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History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
History of tu
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History of tu

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History of trade union

History of trade union

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  1. HISTORY OF TU TU – outcome of factory system – Based on labour philosophy (united v stand divided v fall)
  2. <ul><li>Fourteen decades old – 1860 – Philanthropists & social reformers – inhuman working conditions – difficulties – Strike committees – demanding privileges </li></ul><ul><li>145 yrs – put into 6 periods </li></ul>
  3. 1.Pre 1918 <ul><li>Bengal – 1860 – Dinbandhu Mitra – (dramatist & Social reformer) + journalists – hardship of cultivators & plantation workers – Govt – Indigo committee – report – cruelties by plantation owners (aid of British law) – abolished </li></ul><ul><li>1875 – Sarobji Shapuri – Bengal – Poor working conditions – Secretary of State – Ist Factory Commission – Factories Act enacted - 1881 </li></ul>
  4. <ul><li>Act – not meet Child labour & Women workers – Another Commission(1884) – N.K.Lokhande – Bombay – memorandum signed by 5300 workers – rest on Sunday – ½ hr recess – Hrs btn 6.30 to sunset – payment within 15 th -injury compensation </li></ul><ul><li>1889 – Bombay – workers demanded the same </li></ul>
  5. <ul><li>No use – another representation to Govt – 1890 – Now signed by 17000 workers – Started Bombay Mills association – Lokhande (president) – Labour journal (Dinbandhu) – placed demands b4 Factory Labour Commission(1890) – Bangalee (member) – gave due consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Several unions were formed </li></ul>
  6. <ul><li>Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants (India & Burma) – 1897 – Indian Companies Act –Printers Union – 1905 – Calcutta – Bombay Postal Union – 1907 - Kamgar Hityardhak Sabha – 1910 </li></ul><ul><li>Post 1890 – several strikes – Bombay(1894) – Big strike – Mill operatives of Ahmadabad – Feb 1896 – Weekly to fortnightly wage system – Strike unsuccessful </li></ul>
  7. <ul><li>Jute Industries Calcutta(1896) – Bombay(1897)- daily wages – Plague – Press & Machine section of Madras(1903) – overtime work without payment – 6 month – Starvation & hardship – returned to work </li></ul><ul><li>2 yrs later – Govt of India Press – Calcutta – questioned </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-payment on Sunday & gazetted holidays </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imposition of irregular fines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low rate of overtime pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refusal of authorities to grant leave on medical certificate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. <ul><li>Strike continued – returned on partial fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 1907 - Eastern railway workshop – Increment of wages – After 6 days – xtra allowance due to famine – Bombay postal union & Indian telegraph Association – 1908 – Textile cooperative workers – in sympathy – Bal Ganga dhar Tilak – 1910 – reduction of working hours – commission setup – recommended - 12 hours a day </li></ul>
  9. Certain features <ul><li>Movement led by philanthropists & social reformers not by workers </li></ul><ul><li>No trade Union in modern sense </li></ul><ul><li>Association relied on petition, memoranda, other constitutional means to place demands </li></ul><ul><li>Early movement confined to revolt against conditions of child labour & women workers in various industries </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of strikes - grievance redressed </li></ul><ul><li>Strike - problem of law & order – police charging strikers </li></ul>
  10. 1918 - 1924 <ul><li>Era of Modern trade unionism </li></ul><ul><li>Madras labour union,Ahmedabad Textile labour Association, Indian Seamen’s Union, Calcutta Clerk’s Union, All India Postal </li></ul><ul><li>All India Trade Union Congress started 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Trade unions – strikes – Economy down – Increased Wages not match for Price rise – Labour shortage – Due to Influeza </li></ul>
  11. Factors responsible for growth <ul><li>Demand for Indian goods rose – shortage in shipping facilities – Same – trade unions – bargaining position </li></ul><ul><li>Political conditions helped growth of TU – mutually needed </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution in Russia – impact on TU movement </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Unrest in the post-war period </li></ul><ul><li>India – International labour Organisation (1919) –Govt didn’t consult unions – need to organise – AITUC formed – members sent – changed Govt attitude </li></ul>
  12. 1925 - 1934 <ul><li>Split in AITUC – Leftist & Rightist </li></ul><ul><li>Wing All India Trade Union Federation 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Communist Influence – Hardship of workers – decrease in Industrial conflict – 2 reasons - Trade Disputes act(1929) – Failure in lockouts & strikes led to strife </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions Act 1926 – registration of TU & legal protection </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Disputes Act(1929) – adhoc conciliation of board & court of enquiry for settlement of trade disputes – Affects whole community </li></ul>
  13. 1935-1938 <ul><li>Unity forced – revival – 1935 All India Red Trade Union Congress – merged with AITUC – 1938 agreement btn AITUF & AITUC – NTUC affiliated with AITUC </li></ul><ul><li>Factors – Change of political setup (Congress Govt) – Strengthen TU & Conditions of Labour – Working class weakened better conditions – Mgt Changed attitude on TU </li></ul>
  14. <ul><li>1938 – Bombay Industrial Disputes Act – features </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory recognition of TU by employers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Right to employee – case thro – representatives (or) Govt labour Officer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Certification of standing orders – Working conditions known to workmen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Court – where Arbitration / Conciliation didn’t do good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prohibition of strike & lockout </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 1939-1946 <ul><li>WWII – Chaos – in IR – unrest due to – Price rise no pace to wage increase – Split in AITUC – Post war retrenchment & unemployment – Increase in TU & Women workers & strikes </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – Industrial enactment act – uniformity in workmen employment & minimise conflict –employer more than 100 employees define conditions & make it known to workers </li></ul><ul><li>BIRA – recognition of TU & Rights </li></ul>
  16. 1947-since <ul><li>TU diversified on Political considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Labour leaders of Congress party – Indian National Trade Union Congress(1947) </li></ul><ul><li>1948 Socialist party – Hind Mazdoor Sabha </li></ul><ul><li>1949 – United trade Union Congress </li></ul><ul><li>1947 - Industrial Disputes Act – Strike prohibition without prior intimation & Trade Unions (amendment) Act – recognition of TU & Penalties for unfair practices </li></ul>
  17. <ul><li>23 Jul 1954 Bharatiya Mazdoor party (BJP) – Check communist unions </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in Trade union Act 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Patna 21 Mar 1964 – All India Trade Union Congress by independent Unions – but vain </li></ul><ul><li>2 changes in the act in 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Split - Centre of Indian Trade Union by Marxist communist from AITUC’70 –United Trade Union Congress Lenin Sarani (1970-72) </li></ul>

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