Management Core Skills Part I

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Basic Concepts on Management.
i. What is Expected of Managers
ii. What Managers Do
iii. Skills that Managers Develop and Apply

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  • Management Core Skills Part I

    1. 1. MANAGEMENT CORE SKILLS 2 0 0 7 Morsy I. M. Part I
    2. 2. O B J E C T I V E S <ul><li>To understand and practice the basic needed skills of management. </li></ul>
    3. 3. T O P I C S <ul><li>THE MANAGER’S ROLL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The unique nature of managerial work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coping with Environmental Forces. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Power of Human Resources. </li></ul></ul>Part I. What is Expected of Managers
    4. 4. T O P I C S <ul><li>PLANNING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting Goals and Creating Plans and Programs. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividing Up the Work in a Structured Framework. </li></ul></ul>Part II. What Managers Do
    5. 5. T O P I C S <ul><li>LEADING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing the Way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directing: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning the team </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motivating and inspiring </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stuffing correctly by </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting and keeping the best. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Placing the write people in the write jobs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Train and teach new skills. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Part II. What Managers Do
    6. 6. T O P I C S <ul><li>Controlling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring Progress and Exercising Control with Fairness and Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting errors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disciplining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appraising </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Achieving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Personal & Business Goals. </li></ul></ul>Part II. What Managers Do
    7. 7. T O P I C S <ul><li>TQM & Continuous Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving & Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul>Part III. Skills that Managers Develop and Apply
    8. 8. What is Expected of Managers? The unique nature of managerial work. Coping with Environmental Forces. The Power of Human Resources. Part I.
    9. 9. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Management Definition: </li></ul>Leading a team to achieve planned objectives
    10. 10. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management is the process of obtaining, deploying, and utilizing a variety of essential resources in support of an organization's objectives. One of the most essential resources of an organization is its employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers devote a large portion of their efforts to planning, directing, and controlling the work of these human resources. </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One clear distinction between managers and other employees, however, is that managers direct the work of others rather than performing the actual work themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is not to say that managers do not put their hands on the work when they instruct, teach, and coach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They do, of course. Managers do this, however, not as a productive effort of their own but to develop the skills of their employees. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Key Concepts Regarding Managerial Work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tasks and services that managers perform are uniquely different from those of others in an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In carrying out their work, managers perform five unique functions for an organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers play three important roles in an organization and apply three basic skills. </li></ul></ul>Conceptual Technical Human Relations P O L A C
    13. 13. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Key Concepts Regarding Managerial Work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.The effectiveness of managers is judged by the results that they obtain for the organization by using the resources available to them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.Effective managers are able to discern differences between situations and to apply methods whose appropriateness is contingent upon the dominant factors in each situation. </li></ul></ul>RESOURCES RESULTS
    14. 14. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Managerial levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers at the bottom of the hierarchy are conveniently described as &quot;first-level managers.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their titles most often include &quot;supervisor“. </li></ul></ul></ul>Executives Top level Middle Managers Middle level First Line Supervisors First level <ul><ul><li>The large body of managers whose positions lie between the top and the bottom are called &quot;middle managers.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their titles are called &quot;manager of accounts receivables,&quot; &quot;manager of manufacturing,&quot; &quot;director of engineering,&quot; &quot;merchandising manager,&quot; and the like. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Managers should differentiate between managerial work and other tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They should devote their time and energy to the former and avoid the latter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When managers perform non-managerial work, the organization is likely to suffer in the long run. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers not only direct the work of others, they are also responsible for the work of others. </li></ul>
    16. 16. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>The five functions that managers perform and how these functions affect the work of others are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PLANNING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIZING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LEADING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONTROLLING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACHIEVING </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK The Five Functions <ul><li>PLANNING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mission/Strategy planning – Objective setting. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ORGANIZING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing time and work – Decision making. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LEADING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staffing, Setting direction, Aligning, motivating and inspiring. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CONTROLLING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correcting errors, disciplining and appraising. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACHIEVING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting the right things done </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Managerial roles have been characterized as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decisional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the interpersonal role , t he manager may act as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A figurehead by representing the organization at formal functions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or liaison between departments, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or most frequently may play an important part as the leader who inspires others. </li></ul></ul></ul>THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK The Three Roles
    19. 19. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><ul><li>In the informational role , the manager may be the person who: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is the source of important data and, as such, the disseminator of that information to others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or the manager may be viewed by the public, for example, as its spokesperson. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the decisional role , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The manager often acts as a crisis handler, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding what to do, for example, when the power fails or a competitor cuts its prices. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The manager also acts as a negotiator between the firm and its suppliers. The most common and most difficult decisional role is that of allocating of resources, as, for example, when a decision must be made about who in the department will get a computer terminal and who will not. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Managerial Skills </li></ul><ul><li>As in performing key functions and playing a variety of roles, managers must also acquire, develop, and apply three basic kinds of expertise. These have been identified as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual skills, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human relations, or interpersonal skills, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical skills. </li></ul></ul>Managers play three important roles in an organization and apply three basic skills.
