Assessment of rural economy in a post disaster setting   peru
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Assessment of rural economy in a post disaster setting peru






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Assessment of rural economy in a post disaster setting   peru Assessment of rural economy in a post disaster setting peru Presentation Transcript

  • Assessing The Rural Economy In A Post Disaster Setting: CASE STUDY OF CASABLANCA, PERU
  • The Day of the Earthquake 6:40 pm, August 15th – an 8.0 magnitude earthquake struck of the coast of the Peru 1 Highly affected areas south of Lima  Chincha  Pisco  Ica Over 500 killed, thousands injured Nearly 20,000 homes destroyed Approximately 20,000 individuals continue to live in emergency conditions (i.e., no shelter, limited access to food and water, loss of electricity and running water) 1. USGS. Retrieved on November 5, 2007.
  • University of Miami’s Past Projects in Peru For 2 years, UM has been working on local development projects in the Los Molinos region of Ica     Education programs Well water projects Dam building & Tree planting for mudslide prevention/mitigation Small scale economic development A UM-sponsored community forum had taken place in Los Molinos hours before the earthquake View slide
  • Casablanca School Children Presented Uniforms: August 15th…Day the Earthquake Struck View slide
  • UM Field Assessment Team Deploys Two weeks after the earthquake a UM team of professors & students leaves for Lima       Prof. Richard Weisskoff– International Studies, Economics Prof. Sherri Porcelain – Global Health, International Studies Shannon Gibson – International Studies Michaela Sachs – Latin American Studies Nick Schaad – International Studies, Anthropology Aleandro Teixeira – International Studies, Study Abroad Funded by the Rasmussen Foundation & UM Disaster Research Global Public Health Program
  • UM Students in Casablanca Post- Earthquake The UM Student Team
  • Assessment Systematically collect feedback from the people in the Los Molinos area Identify immediate and long-term needs in the Los Molinos area (at the city, family & individual levels) Determine potential small-scale economic development projects which would aid the entire community Expand network with local government and community leaders in order to enhance program sustainability in the future
  • Survey Instrument Designed based upon information and knowledge of the region Pre and post disaster: household, education, water, electricity, sanitation, garbage, pests, health situation, employment, inventory of animals, inventory of land ownership, open-ended section. Field test and modifications Guidelines established, reviewed and implemented
  • Methods for Data Collection Survey (Specific to Casablanca)         Demographics Changes Since Earthquake (i.e., damage to housing, crops lost) Education Levels Water Source & Usage Sanitation Heath & Access to Healthcare Employment Economic Assessment - Land & Livestock Inventory Survey / Interview Hybrid Observation Photo/Video
  • Video of Damage – South of Lima
  • Findings from Survey Surveyed 52 families over a one-week period 2 weeks after the earthquake hit Head of household sought first However, multi-generational households, surveys were conducted with more than one member of household present Two assessment team members per survey All surveys were read to the participants & answers were recorded by assessment team members Adaptations: recorded important/interesting comments on backs of surveys, often asked additional questions after survey completed to get a better understanding of how the community worked (collectively)
  • Demographics 52 Families – covering 199 individuals Gender Total: 53% Male, 47% Female Gender Total: 53% Male, 47% Female
  • Education Levels
  • Education Levels
  • Effects of the Earthquake
  • Disaster Impact on Community
  • Displaced Populations
  • Effects of the Earthquake Problem Identified: Need for Quick Rebuilding & Earthquake Resistant Housing Problem Identified: Need for Quick Rebuilding & Earthquake Resistant Housing
  • Government Response NGO’s that did show up NGO’s that did show up Germany AID, Ireland AID, Red Cross, Japanese Medical Team Germany AID, Ireland AID, Red Cross, Japanese Medical Team
  • Non Governmental Assistance Arrives
  • Rebuilding Efforts
  • Typical Household
  • Water & Sanitation Those who do treat use liquid or tablet Chlorine Those who do treat use liquid or tablet Chlorine
  • Water & Sanitation  All residents get their water from a spring which flows from the top of the mountains  Problems:   No regulation mechanism for farmers using fertilizer No trash collection – residents burn or toss it wherever
