crinkle? OVERALL WRINKLE PROCESS: Generally overall wrinkle is doing on garments after all types of wet process & dryprocess.  Overall wrinkle is done on the garment made from all types of fabrics like, Denim,Twill, Canvas, Poplin, Corduroy, Knit, Polyester, Viscose & Nylon etc.  Now tie the whole garment in tight position by thread.  For overall wrinkle, we are used resin in washing machine with water and run tiedgarments for 5 to 10 minutes at 50°c temperature.  Then unload the garments from washing machine to trolley for hydro extractor toremove the excess water.  Open the tie or cut the thread.  Now hanger the garments into the hanger trolley. Trolley capacity appreciates 80-100 pcs garments.  Then trolley with resin treatment garments put inside the Industrial oven.  Set temperature 140°c to 160°c, Time 50-70 minutes.  Start the machine.  When setting time is over, machines are automatically off.  After heating time over garments with hanger will stay 10 minutes for cold in oven.  Now open the door and trolley with garments out from oven and go to quality section, checking & delivery.
  • 32. 83.What types of dyes are used for 100% cotton readymade garments? Dyes used for 100 % cotton readymade garments are-  Reactive dyes.  Direct dyes  Sulpher dyes  Vat dyes  Azoic dyes  Pigment dyes 84.What do you mean by ready for dying garments? Ready for dyeing garments means the garments in which precaution steps for dyeing hasbeen already done, i.e. the garments which is ready for dyeing process. 85.Write the main / first step of ready for dyeing process. First step of ready for dyeing process :Desizing process:  Batch size.................... 60 kg cotton shirt (grey).  Water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter.  Running the machine.  Temperature .................. 90°c.  Detergent at 2% ............ 1.2 kg.  Caustic at 8% ................ 4.8 kg.  Soda Ash at 5% ............ 3.00 kg.  Hydrogen Peroxide (H2o2) at 12%... 7.20 kg.  Stabilizer at 5% ............ 3.00 kg.  Time............................. 60 to 80mts.  Drop the liquor 86. What do mean by super white process? Super white:  Normally done on the garments made from cotton grey fabric.  The garments after wash become extremely white.  Washing is carried out in steps:---
  • 33. WASHING PROCESS:- First Step:-  Batch size.................... 60 kg cotton shirt (grey).  Water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter.  Running the machine.  Temperature...................................... 90°c.  Detergent at 2% (owf)........................ 1.20 kg.  Caustic Soda at 8% (owf).................... 4.80 kg.  Soda Ash at 5% (owf).......................... 3.00 kg.  Hydrogen Peroxide (H2o2) at 12% (owf)...7.20 kg.  Stabilizer at 5% (owf)........... 3.00 kg.  Time................................ 70 -80 mts.  Drop the liquor. Second Step:-  Batch size......................... 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1: 8........ 480 Liter.  Running the machine  Temperature ...................... 90°c  Detergent at 2%................. 1.20 kg.  Caustic at 4% ..................... 2.40 kg.  Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) at 10%... 6.00 kg.  Stabilizer at 2%................. 1.20 kg.  Time................................... 40 ---- 70 mts.  Drop the liquor. Third Step: - HOT WASH.  Batch size.......................... 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1: 8 .......... 480 Liter.  Running the machine.  Temperature ...................... 50°c.  Time................................... 5 mts.  Drop the liquor.
  • 34. Fourth Step: - NEUTRAL.  Batch size....................... 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1: 8..... 480 Liter.  Acetic Acidat 1%........... 600 gm.  Time................................ 5 mts.  Drop the liquor. Fifth Step:-  Batch size .............................. 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1: 7.............. 420 Liter.  Machine Start.  Optical Brightener 0.5%........ 300 gm.  Time ....................................... 5 mts.  Drop the liquor. Sixth Step: - Softening  Batch size ........................................ 60 kg.  Water at L: R = 1: 7 .................. 420 Liter.  Non-ionic Softener at 0.4% ............ 240 gm.  Micro Emulsion silicon at 0.4%..... 240 gm  Time ........................................ 5 to 10 mts.  Drop the liquor.  Then unload the garment on trolley. Seventh Step: - Hydro extractor machine. Hydro extractor machine is used to remove excess water from the garments. Eighth Step: - Drying machine.  Load 50 kg garments to steam dryer.  Temperature set ................ 70°c.  Run about................. 40-45 mts.  After run 10 to 15 mts. for cold dry. Ninth Step: - Quality & Delivery.
