Pre Photography History

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A short description of the history before photography was officially invented. Why was there a need for photography? What were the substitutes until the first inventions? What were the first photographic inventions? And what did they lead to?

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Pre Photography History

  1. 1. Pre- Photography History
  2. 2. The need for photography
  3. 3. The need for photography • Portraits: a portrait for the loved ones (“Civil War Souvenirs”)
  4. 4. The need for photography • Portraits: a portrait for the loved ones (“Civil War Souvenirs”) • Documenting people: showing future generations how family members looked like
  5. 5. The need for photography • Portraits: a portrait for the loved ones (“Civil War Souvenirs”) • Documenting people: showing future generations how family members looked like • Documenting landscapes, buildings and cultural events: spreading knowledge and education around the world
  6. 6. Photography substitution • Portraits: paintings & silhouettes • Documenting landscapes, buildings and cultural events: paintings & print drawings (gravures)
  7. 7. Substitution barriers • Paintings – expensive & not reproducible
  8. 8. Substitution barriers • Paintings – expensive & not reproducible • Silhouettes – less expensive than paintings & limited reproducible
  9. 9. Substitution barriers • Paintings – expensive & not reproducible • Silhouettes – less expensive than paintings & limited reproducible • Gravures – missing details
  10. 10. Photography meaning “Photography (n.) 1839, from photo- + -graphy. See photograph. Photograph (n.) 1839, "picture obtained by photography," coined by Sir John Herschel from photo- + -graph "instrument for recording; something written." It won out over other suggestions, such as photogene and heliograph. Neo-Anglo-Saxonists prefer sunprint; and sun-picture (1846) was an early Englishing of the word. The verb, as well as photography, are first found in a paper read before the Royal Society on March 14, 1839. Related: Photographed; photographing.” (Online Etymology Dictionary)
  11. 11. Photography definition “The art or practice of taking and processing photographs.” “Photograph: A picture made using a camera, in which an image is focused on to light-sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment, or stored digitally” (Oxford Dictionary)
  12. 12. Photography definition “The art or practice of taking and processing photographs.” “Photograph: A picture made using a camera, in which an image is focused on to light-sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment, or stored digitally” (Oxford Dictionary) “Method of recording the image of an object through the action of light, or related radiation, on a light-sensitive material. The word, derived from the Greek photos (“light”) and graphein (“to draw”), was first used in the 1830s.” (Encyclopedia Britannica)
  13. 13. Photography definition “The art or practice of taking and processing photographs.” “Photograph: A picture made using a camera, in which an image is focused on to light-sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment, or stored digitally” (Oxford Dictionary) “Method of recording the image of an object through the action of light, or related radiation, on a light-sensitive material. The word, derived from the Greek photos (“light”) and graphein (“to draw”), was first used in the 1830s.” (Encyclopedia Britannica) “Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.” (Wikipedia)
  14. 14. Photography definition “The art or practice of taking and processing photographs.” “Photograph: A picture made using a camera, in which an image is focused on to light-sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment, or stored digitally” (Oxford Dictionary) “Method of recording the image of an object through the action of light, or related radiation, on a light-sensitive material. The word, derived from the Greek photos (“light”) and graphein (“to draw”), was first used in the 1830s.” (Encyclopedia Britannica) “Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.” (Wikipedia)
  15. 15. Photography definition “The art or practice of taking and processing photographs.” “Photograph: A picture made using a camera, in which an image is focused on to light-sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment, or stored digitally” (Oxford Dictionary) “Method of recording the image of an object through the action of light, or related radiation, on a light-sensitive material. The word, derived from the Greek photos (“light”) and graphein (“to draw”), was first used in the 1830s.” (Encyclopedia Britannica) “Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.” (Wikipedia)
  16. 16. Photography definition “The art or practice of taking and processing photographs.” “Photograph: A picture made using a camera, in which an image is focused on to light-sensitive material and then made visible and permanent by chemical treatment, or stored digitally” (Oxford Dictionary) “Method of recording the image of an object through the action of light, or related radiation, on a light-sensitive material. The word, derived from the Greek photos (“light”) and graphein (“to draw”), was first used in the 1830s.” (Encyclopedia Britannica) “Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.” (Wikipedia)
  17. 17. Capturing Light Camera Lucida, Latin "light room“, 1807 by William Hyde Wollaston & Camera Obscura, Latin “dark room”, the first use of the term by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in 1604
  18. 18. Mozi (470 to 390 BCE), a Chinese philosopher, recorded that an image flips upside down because light travels in straight lines from its source. His disciples developed the theory of optics. The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 to 322 BCE) noted that "sunlight travelling through small openings between the leaves of a tree, the holes of a sieve, the openings wickerwork, and even interlaced fingers will create circular patches of light on the ground.” Euclid (ca 300 BCE) used a camera obscura as a demonstration for light traveling in straight lines….
  19. 19. The 17th century Dutch Masters, such as Johannes Vermeer, were known for their magnificent attention to detail. It has been widely speculated that they made use of such a camera. Jan Vermeer and the Camera Obscura
  20. 20. Silhouettes 18th and early 19th century: a portrait technique used to document people by making “profiles” or “shades” with the use of a candle light. 19th century: an art form
  21. 21. Drawing with the help of a pantograph or Schmalcalder’s profile machine