    21. 21. How requirements for basic managerial skills vary at different levels of management Supervisors Middle Managers Executives Technical Skills Human Relations Skills Conceptual Skills
    22. 22. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Converting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are in charge of a process that converts resources into results, or inputs into outputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This process, called the conversion process </li></ul></ul>The effectiveness of managers is judged by the results that they obtain for the organization by using the resources available to them. Resources Results
    23. 23. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Managing resources to attain results. </li></ul>Output Quality Cost containment Productivity Profitability Facilities and equipment Energy and utilities Materials and supplies Human Resources Information Money and Capital Resources Results
    24. 24. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Implications of Situational Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must carefully balance the relationship between Results and Resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To seek for maximum results from minimum resources is waste of …, …etc. this is often leads to failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective managers focus their attention ton resources as well as results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most effective managers manage for optimum (not maximum) results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of the many methods and techniques available to managers, there is no single one that works well in all situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If each theory, concept, or technique were universally applicable, there would be no need for managers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. THE UNIQUE NATURE OF MANGERIAL WORK <ul><li>Two descriptive terms in this approach are used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situational management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contingency management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This needs the ability to analyze a particular situation, identify its dominant features and to differentiate it from others – and then to choose the most appropriate approach. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This what separates ordinary managers from superior ones. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Effectiveness managers are able to discern differences between situations and to apply methods whose appropriateness is contingent upon the dominant factors in each situation.
    26. 26. What is Expected of Managers? The unique nature of managerial work. Coping with Environmental Forces. The Power of Human Resources. Part I.
    27. 27. Coping with Environmental Forces <ul><li>Key Concepts Regarding the managerial Environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers operate in an open system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They conform to hierarchal influences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They contend with, and for, environmental forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They span the boundaries of their systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They integrate three management approaches </li></ul></ul>Managers perform their work in an open system that restricts their freedom to act indiscriminately but enlarges their opportunities to seek outside resources and support
    28. 28. Coping with Environmental Forces <ul><li>Closed System </li></ul>Conversion Process Resources Results Environment Environment Manager
    29. 29. Coping with Environmental Forces <ul><li>Open System </li></ul>Conversion Process Resources Results Environment Environment Manager
    30. 30. interacting with Environmental Forces <ul><li>Hierarchal Spheres of Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategic influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational Influence </li></ul></ul>Manager The internal constituents of a manager’s organizational system represent a source of both support and conflict
    31. 31. Coping with Environmental Forces <ul><li>Partisanship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That is the people who are joined together in a single activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a department they develop an attitude of “us against them” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Factionalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warring on partisanship grounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This should be avoided </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Managers must be aware of a reasonable degree of “Party Loyalty” among members of particular department. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation between departments is a two way street. </li></ul><ul><li>It is highly dependent upon a willingness to give as well as to take. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Coping with Environmental Forces Managers compete with, as well as look for support from, Independent forces in the external environment In which the parent organization exists and which it depends upon for survival. Successful managers span the boundaries of the systems in which they operate so as to optimize support and minimize resistance from, and conflict with, contending factions and forces.
