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# 2 2. operators

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### 2 2. operators

1. 1. Operators
2. 2. Precedence and Associativity of Operators Operators Associativity ( ) [ ] . -> ++(postfix) --(postfix) left to right ++(prefix) --(prefix) ! ~ sizeof(type) right to left +(unary) -(unary) &(address) *(dereference) * / % left to right + - left to right << >> left to right < <= > >= left to right == != left to right & left to right ^ left to right | left to right && left to right || left to right ? : right to left = += -= *= /= %= >>= <<= &= ^= |= right to left 2
3. 3. Operators Comparison: C operator Description Example == = a == 2 != Not equal a != 3 < < a<3 > > a>4 <=  a <= 5 >=  a >= 3 ! Negative !(a < 3) && and (3 < a) && (a < 5) || or (a < 3) || ( 5 < a) 3
4. 4. Operators Arithmetic Operator Description Example + + a+2 – – a–3 * * (Mutiplication) a*3 / / (Division) a/4 % Remainder a%5 ++ Increment a++, ++a == Decrement a--, --a 4
5. 5. Operators Assignment Operator Description Example = assignment a=b += a=a+3 a += 3 -= a=a-3 a -= 3 *= a=a*3 a *= 3 /= a=a/3 a /= 3 %= a=a%3 a %= 3 5
6. 6. Increment and Decrement Operators Increment operator Postfix k++ k = k - 1 ; Prefix ++k Decrement operator Postfix k--  k = k - 1 ; Prefix --k But, It is a different when use with another operator Prefix : increase or decrease before used in expression Postfix : increase or decrease after used in expression 6
7. 7. Increment and Decrement Operators[Ex] int i = 4, j; j = ++i + 3; printf(“i : %d, j = %dn”, i, j); j = i++ + 3; printf(“i : %d, j = %dn”, i, j); j = --i + 3; printf(“i : %d, j = %dn”, i, j); j = i-- + 3; printf(“i : %d, j = %dn”, i, j); i = 5, j =8 i = 6, j =8 i = 5, j =8 i = 4, j =8 7
8. 8. Bit Operators <<, >>, |, &, ^,~ – << : Left shift n places a = 100 << 1 ; 100 -> 01100100 printf( “%d”, a ) Shift to left by 1 bit 11001000 (=200) – >> : Right shift n places a = 100 >> 1 ; 100 -> 01100100 printf( “%d”, a ) Shift to right by 1 bit 001100100 (=50) 8
9. 9. Bit Operators (8bit Computer) <<, >>, |, &, ^,~ – | : Logical OR, if either bit is 1, 100 -> 01100100 the result is 1 200 -> 11001000 a = 100 | 200 ; ------------------- printf( “%d”, a ) a = 11101100 (236) – & : Logical AND, if both bits are 1, 100 -> 01100100 the result is 1 200 -> 11001000 a = 100 & 200 ; ------------------- printf( “%d”, a ) a = 01000000 (64) – ^ : Logical XOR, if one and only one bit is 1, the result is 1 100 -> 01100100 a = 100 ^ 200 ; 200 -> 11001000 printf( “%d”, a ) ------------------- a = 10101100 (172) 9
10. 10. Bit Operators (8bit Computer) <<, >>, |, &, ^,~ – ~ : Logical inverter 100 -> 01100100 ------------------- a = ~100; a = 10011011 (155) printf( “%d”, a ) 10
11. 11. Example[Ex] i = 3 , j = 2 , k = 1 ; if ( i > j > k ) printf( “Yes” ) else printf( “No” ) ;[Ex] int a, i =1, j = 2, k ; a = i < 2 + j; j = 5 * (k = 3); printf( “%d %d %dn”, a, i, j, k ) ; ( i < j ) && ( j < k ) This statement means that j is between i and k. 11
12. 12. Example Exampleint a = 5, b = 6, c = 7 ;int d ;printf( “%d %d %dn, a < b, a > b, a != b ) ;d = (a < b) && (b < c ) ;printf( “%d %d %dn”, d, (a > b) || (b > c), !(!5) ) ; 12
13. 13. Assignment Operators Compound Assignment – Compound Assignment operators op= [Ex] *=, -=, /=, %=, += – variable = variable op (expression) => variable op= expression [Ex] int k = 5; k += 2; /* k = k + 2, k=7 */ k -= 2; /* k = k - 2, k=5 */ k *= 2; /* k = k * 2, k=10 */ k /= 2; /* k = k / 2, k=5 */ k %= 2; /* k = k % 2, k=1 */ 13