  22. 22. 3 presentation methods: • painted on ivory, plaster, paper, card, or in reverse on glass; • “hollow-cut” where the negative image was traced and then cut away from light colored paper which was then laid atop a dark background • “cut & paste” where the figure was cut out of dark paper (usually free- hand) and then pasted onto a light background.
  23. 23. Historical information There is an inconsistency in the information about historical photography processes. The reasons are: • Different names for the same process (Calotype / Talbotype) • Similarity in processes (Crystoleum / American Ivorytype / Chrysotype ) • Inventions based on earlier similar inventions (Heliography / Heliogravure) • Discovered processes, that were later used or patented by others (Cyanotype) • Usage of one process on different bearers (Ambrotype / Tintype) • Similarity in names (Calotype / Cyanotype) • Similarity in process (Kallitype & Van Dyke Brown) • Different names for the process and the process on a particular bearer (Wet Plate Collodion / Ambrotype) • A slight difference in the used materials (Oil Print / Bromoil Print) • Multiply discoveries around the same time (Aristotypes / P.O.P) • Language differences (Photo-Mécanique / Photo Booth)
  24. 24. Data In the literature we can find different names and different dates regarding a starting point of an historical photography invention. The reasons are: • Years of development with a few milestones on the way • Cooperation of scientists • Invention or claim of an invention, based on earlier experiments and discoveries of others • No / partially recognition of a process • Different terms used to describe the “fame“: • First experienced • First announced • Invented • Purportedly invented • Clamed / Announced • Patented
  25. 25. The Beginning 1816 - World’s First Negative - Joseph Nicéphore Niépce 1826 - Heliography - Joseph Nicéphore Niépce 1832 - Physautotype - Joseph Nicéphore Niépce 1839 - Defining Photography - Sir John Herschel 1839 - Daguerreotype - Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre 1839 - Direct Positive on Paper - Hippolyte Bayard 1841 - Calotype (Talbotype) - William Henry Fox Talbot 1851 - Wet Plate Collodion - Frederick Scott Archer
  26. 26. World’s First Negative* Year: 1826 Inventor: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce Image: Retinas Base: Paper Technique: Using a silver salts coated paper in a camera obscura. No developer and fixer involved. * It is the first registered made negative. The photograph becomes completely black, due to light and no conservation method.
  27. 27. Heliography Year: 1826 Inventor: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce Image: Landscape in Saint-Loup-de-Varennes Base: Tin Technique: Using bitumen as a coating on glass or metal. The bitumen hardens on the plate when exposed to light. The plate is then washed with oil of lavender, to fix the remains of the hardened areas.
  28. 28. Physautotype Year: 1832 Inventor: Joseph Nicéphore Niépce Image: A set table Base: Glass plate Technique: Exposing to light a glass plate with oil of lavender and alcohol, in a camera obscura and developing it in oil of white petroleum.
  29. 29. Daguerreotype Year: 1839 Inventor: Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre Image: Portrait of Louis Daguerre Base: Silver plated copper Technique: A highly detailed photographic image on a polished copper plate coated with silver. A fume of iodide is added and exposed to light. Then fumed with mercury vapour and fixed with hyposulphate of soda.
  30. 30. Direct Positive Year: Allegedly 1839 Inventor: Hippolyte Bayard Image: Self-Portrait as a Drowned Man Base: Paper Technique: Exposing silver chloride paper to light, which turned the paper completely black. It was then soaked in potassium iodide before being exposed in a camera. After the exposure, it was washed in a bath of hyposulfite of soda and dried. .
  31. 31. Calotype (Talbotype) Year: founded 1835, introduced in 1841 Inventor: William Henry Fox Talbot Image: Window in the South Gallery of Lacock Abbey Base: Paper Technique: A sheet of paper coated with silver chloride is exposed to light in a camera obscura. The image is developed in gallic acid and fixed with sodium hyposulfite
  32. 32. Wet Plate Collodion Year: 1851 Image: A set table Inventor: Frederick Scott Archer Base: Paper Technique: a bromide, iodide, or chloride is dissolved in collodion (a solution of pyroxylin in alcohol and ether). The plate is then placed in a silver nitrate solution and afterwards exposed to light. It is developed using a solution of iron sulfate, acetic acid and alcohol in water.
  33. 33. The Outcome: The First Photography Inventions: World’s First Negative The negative could not be fixed No continuation of this process Other scientists made use of these learnings Now belongs to the “forgotten processes” Heliography Light exposure was too long Quality photograph was too poor No continuation of this process Served as basis for the Physautotype Physautotype Light exposure was too long Quality photograph was too poor No continuation of this process Served as basis for the Daguerreotype Daguerreotype Light exposure was relatively good Quality photograph was very good No reproduction possible The process was used until apx. 1860 Direct Positive on Paper Light exposure was too long Quality photograph was too poor Bayard did not get recognition for his process Now belongs to the “forgotten processes” Calotype Light exposure was relatively good Quality photograph relatively poor Reproduction was possible Led to the development of the Albumen (1850) Wet Plate Collodion Light exposure was relatively good Quality photograph was very good No reproduction possible The process was used until apx. 1910
  34. 34. Photography Pioneers France Joseph Nicéphore Niépce Louis-Jacques Mandé Daguerre Hippolyte Bayard England Thomas Wedgwood Sir John Herschel William Henry Fox Talbot Frederick Scott Archer
  35. 35. Books Photographs of the Past, Process and Preservation by Bertrand Lavédrine A Guide to Early Photographic Processes by Brian Coe and Mark Haworth-Booth The Book of Alternative Photographic Processes, by Christopher James Photo-Imaging: A Complete Visual Guide to Alternative Techniques and Processes by Jill Enfield Photography Beyond Technique by Tom Persinger
  36. 36. Links www.niepce.com http://www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/firstphotograph/niepce/ www.nationaltrust.org.uk/lacock/things-to-see-and-do/fox-talbot-museum http://www.daguerre.org/ http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artMakerDetails?maker=1876 http://www.wedgwoodmuseum.org.uk/ http://www.getty.edu/art/gettyguide/artMakerDetails?maker=1917 http://www.frederickscottarcher.com/ www.alternativephotography.com http://dutchalternativephotography.blogspot.com © 2013

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