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CSWIP Intro

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  • 1. AN INTRODUCTION TOCSWIP 3.1 By MR ANSAR BALOCH
  • 2. ContentsTerms & DefinitionTypes of WeldsTypes of JointsWeld PreparationsTypes of Single Butt PreparationButt Welded JointFillet Weld ProfileEffect of a Poor Toe Blend AngleSummary of TermsDuties of Welding InspectorResponsibilities of Welding InspectorImperfections in Welded JointsMechanical TestingMacro Inspection
  • 3. A Weld:* A union between materials caused by heat, and or pressureA Joint:* A configuration of members Text Page Ref 1:1
  • 4. Butt welds:*Fillet welds:*Spot/Seam welds:*Plug/Slot welds:*Edge welds:*
  • 5. Butt joints: *T joints: *Lap joints: *Corner joints:* Closed Open corner corner*
  • 6. Angle of bevel*Root face* Included angle* Root radius* Root gap* Root landing*
  • 7. Single bevelSingle VSingle JSingle U*
  • 8. Double bevelDouble VDouble JDouble U*
  • 9. A butt welded butt joint*A fillet welded butt joint*A compound welded butt joint*
  • 10. A fillet welded T joint*A butt welded T joint*A compound welded T joint*
  • 11. A fillet welded Lap joint*A spot welded Lap joint*A compound welded Lap joint*
  • 12. A fillet welded Closed Corner joint*A butt welded Closed Corner joint*A compound welded Closed Corner joint*
  • 13. An inside fillet welded Open Corner joint* CAn outside fillet welded Open Corner joint*A double fillet welded Open Corner joint*
  • 14. Weld Face*Actual Throat Thickness* Weld Width* 1.2.3.4. Weld Toes* Design Throat Thickness* 1 2 A B 3 4 HAZ* Weld Root* A + B = Excess Weld Metal**
  • 15. Vertical Leg Length* Weld face*Horizontal Leg Length* Excess weld metal ** Design throat* Actual throat*
  • 16. 6 mm 80°Very Poor Weld Toe Blend Angle 3 mm* 20°Improved Weld Toe Blend Angle
  • 17. 90° 3 mmExtremely poor toe blend, but excess weld metal is within limits*
  • 18. Weld: A Union of materialsJoint: A Configuration of membersWeld Preparation: Preparing a joint to allow access and fusion.Types of Weld: Butt. Fillet. Spot. Seam Plug. Slot. Edge.Types of Joint: Butt. T. Lap. Corner (Open & Closed)Types of Preparation: Bevel’s. V’s. J’s. U’s. Single & Double Sided.Preparation Terms: Bevel/included angle. Root face/gap. Land/RadiusWeldment Terms: Weld face & root. HAZ. Weld toes.Weld widthWeld Sizing (Butts): DTT. ATT. Excess weld metal.Weld Sizing (Fillets): DTT. ATT. Excess weld metal. Leg length *
  • 19. It is the duty of all welding inspectors:To ensure that welding operations are carried out inaccordance with written, or agreed practices orspecifications Before * During After
  • 20. Discuss the following Before Welding:1) Safety: Rules.2) Documentation: Spec. Drawings. Procedures. Welder approvals. Certificates. Mill sheets3) Welding Process and accessories: Equipment,Cables, Regulators, Ovens etc4) Incoming Consumables: Materials/welding consumables (Size. Condition. Specification. Storage)5) Marking out preparation & set up: Method. Angles/Root face/gap values. Distortion control. Pre-heat prior to tack welding if applicable*
  • 21. During Welding:1) Pre-Heating (Min 15 C as per UW-30 ASME Section VIII Div-I)2) In process distortion control (Balance or sequence welding)3) Consumable control. (Correct baking for E-7018 260-425 C and storage 30-140 C prior to use)4) Welding process (Related parameters i.e. volts/amps. gas flow rate)5) Welding run sequence and inter-pass cleaning6) Minimum/maximum Inter-pass temperatures (150 C for SS, 250 C for CS.7) Full compliance with all elements given on the WPS*
  • 22. After Welding:1) Visual Inspection2) Non Destructive testing3) Repairs*4) Repair procedures (NDT/Welding/Welder approval)5) PWHT6) Hydro-static testing7) Submission of all inspection reports to QC departments*
  • 23. To Observe Activities & Imperfections*To Record Activities & Imperfections* Activities &To Compare Imperfections*
  • 24. A Welding Inspectors toolbox should contain*A welding gauge (Cambridge style, or high low gauges etc)A tape measure and scaleA wire brushA magnifying glassA torch and mirrorA specification, pen and report, or note paper
  • 25. Welding imperfections can be categorized into groups: 1) Cracks 2) Gas Pores & Porosity 3) Solid Inclusions 4) Lack of fusion 5) Profile & Lack of Filling 6) Mechanical or Surface damage 7) Misalignment*
