Comparisons Between NQS in Correlation with EQF - Liliana Sandu

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Comparisons Between NQS in Correlation with EQF - Liliana Sandu

  1. 1. LILIANA SANDU M et h odolog ical Expert, P ro j ect POSDRU/93/S/3.3/53132, Health Field COMPARISONS BETWEEN NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS SYSTEMS, IN CORRELATION WITH THE EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK
  2. 2. NATIONAL /EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS METHODOLOGY FOR COMPARISON <ul><li>NATIONAL AUTORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>STEPS RECOMMENDED BY THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR QUALIFICATIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGH EDUCATION (NQFHE) </li></ul><ul><li>COMPATIBILITY OF THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION (NQFHE) WITH THE FRAMEWORK FOR QUALIFICATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA (QF-EHEA) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>NATIONAL AUTORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA </li></ul><ul><li>2005 the National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education and Partnership with the Economic and Social Environment - ACPART </li></ul><ul><li>2011 the responsibilities of that implementation body were extended and the new official name given to the agency is National Qualifications Authority - NQA </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>NATIONAL AUTORITIES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>A regulatory authority exists in each constituent country of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) </li></ul><ul><li>England - the regulatory authority is the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) </li></ul><ul><li>Wales - the Department for Education, lifelong Learning and Skills (DELLS) </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland - the Council for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment (CCEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Scotland has a far more centralised regulatory structure - the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of diplomas: </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor/engineer, medical doctor, urban planner diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Master diploma and </li></ul><ul><li>PhD diploma </li></ul><ul><li>Competences acquired through post-university continuing training and personal development programs are attested by certificates and other documents. </li></ul><ul><li>All these diplomas, certificates and documents may be issued only by accredited higher education institutions and only for accredited study programs and modes; they are similar for the same study program, irrespective of the study mode. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA - Bachelor study programs </li></ul><ul><li>may be provided as full-time, part-time or distance learning education </li></ul><ul><li>usually cover a work load corresponding to a minimum of 180 ECTS (3 years study programs), a maximum of 240 ECTS (4 years of study program) </li></ul><ul><li>can be referenced to the QF/EHEA as offering first cycle qualifications and to EQF/NQF level 6 </li></ul><ul><li>The legislation provides for exceptions in the field of: </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacy - the workload corresponds to 300 ECTS (5 years study programs) </li></ul><ul><li>medicine, dental medicine - the workload is of 360 ECTS (6 years study programs) </li></ul><ul><li>The qualification title and award granted after completion of a first cycle study program is: “ diploma de licenta ” (bachelor diploma). It offers the necessary data and information that describe the study program, including the learning mode and the degree level. Diploma is issued with a Diploma Supplement, free of charge, drafted in Romanian and an international language. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA - Master’s degree </li></ul><ul><li>may be provided as full-time or part-time </li></ul><ul><li>have 1 or 2 years duration </li></ul><ul><li>cover a workload of minimum 60 and maximum 120 ECTS and can be referenced to the QF/EHEA as offering second cycle qualifications and to the EQF/NQF as level 7 qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>The diploma awarded upon successful completion of a Master’s study program and presentation of dissertation is the Master’s diploma and it comprises all necessary information to describe the study program, including the learning mode; diplomas are issued with a Diploma Supplement, free of charge, drafted in Romanian and an international language. </li></ul><ul><li>For professions regulated by European legislation, recommendations or good practices, the first and second cycles of higher education may be provided within one study program with 5-6 year duration , fulltime mode. In this case, the graduation diplomas are equivalent to the Master’s degree ones . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA - Doctoral studies </li></ul><ul><li>may be provided only as full-time programs by accredited doctoral schools </li></ul><ul><li>can be referenced to the third cycle diploma in the QF/EHEA corresponding to a level 8 qualification in the EQF/NQF </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of doctorate: </li></ul><ul><li>the scientific doctorate and </li></ul><ul><li>the professional doctorate (in the fields of arts and sport) </li></ul><ul><li>The successful completion of doctoral studies leads to a PhD diploma . </li></ul><ul><li>The diploma certifying the award of the doctoral degree indicates specifically the disciplinary or the inter-disciplinary field for the scientific doctorate or the professional field for the professional doctorate. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>In all the UK constituent countries, the more academically-oriented higher education qualifications follow the same structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The main qualification however, is the Bachelor (Honours) degree, which is typically obtained following three to four years full-time study. </li></ul><ul><li>Following this award, students may to continue to study for a Master’s degree (MA, MSc, etc), Master of Philosophy and/or PhD . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor (Ordinary) degrees are less demanding courses which consist of taught courses and generally cover a broader base than Honours programmes. These courses are assessed by examinations and coursework. Ordinary degrees are also known as pass degrees or general degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Bachelor (Honours) degrees form the largest group of higher education qualifications. Typical courses last for three years (if taken full-time) and lead to a Bachelors degree with Honours, having a title such as Bachelor of Arts (BA(Hons)) or Bachelor of Science (BSc(Hons)). Honours programmes are highly specialised and students focus on one or two subjects throughout the duration of their degree. Teaching is via lectures, small-group seminars and independent research. Assessment is via examinations, coursework and the submission of a dissertation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>Masters degrees are awarded after completion of taught courses, programmes of research, or a mixture of both. Longer, research-based programmes often lead to the degree of MPhil. Most Masters courses last at least one year (if taken full-time), and are taken by persons with Honours degrees (or equivalent achievement). Some Masters degrees in science and engineering are awarded after extended undergraduate programmes that last, typically, a year longer than Honours degree programmes. </li></ul><ul><li>Also at this level on the NQF are advanced short courses, often forming parts of Continuing Professional Development programmes, leading to Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>HIGH EDUCATION SYSTEMS - TYPES OF DIPLOMAS AND AWARDS </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>Doctorates are awarded for the creation and interpretation of knowledge, which extends the forefront of a discipline, usually through original research. Holders of doctorates will be able to conceptualise, design and implement projects for the generation of significant new knowledge and/or understanding. They will have the qualities needed for employment requiring the ability to make informed judgements on complex issues in specialist fields, and innovation in tackling and solving problems. </li></ul><ul><li>In some universities and faculties, students may be allowed to proceed to a PhD course after an initial year of study and/or research common to both a PhD and a Master's degree. All PhD students present a thesis; some may be required to take an examination paper as well as being examined orally on their thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The titles PhD and DPhil are commonly used for doctorates awarded on the basis of original research. Doctoral programmes, that may include a research component, but which have a substantial taught element lead usually to awards that include the name of the discipline in their title (eg EdD for Doctor of Education). A doctorate normally requires the equivalent of three years' full-time study. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>STEPS RECOMMENDED BY THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR QUALIFICATIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>setting-up of the responsible institution </li></ul><ul><li>establishing of the strategy and agenda for the development of the National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education (NQFHE) </li></ul><ul><li>analyzing the Bologna documents (EHEA Framework) and the EQF documents </li></ul><ul><li>development phase (2006-2009), consisted in the design of the NQFHE Methodology with details concerning: </li></ul><ul><li>the NQF objectives, definitions and key concepts, </li></ul><ul><li>the necessary descriptors and assessment standards of the learning outcomes involved in the implementation of the NQFHE </li></ul><ul><li>full description of qualifications at Bachelor and Master’s level (first and second Bologna cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>final version of the Methodology </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>STEPS RECOMMENDED BY THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FRAMEWORK FOR QUALIFICATIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>implementation phase in Romania supported by a project co-financed by the European Social Fund and the Romanian Government (DOCIS – Development of an Operational System of Qualifications in Higher Education) - standardized description of higher education qualifications </li></ul><ul><li>the self-certification phase </li></ul><ul><li>development of the National Qualifications Register for Higher Education as an electronic platform for the registration, updating and management of the national qualifications system </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGH EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA </li></ul><ul><li>refers to the description of qualifications in higher education </li></ul><ul><li>is fully compatible with the overall framework for qualifications of the European Higher Education Area </li></ul><ul><li>is a constituent part of the National Qualifications Framework in Romania </li></ul><ul><li>In compliance with the provisions of the 2011 National Education Law, the National Qualifications Framework structures all the qualifications into 8 levels of formal, non-formal and informal education and training: level 8 – doctoral studies, level 7- Master’s studies, level 6 – Bachelor studies; levels 5 to 1 are currently under development at the National Qualifications Authority and refer to qualifications in the non-university education and training. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGH EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>The three Regulatory Authorities have updated the National Qualifications Framework for England, Wales and Northern Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 September 2004, the number of level s in the NQF has increased from six to  nine . </li></ul><ul><li>Qualifications in Wales fit into the NQF and are regulated by the Department for Education, lifelong Learning and Skills (DELLS) for Wales. The Welsh Assembly government, in conjunction with the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW), has also established the Credit and Qualifications Framework for Wales (CQFW). </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland Credit Accumulation and Transfer System (NICATS) was developed in cooperation with the Department for Employment and Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) is a new way of understanding qualifications in Scotland.  