Small wind turbine and hybrid system
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Small wind turbine and hybrid system



Small wind turbine and hybrid system

Small wind turbine and hybrid system



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Small wind turbine and hybrid system Small wind turbine and hybrid system Presentation Transcript

  • SMALL WIND TURBINES AND HYBRID SYSTEM Upswing for last two or three years Main drivers to its growth are: – Demand supply gap in energy; – Increase in fossil fuel prices; – Diverse applications for which it can be used both for standalone and grid tied. Useful for powering small loads at remote locations particularly having weak or no grids. Useful for commercial application – Telecommunication towers Can serve as miniature power plants
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORSCLASSIFICATIONS:• Based on rotor swept area• Based on axis of rotation• Based on direction of wind• Based on forces acting on rotor View slide
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORSBased on rotor swept area:Standard referred IEC 61400-2 – Design requirements of small wind turbines.- Defines small wind turbines as systems with rotor swept area smaller than 200 sq.m, generating at a voltage below 1000 V a.c or 1500 V d.c.Rated power (kW) Rotor swept Sub-category area (m2) Prated < 1 kW A < 4.9 m2 Pico wind turbine (1.25m Dia) 1 kW < Prated< 7 kW A < 40 m2 Micro wind ( 3.6m Dia) turbine 7 kW < Prated< 50 kW A < 200 m2 Mini wind turbine ( 7.9m dia) or SWT View slide
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORSBased on axis of rotation Horizontal Axis Wind turbine • Propeller type rotor is mounted on a horizontal axis. • The rotor is positioned into the wind direction by means of a tail wane or active yaw motor Vertical Axis Wind turbine Horizontal Axis Wind turbine • Omni directional • No yaw mechanism required • Gearbox and electrical generator housed near the ground • Requires guy wire support • Power output cannot be controlled during high winds by changing the blade pitch Darrieus Type Savonius Type
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORSBased on direction of wind:Upwind Machine• Rotor faces the wind• Avoid wind shades behind the towerDownwind Machine• Rotor is placed on the lee side of the tower• Can be built without yaw mechanism• Rotor is more flexible and has less weight• Better structural dynamics• Based on forces acting on wind turbine• Lift Type• Drag Type - If the tip speed ratio (TSR) > when then SWT has some amount of lift - If TSR < 1 then SWT is drag type- Savonius rotors are drag type machine- Darrieus rotors are lift type turbine
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORSGlobal Scenario:In the year 2008, the total number of small wind turbine spectrum was19000 units amounting to 33.6 MW installations. World total by 2008 Application No. % kW % Off-grid 13,902 73.48 7,536 22.5 On-grid 4,992 26.42 26,065 77.5 Total 18,894 100 33,601 100.0 Distribution of SWT installations in 2008, by applications
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Indian ScenarioTotal cumulative capacity of hybrid system is about 1110 kW
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Shares of States in Wind-Solar-Hybrid systems
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systems Control schemes for variable speed operation Constant tip speed ratio scheme • Wind speeds are measured locally T.S.R = ωR/V and optimal rotor speed is computed using reference TSR. • Optimal rotor speed is compared to the actual rotor speed and the electrical loading is adjusted to correct the difference.Maximum power extraction using the constant tip speed ratio scheme
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsControl schemes for variable speed operationPeak Power Tracking scheme dP • Rotor speed is ---- = 0 incrementally varied dω by small amount and by evaluating dP/dω the peak power tracking scheme continuously tracks the optimal operating point and adjust rotor speed accordingly Maximum power extraction using the peak point extraction scheme
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsPhotovoltaic System Peak power tracking photovoltaic module
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsPeak Power TrackerPower output of the PV module is P = V · I watts.Operation moves away from the above point, such that the current is now I +∆Ivoltage is V +∆V,the power output will beP + ∆ P = (V+∆V).(I+∆I)∆P = ∆V.I+V. ∆IAt the peak point, ∆P = 0 is the dynamic impedance, and is the static impedance of the source I-V Curve
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsCharge ConverterBuck Converter Step down DC to DC converter Voltage across the inductor During ON time, ∆ IL. L = (Vin- Vout).Ton During OFF time, ∆ IL. L = Vout .Toff Vout = Vin.D Where D is the duty cycle D = Ton/T and T = Ton + Toff Out put voltage is always < that of the input voltage
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsCharge ConverterBoost Converter Step up DC to DC converter Voltage across the inductor During ON time, ∆ IL. L = Vin .Ton During OFF time, ∆ IL. L = (Vout – Vin).Toff Vout = Vin/1-D Where D is the duty cycle D = Ton/T and T = Ton + Toff Out put voltage is always > that of the input voltage
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsCharge ConverterBuck Boost Converter Buck and Boost converter combined together in cascading is the buck boost converter. Buck boost converter used for variable speed wind machines for battery charging either by stepping up or stepping down the voltage
