Reflections on
Cultural Heritage and Digital
Humanities:
Modelling in Practice and
Theory
Dr Arianna Ciula
University of R...
Scope and Aims
• Compare modelling traditions in Cultural
Heritage and Digital Humanities
• Our paper today → investigatio...
Background on Modelling
● Ambiguity of term 'data model' in digital modelling
– from database models to conceptual model
●...
Object → Model → Object
0
Model Relation
Semiotic Structure
Representation
Object
Oi =1….n
Mode
l
Omod
Kralemann and Lattmann (2013)
Context
(theory...
Modelling in DH (textual) →
TEI
• Textual features
• No assumption on reference function
• Overview
• From 1987 Research P...
Modelling in cultural heritage
(museum documentation) → CIDOC
CRM
• Real world objects as represented in museum
informatio...
Pragmatic links between the
two standards
●
TEI SIG ontologies
●
To facilitate mapping and integration
●
Established in 20...
• TEI XML
• Physical and logical
structure
• Semantic content
• RDF/OWL ontology
• Network of associations
• Additional st...
03/06/14
TEI doc
…
<persName>
Oliver Avenel
</persName>
…
Person
Oliver Avanel
isWifeOf
Person
Odo of Wanstraw
isDaughterO...
Models for and models of
●
Main purpose of these standards
●
Models for (users)
●
Less evident to users
●
Models of (creat...
Comparison in practice
The example of place names
TEXTS
text as idea, intention, meaning, semantics, sense, content
TEXTL text as linguistic
code, as series of
words, as sp...
TEX
T
S
TEXTLTEX
T
D
TEXTW
TEX
T
G
TEXT
V
[imag
e]
<placeNam
e
@facs=...>
<placeName
@key=...>
rdf: ...
Pragmatic links - ...
Pragmatic links - Place name
in TEI
• Name as reference vs. name as source for
onomastic studies, linguistic analysis,
ety...
CIDOC-CRM
participate in
E39 Actors
(persons, inst.)
E55 Types
E28 Conceptual Objects
E18 Physical Things
E2 Temporal Enti...
Classes in CIDOC-CRM
Place names in
CIDOC-CRM
London
E48 Place Name
the place London
E53 Place
P87 is identified by
P87 identifies
Place names in TEI and
CIDOC-CRM
TEI:
● Usually located in
the context of other
words and marked
up “on location”
● Can al...
TEI CIDOC-CRM
Modelling scope expansive focused
Modelling components Descriptive and
interpretative encoding at
same level...
Thank you!
Dr Arianna
Ciula
University of
Roehampton
UK
arianna.ciula@roehampton.
ac.uk
Dr Øyvind Eide
Universität Passau
...
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Datech2014 Session 2 - Reflections on Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities

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Slides of the presentation of the paper Reflections on Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities by Arianna Ciula and Øyvind Eide in DATeCH 2014. #digidays

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Datech2014 Session 2 - Reflections on Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities

  1. 1. Reflections on Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities: Modelling in Practice and Theory Dr Arianna Ciula University of Roehampton UK arianna.ciula@roehampton.ac.uk Dr Øyvind Eide Universität Passau Germany oyvind.eide@uni-passau.de
  2. 2. Scope and Aims • Compare modelling traditions in Cultural Heritage and Digital Humanities • Our paper today → investigation into some modelling practices • Longer term: comparing the communities • What is meant by modelling and models? • How are modelling languages and theories created and used?
  3. 3. Background on Modelling ● Ambiguity of term 'data model' in digital modelling – from database models to conceptual model ● Process (dynamic nature and epistemic value) vs. products (data models) – modelling vs. model ● Models of vs. models for ● Theoretical background
  4. 4. Object → Model → Object 0
  5. 5. Model Relation Semiotic Structure Representation Object Oi =1….n Mode l Omod Kralemann and Lattmann (2013) Context (theory, language etc.)
  6. 6. Modelling in DH (textual) → TEI • Textual features • No assumption on reference function • Overview • From 1987 Research Project, first release 1990, from 2001 TEI Consortium • One part ISO standard • XML formalism • Organisation • Community • Modelling as document analysis • reflects semantics of the standard and contingent theories/practices
  7. 7. Modelling in cultural heritage (museum documentation) → CIDOC CRM • Real world objects as represented in museum information systems • Overview • CIDOC established 1950: museum documentation standards • From 1996: Conceptual Reference Model, first release 1999 • ISO standard • Openness with respect to formalism • Organisation • Community • Ontology or conceptual model • Modelling as mapping • reflects semantics of the standard and contingent theories/practices
  8. 8. Pragmatic links between the two standards ● TEI SIG ontologies ● To facilitate mapping and integration ● Established in 2004 ● Focus on links between TEI and external ontologies ● Previous comparisons between TEI and CIDOC-CRM at class level ● Projects to account for and process textual mobility
  9. 9. • TEI XML • Physical and logical structure • Semantic content • RDF/OWL ontology • Network of associations • Additional statements and interpretative layers <rs key="abjuration" type="subject">on the day he abjured the kingdom<persName key="rumberue_de_thomas">Thomas de <placeNamekey="rumberue">Rumberue</placeName></persName></rs> <persName key="ashford_de_william">William de <placeName key="ashford1">Ashford</placeName> </persName> Henry III Fine Rolls Project
  10. 10. 03/06/14 TEI doc … <persName> Oliver Avenel </persName> … Person Oliver Avanel isWifeOf Person Odo of Wanstraw isDaughterOf Person Agnes Avanel Relational Model
  11. 11. Models for and models of ● Main purpose of these standards ● Models for (users) ● Less evident to users ● Models of (creators - but affects use) ● Both perspectives are needed in order to understand differences between the standards ● how they are presented ● how they are formalised ● how they can be used
  12. 12. Comparison in practice The example of place names
  13. 13. TEXTS text as idea, intention, meaning, semantics, sense, content TEXTL text as linguistic code, as series of words, as speech TEXTD text as document: physical, material, individual TEXT V text as a visual object, as a complex sign TEXTG text as a version of ..., as a set of graphs, graphemes, glyphs, characters, etc. (... having modes ...) TEXTW text as a work, as rhetoric structure Sahle (2012) luralistic model of text
  14. 14. TEX T S TEXTLTEX T D TEXTW TEX T G TEXT V [imag e] <placeNam e @facs=...> <placeName @key=...> rdf: ... Pragmatic links - Place name in TEI <placeName @rend=....> <placeName @nymRef=...>
  15. 15. Pragmatic links - Place name in TEI • Name as reference vs. name as source for onomastic studies, linguistic analysis, etymology etc. • Semantic aspects (comparable with CIDOC-CRM) Madrid <p>A conference in <placeName>Madrid</placeName>.</p> <nym> <form>Madrid</form> </nym <place> <placeName>Madrid</placeName> </place
  16. 16. CIDOC-CRM participate in E39 Actors (persons, inst.) E55 Types E28 Conceptual Objects E18 Physical Things E2 Temporal Entities (Events) E41Appellations refer to / refine referto/identifie have location within E53 PlacesE52 Time-Spans at affect or refer to
  17. 17. Classes in CIDOC-CRM
  18. 18. Place names in CIDOC-CRM London E48 Place Name the place London E53 Place P87 is identified by P87 identifies
  19. 19. Place names in TEI and CIDOC-CRM TEI: ● Usually located in the context of other words and marked up “on location” ● Can also be data driven ● Hierarchy of content objects ● Links crossing hierarchy: from tree CIDOC-CRM: ● Located in the context of an information system ● Class hierachy with multiple inheritance ● Object graph
  20. 20. TEI CIDOC-CRM Modelling scope expansive focused Modelling components Descriptive and interpretative encoding at same level Division between the model as a set of statements about reality and interpretative argument Modelling discourse Loose and flexible stucture, mostly structured by natural language Formal ontology, strict (but multiple) iheritance, multiple instanciation Presentation Scopenotes for each element, narrative texts describing use as processes, examples Scope notes, short examples, graphical presentation of class and object hierachies Playing different games
  21. 21. Thank you! Dr Arianna Ciula University of Roehampton UK arianna.ciula@roehampton. ac.uk Dr Øyvind Eide Universität Passau Germany oyvind.eide@uni-passau.de
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