There are 12 levels , from level 1 for Access 1 courses to level 12 for doctorates. The credit value - the number of points a qualification has - says how big the qualification is. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>COMPATIBILITY OF THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION (NQFHE) WITH THE FRAMEWORK FOR QUALIFICATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA (QF-EHEA) </li></ul><ul><li>ROMANIA </li></ul><ul><li>were demonstrated by the Working Group of the project “Development of an operational system of qualifications in higher education - DOCIS” </li></ul><ul><li>The Working Group demonstrated that the Romanian NQFHE fully met all criteria for the verification of compatibility of the national framework with the EHEA framework as have been set according to the Bologna Working Group Report to the ministerial meeting held in Bergen in 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>The public policies of the Ministry of Education, the implementation measures promoted by the agencies and commissions coordinated by the Ministry of Education, as well as the missions assumed by the higher education institutions will use the NQFHE to define the higher education provision in Romania according to the labor market needs, in order to enhance the quality of study programs and the economic and social effectiveness of the higher education system. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>COMPATIBILITY OF THE NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION (NQFHE) WITH THE FRAMEWORK FOR QUALIFICATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN HIGHER EDUCATION AREA (QF-EHEA) </li></ul><ul><li>UK </li></ul><ul><li>The UK has three different qualifications frameworks in each of the different parts of the UK. The NQF which covers Northern Ireland, Wales and England has nine levels, including an entry level. Within this, Wales has its own Credit and Qualification Framework for Wales (CQFW). Scotland has a separate credit and qualifications framework; the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF), based on 12 levels, which includes access levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, England, Wales and Northern Ireland are discussing the development of the current NQF into a more inclusive unit-based qualifications framework, underpinned by a system of credit accumulation and transfer across the three countries. Furthermore, joint working with Ireland has led to a publication of a diagram showing the equivalence between qualifications in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Ireland. </li></ul><ul><li>The experience of working with its different qualifications frameworks would provide a useful model to consider when implementing the EQF. </li></ul>
  19. 19. LILIANA SANDU <ul><li>STUDIES </li></ul><ul><li>University School of Dentistry , University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timişoara, Romania (1992-1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Post University studies at the Department of preparing teaching staff, Specialization psychopedagogy and postuniversity methodic, Vest University Timişoara, Romania (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>PhD in Dentistry with the thesis: Numerical simulations in selection, disposal and action of dental clasps (2000-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ACADEMIC POSITION </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Professor at the University School of Dentistry, Specialization Dental Technology, Department of Prostheses Technology, „Victor Babeş” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timişoara </li></ul><ul><li>Dentist, specialist (2002) and primar (2008) in general dentistry, resident (2009) in orthodontics and dento-facial orthopedics </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Research areas: three dimensional reconstructions after laser scaning, CTs, three dimensional modeling, computer aided design, numerical simulations (finite element analyses) in the field of removable partial dentures (compounds of the removable partial dentures frameworks, abutment teeth): statically analyses, thermal analyses, analyses of the fatigue action, calculus of the degradation factor and life time, design optimizations), modern welding procedures of dental alloys in inert gas: laser welding, microplasma welding (experimental studies regarding welding parameter determination destructive and nondestructive analyses), structural aspects of base metal alloys, design concepts of removable partial dentures. </li></ul><ul><li>Publications in the research field: published books: 13 ; published courses and working guides: 10 ; published articles: 140 ; published abstracts: 160 ; scientific communications at conferences: 194. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT ACTIVITY: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 research projects won by competition, as project manager: </li></ul><ul><li>CEEX - type ET - Experimental investigations concerning removable partial dentures conception and advancement of new methods in their technology , MERYS Romania (2005-2007). </li></ul><ul><li>CEEX - type ET - Experimental studies on direct retainers used in the removable prothesing , MERYS Romania (2006-2008). </li></ul><ul><li>CNCSIS – type AT, 171/2007: E xperimental investigations concerning modern welding and evaluation procedures of base metal alloys used in dental prosthodontics , MERYS Romania (2007-2008). </li></ul><ul><li>PNII type IDEI ID_1264, Implementation and valuation of computerized procedures in prostheses technology, MERYS Romania (2007-2010). </li></ul><ul><li>PNII type TE_217, Applicative researches regarding the framework design effect on the accuracy and fiability of fixed dentures , Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport Romania (2010-2013). </li></ul><ul><li>Expert evaluator for research projects from 2005: CNCSIS, CNMP. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluator in the health field from 2007: ARACIS </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term e xpert for dental technicians qualifications in the pro ject DOCIS (Development of an Operational System of Qualifications in Higher Education) (2009-2011) POSDRU/2/1.2/S/2. </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term m et h odolog ical e xpert, health field, P ro j ect IMI PQ NET POSDRU/93/S/3.3/53132 </li></ul>

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