  • 35. After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and thengood one delivery. 87.Write the chemicals name which are used for super white process. Chemicals which are used for super white process are- • Detergent • Caustic soda(NaOH) • Soda ash(Na2CO3) • Hydrogen per oxide(H2O2) • Stabilizer • Optical Brightener • Non – ionic Softener • Micro Emulsion silicon • Acetic acid 88.Write the dyeing bath process of pigment dyes for cotton readymade garments. PIGMENT DYEING PROCESS AT EXHAUST: First Step: - Cationizing. Batch size.................... 60 kg ready for dyeing garments. Water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter. Machine running. Add Cationizing (Acramin prefix K)at 4%...... 2.40 kg. Machine run at room temperature for .......... 10 mts. After 10 mts run, temperature raise to 60°c. Now run.......................... 20 mts. Drop the liquor. Second Step: - HOT WASH. Batch size....................... 60 kg. Water at L: R = 1: 8..... 480 Liter. Running the machine. Temperature ...................... 60°c.
  • 36. Time ................................. 5 mts. Drop the liquor.Third Step: - Dyeing Batch size.................... 60 kg. Water at L: R = 1: 7.......................... 420 Liter. Add..... Pigment Red at 3%................ 1800 gm. Pigment Black at 0.1%............. 60 gm. Add Acetic Acid at 1cc/liter.................... 420 cc. Temperature ..................................... 80°c-85°c Time ................................................. 30 -40 mts Drop the liquor. Fourth Step: - FIXING. Batch size................................ 60 kg. Water at L: R = 1: 8.............. 480 Liter. Add Binder at 5% ......................3.00 kg. Temperature ........................ 30°c - 40. Time ................................10 - 20 mts. Fifth Step: - Softening. Batch size................................... 60 kg. Water at L: R = 1: 7................. 420 Liter. Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter ... 250 gm. Add cationic softener at 1 gm/liter.......... 420 gm. Time................................ 10 mts. Drop the liquor. Then unload the garments trolley. Sixth Step: - Hydro extractor machine. Hydro extractor machine is used to remove excess water from the garments. Seventh Step: - Drying machine. Load 50 kg garments to steam dryer. Temperature set ................ 70°c. Run about.............. 40-45 mts. After run 10 to 15 mts. for cold dry.
  • 37. Eighth Step: - Quality & Delivery. After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery. 89.Write the dyeing bath process of Sulpher dyes for cotton readymade garments. SULPHER DYEING: First Step: - Cationization. Batch size ...60 kg garments ready for dyeing. Water at L : R = 1 : 8 .............. 480 Liter. Machine running. Add Cationization (Indosol E-50 liter) at 4%..... 2.40 kg. Temperature ................... 60°c. Time....................... 30-40 mts. Drop the liquor. Second Step:- Dyeing Batch size................................ 60 kg. Water at L: R = 1: 7.............. 420 Liter Optical Yellow - 2.50%.......... 1500 gm. Optical Orange - 0.4%........... 240 gm. Add Salt at 20 gm/liter ............ 8.40 kg. Temperature....................... 90°c Time................................ 60 to 70 mts. Drop the liquor. Rinse overflow until clear water. Third Step: - Softening. Batch size ............................ 60 kg. Water at L: R = 1: 7 .......... 420 Liter. Add Acetic Acid at 0.6 gm/liter ....... 250 gm. Add cationic softener at 1 gm/liter.. 420 gm. Time................................ 10 mts. Drop the liquor.
  • 38. Then unload the garments trolley. Fourth Step: - Hydro extractor machine. Hydro extractor machine is used to remove excess water from the garments. Fifth Step: - Drying machine. Load 50 kg garments to steam dryer. Temperature set ................ 70°c. Run about.............. 40-45 mts. After run 10 to 15 mts. for cold dry. Sixth Step :- Quality & Delivery. After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and thengood one delivery. 90.Write difference between sand blasting and hand scraping. Difference between sand blasting and hand scraping is given bellow: Sand Blasting Hand Scraping Aluminum oxide is used of sand blasting. Emery paper is used for hand scraping. Done with the help of sand blasting gun . Done with the help of hand. High risk f fabric damage. Low risk of fabric damage. Hazardous for health. Not Hazardous for health.

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