  • 26. A HAZ hydrogen crack, initiated at the weld toeMost cracks are initiated from stress concentrations *
  • 27. Surface breaking porosity Shrinkage cavity* Coarse cluster porosityFine cluster porosity Blow hole > 1.6 mm Ø Hollow root bead An isolated internal porosity
  • 28. Surface breaking solid inclusionInternal solid inclusion causinga lack of inter-run fusion* Internal solid inclusion causing a lack of sidewall fusion Internal solid inclusion Solid inclusions caused by undercut in the previous weld run
  • 29. Lack of sidewall fusion & incompletely filled grove* Overlap (Causing cold laps)Lack of inter-run fusion Lack of sidewall fusion Lack of root fusion
  • 30. Spatter An Incompletely filled groove A Lack of root fusion Bulbous, or irregular contour Arc Strikes Poor toe blend BIncomplete root penetration *
  • 31. Root Run or “Hot pass” undercut Parent metal, surface undercut Weld metal, surface undercut*
  • 32. Weld metal, surface undercut Parent metal, “top toe” undercut*
  • 33. Any surface damage caused by:GrindingHammering/chisel marksSlag chipping hammer marksArc strikes
  • 34. Linear Excess weld metal height Lowest plate to highest point 3 mm Linear misalignment measured in mm (over 13mm to 19mm as per UW 33 of ASME Sec VIII Div-I) Angular 15°Angular misalignment measured in degrees*
  • 35. Why ?* To establish the level of mechanical properties* propertiesWhich properties ?* 1) Hardness* 2) Toughness (Impact Test)* 3) Tensile strength* 4) Ductility*
  • 36. We test welds to establish minimum levels of mechanicalproperties, and soundness of the welded joint*We divide tests into Quantitative & Qualitative methods:* 1) Quantitative tests: 1) Quantitative tests: (Have units)* (Have units)* 2) Qualitative tests: 2) Qualitative tests: (Have no units)* (Have no units)*
  • 37. Types of tests include: 1) Quantitative tests: 1) Quantitative tests: Hardness tests Hardness tests Toughness tests Toughness tests Tensile strength tests* Tensile strength tests* 2) Qualitative tests: 2) Qualitative tests: Macro tests Macro tests Bend tests Bend tests Fracture tests* Fracture tests*
  • 38. The specimen below has been polished and is ready to be hardness tested = Hardness SurveyThickness Base metal HAZ Fusion boundary Weld metal
  • 39. Generally we use a diamond or steel ball to form an indentationWe measure the width of the indentation to gauge the hardness*
  • 40. 1) Vickers Diamond Pyramid: Always uses a diamond*2) Brinell hardness test: Always uses a steel ball*3) Rockwell hardness test: Uses a ball, or diamond depending on the scale*
  • 41. Machined notch 10 x 10 mmThe specimen may be tested from different areas of the weld.*Graduated scale Pendulum Hammerof absorbedenergy in Joules* Location of specimen
  • 42. 1) Charpy V test: 10 x 10 (Specimen horizontal) Joules*2) Izod test: 10 x 10 (Specimen vertical) Ft.lbs*
  • 43. Radius (For radius reduced test specimens only) Weld Test gripping area HAZDirection of test Plate material Reduced Section Used to assess the tensile strength of the weld metal
  • 44. All Weld Metal Tensile TestingDirection of the test * Tensile test piece cut along weld specimen.
  • 45. Firstly, before the tensile test 2 marks are made 50mm 50 mmDuring the test, Yield point & Tensile strength are measuredThe specimen is put together and the marks are re-measured 75 mmA new measurement of 75mm will indicate Elongation E50 %*
  • 46. 1) Excess Weld Metal Height 7) Poor Toe Blend* 6)Porosity2) Lack of Sidewall Fusion 5) Root Penetration3) Lack of Root Fusion4) Slag inclusion & Lack of inter-run fusion
  • 47. Bend tests are used to establish fusion in the area under testGuide A Guided root bend test* Lack of root fusion shown here* FormerTest Piece ForceFurther tests include face, side and longitudinal bend tests*For material over 12 mm thickness, side bend test may beused*
  • 48. Specimen prior to test* Specimen after test*
  • 49. The main difference between Macro & Micro is that Micro isthe study of the micro-structure at much higher magnificationThe limit of Macro inspection is magnification < X 10The specimen is usually cut from a stop/start in the test piece
  • 50. Remember! The process of inspection is to first:Observe, then Report, then Compare!*