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS Off-Grid / Standalone systemsBattery • Energy storage option used for standalone system • Consists of electro-chemicals cells connected in series-parallel combination to achieve the desired operating voltage and current. • Cell capacity measured in Ah • Battery rating in specifically in terms of average voltage during discharge and its Ah capacity.• Charging a 600 Ah battery at C/10 rate means charging at 60 A.• Discharging that battery at C/2 rate means draining 300 A• Preferred batteries used for wind-solar-hybrid systems: • Lead-acid (Pb-acid). • Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH). • Nickel-cadmium (NiCd).
  • SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS GRID CONNECTED SYSTEMSGrid connected wind system Grid connected PV system
  • TYPE TESTING OF SMALL WIND TURBINES/AEROGENERATORS ROLE OF C-WET To evaluate the performance of the small wind turbines based on the following tests: 1. Power performance measurement 2. Duration test 3. Safety and function test To empanel the small wind turbines with MNRE based on an evaluation of their safety philosophy, engineering integrity, quality assurance and results of the type tests (if conducted).
  • TYPE TESTINGThe objective of the type test is to provide data needed to verify aspects which are vital tosafety and therefore need additional experimental verification, and aspects which cannot bereliably evaluated by analysis. SAFETY AND POWER DURATION OTHER TESTS FUNCTION PERFORMANCE (EMC, TEST TEST TEST ENVIRONMENTAL) TYPE TEST CONFORMITY STATEMENT
  • POWER PERFORMANCE TEST 700The Power Performance is carried in accordance 600to the IEC standard, Wind Turbine Generator 500Systems, Part 12: Power performance 400 Electrical Power (W)Measurement Techniques, IEC 61400-12-1 300 DC power output of the turbine will be 200 measured. 100 Wind speed Vs DC Power to be plotted. 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Power curve validates the manufacturer’s 0.12 Wind Speed (m/s) performance claims over a range of wind 0.1 speeds, aggregated over time. 0.08 Estimation of annual energy production helps CP 0.06 0.04 in determining the amount of energy likely to 0.02 be generated per annum, for a specific 0 average wind speed. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Wind Speed (m/s)
  • DURATION TEST The purpose of the duration test is to investigate Structural integrity and material degradation Environmental / dynamic behaviour of wind turbineCriteria satisfying the duration test as per IEC 61400-2 reliable operation during the test period for a minimum period of 6 months of operation; at least 2 500 h of power production in winds of any velocity; at least 250 h of power production in winds of 1.2 Vave and above; at least 25 h of power production in winds of 1.8 Vave and above.
  • SAFETY AND FUNCTION TESTThe purpose of safety and function testing is to verify that the wind turbine under test displays the behavior 650 625 predicted in the design and that provisions relating to 600 575 personnel safety are properly implemented. Max power 550 525 Power and Speed control – turbine has blade angle of 500 150 which regulates the speed of turbine 475 450 • Yaw control - to check yawing / yawing movement 425 400 starts at a given wind speed 12 14 16 18 20 • Loss of load – to check when the loads are removed Wind speed [m/s] suddenly whether the turbine current reduces to shut down above design wind speed zero. • Over speed protection – to check how it regulates 60 50 the speed of rotor. Turbine status will be sensed to 40 verify if dump load switches on for RPM > 200. Power 30 • Start up – To check the automatic start up operation 20 at a cut in wind speed of 2.5 m/sec. 10 • Shutdown above design wind speed – at 7 m/sec the 0 machine starts furling. Time • Emergency stop under normal operation – Time power and speed control series of DC power, RPM, Turbine status signal will be plotted.
  • Wind Solar Hybrid Systems installed at C-WET Small wind turbines in conjunction with solar photo voltaic system can be used in remote places( with weak grids and high winds) not connected to the grid, to meet the basic power requirements Systems installed at C-WET Wind at C-WET : 4.0 m /s annual average Solar insolation : 700 W/ sq.m(1) 25 kW Wind Solar Hybrid system(2) 5 kW wind Solar DG Hybrid System using intelligent controller
  • 25 kW Wind Solar Hybrid System Specifications:15 kWp solarphotovolatic system5 kW small windturbines, 2 nos.Grid supportedsystem288 V, 600 Ahbattery back upAverage load 10 kWCost of the system : Rs 100 lakhs
  • Single line diagram of PCU
  • 5 kW Wind-Solar-DG Hybrid System5 kW Wind-Solar-Diesel Hybrid System - Proof of concept to provide uninterrupted power through intelligent, economical and optimized renewable sources - To monitor the generation, consumption and performance parameters through GPRS based remote monitoring.Specifications: - Solar panel capacity: 1.8kW (peak) - Aerogenerator : 3.2 kW - Battery capacity: 48 Nos. of 600 Ah - DC link voltage : 48 V - DG set: 5 KVA - Cost of the system : Rs 20 lakhs
  • CONCLUSION• Traditional megawatt power production in electricity is insufficient both for industrial growth and higher living standards.• Micro-generation can act as a catalyst for cultural changes in consumer attitude.• Output of solar photovoltaic system can be more reliably predicted, say 4 units/ day for 1 kW system.• Small wind turbines need to be installed after a careful evaluation of the wind at the site, predicted output for the particular site and information on performance of the particular model.