    33. 33. Coping with Environmental Forces <ul><li>When threatened by the environment, managers don’t just lie there and take it. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead, they monitor the perimeter of their departments, or of the company, warding off invasion from hostile forces, and scanning the horizon for friendly assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Such surveillance beyond the boundaries of their functional responsibility, in order to detect changing conditions and prepare to adapt their own operations to accommodate them, is called “Boundary Spanning” . </li></ul>
    34. 34. What is Expected of Managers? The unique nature of managerial work. Coping with Environmental Forces. The Power of Human Resources. Part I.
    35. 35. The Power of Human Resources <ul><li>Key Concepts Regarding the Management of Human Resources. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees must know the performance that managers expect from them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance reflects motivational needs, attitudes, and values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers must establish effective one-on-one relationships with employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationships with small work groups are different than large groups. </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. The Power of Human Resources Organizational productivity begins with employees who know what is expected of them in terms of performance and cooperation. It is the manager’s responsibility to convey this information.
    37. 37. The Power of Human Resources <ul><li>Performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers are judged by the results they accomplish. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees are judged not only by their results but also how hard they try to attain them. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance is a combination of behavior and results. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification of employees’ performance has three important dimensions or measurements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance and Promptness. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. The Power of Human Resources <ul><li>Cooperation implies three related behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ready willingness to join the common effort “team work” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An acceptance of reasonable direction and instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A commitment to the job. </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. The Power of Human Resources An individual’s performance is deeply depend upon his or her unique perceptions, potential, and personality. Managers must accept these differences between people as “givens,” since they are related to individuals’ heredity, environment, and experience, and there is little that can be done to change them.
    40. 40. The Power of Human Resources <ul><li>Perception </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to how a person sees the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One person will perceive a job as “boring” another as “interesting” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covers such characteristics as “skills” and inherent capabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has been linked to the sum total of everything an individual does. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a work related situations, four personality characteristics are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk taking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tolerance of doubts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-centeredness </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. The Power of Human Resources An individual’s performance also reflects his or her personal needs, attitudes, and values. Managers must be sensitive to these qualities and respond to them in such a way as to create conditions that encourage the release of each person’s potential. The hierarchy of human needs by Abraham Maslow Security Survival Social Needs Esteem Self Actualization
    42. 42. The Power of Human Resources The hierarchy of human needs by Abraham Maslow Physiological needs Psychological needs The need to do the work we like The need to feel worthy and respected The need for love and to be a member of a group The need to feel safe and secured The need to stay alive, to breath, to eat, to drink, to sleep to reproduce <ul><ul><li>Low order needs must be satisfied before higher order needs are activated </li></ul></ul>Security Survival Social Needs Esteem Self Actualization
    43. 43. The Power of Human Resources <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dislikes and avoid work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be forced or threatened with punishment before making an effort to meet organizational goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is passive and likes to be hold what to do rather than to accept responsibility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The average person </li></ul>McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Two contrasting Views of Human Nature in Work Situations
    44. 44. The Power of Human Resources <ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finds work as natural to play </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is most motivated by the inherent satisfaction of work, not by force. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes committed to goals through rewards for individual initiative and action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accept and seeks responsibility. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is creative in solving an organization’s problems. </li></ul></ul></ul>McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Two contrasting Views of Human Nature in Work Situations
    45. 45. The Power of Human Resources Fredrick Herzberg, gave another meaning to the work of both Maslow and McGregor Motivation through job enhancement Dissatisfaction if these needs are not met Maslow Hierarchy of needs Herzberg Two factor theory McGregor Contrasting views of human nature in work situations Security Survival Social Needs Esteem Self Actualization Theory Y Theory X
    46. 46. The Power of Human Resources Herzberg Two-Factor Theory Area of satisfaction Motivators Achievement, recognition, responsibility, personal growth, work itself Area of dissatisfaction Hygiene factors Working conditions, pay + security, company policies, supervisors Interpersonal relationships Highly satisfied Neutral Highly dissatisfied

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