  • Water & Sanitation Problem Identified: Lack of Access to Clean Drinking Water Problem Identified: Lack of Access to Clean Drinking Water
  • Health Issues & Access to Healthcare Health Issues Since Earthquake Health Issues Since Earthquake Colds & Sore Colds & Sore Throats Headaches Throats Headaches Respiratory Problems Respiratory Problems Other issues since Earthquake Other issues since Earthquake Dust Dust Fleas Fleas Rodents Rodents Flies Flies Bats Spiders Bats Spiders Problem Identified: Lack of Access to Healthcare Problem Identified: Lack of Access to Healthcare
  • Employment & Economy Many work seasonally as day workers – income not steady Many work seasonally as day workers – income not steady
  • Employment & Economy
  • Household with most land & animals
  • Employment & Economy
  • Employment & Economy Problem Identified: Need aamethod for transporting Problem Identified: Need method for transporting viable animal/farming products to market viable animal/farming products to market
  • Open-Ended Questions Words used to describe families situation since the earthquake.           Scared Frightened Preoccupied Tranquil/Calm Traumatized Nervous Critical Worse Sad Poor
  • Open-Ended Questions Do you have any ideas for economic activities in your community?        Raise & Export Guinea Pigs Mill for processing animal feed Collective Farming & Transportation Clean Water Electricity Health Center Chicken Coops
  • Proposed Projects Based on Findings Potable drinking water    Current water source is used by animals and for crop irrigation, bathing, cooking, cleaning clothes & drinking Install a pump at a lower level water source to bring water to the village to be used for DRINKING WATER ONLY Possible use of solar panels to power the pump Health Post in Casablanca   Closest health post is in Los Molinos (40 minutes by car, 2.5 - 4 hours by foot) Train local community members in general healthcare
  • Proposed Projects Based on Findings Collective Milk/Cheese Production    Research indicates that there is a surplus production of milk & cheese Due to lack of transportation, much less refrigerated transportation has kept farmers from capitalizing on the production of these products Talks are underway with the Mayor of Los Molinos in order to set up a collective buyer program Donation or Loan for Collective Mill    To process locally-grown corn stalks and alfalfa to produce cattle feed Benefits: provides local market for crops, reduces highly laborintensive process for those who do own animals Cost analysis pending
  • Community Input is Vital!
  • El Olivo – More Work to be Done
  • Research Potential Neoliberal economic theory DOES NOT apply to rural, collective farming economies     Property rights do not apply Subsistence farming leaves little to no room for savings & investment Limited market & purchasing power Limited access to market Institutional Barriers Common to Many of the World’s Poor    Low literacy rates Do not own deeds or titles to land or homes Both factors make it difficult for poor laborers to receive access to small monetary loans necessary for stimulating family-based economic growth
  • Muhammad Yunus & Micro- lending The Plight of the Landless Poor Laborer      Bamboo stool maker in India Has no collateral, cannot read – thus cannot take out a conventional bank loan Borrows bamboo (worth 22 cents) from a middleman in return she must sell her stools back to the middleman for 24 cents… profit = 2 cents per stool Cannot borrow money for raw supplies- middlemen charge large interest and can demand payment at anytime Therefore, this woman is destitute because she cannot come up with 22 cents to buy bamboo and sell her product on the open market where she would make more than 24 cents per stool
  • The Case in Peru Average day worker makes 12 – 13 soles per day ($1 US = 3.02 Soles ) Average farm worker makes $4 per day Most families do not own deeds to land or homes Lack of access to market – more research needed to see if residents are fetching “true market value” for their crops that do make it to market In one village we visited, all of the homes had been donated by a church organization    The residents had requested to be able to buy the land and therefore have collateral Church refuses This type of “hand out” – not very effective for raising poverty level
  • Solution: Muhammad Yunus Micro-Lending    Provide small-scale one-year loans to landless, poor Provides workers to explain and fill out application papers All members must:     Qualify at certain level of poverty Attend educational seminars and pass oral exam to show understanding of the loan, repayment procedures & bank duties Be a member of a “loan group” Loan Groups    Meet weekly to discuss their progress If anyone in the group wants a new loan it must be approved by members before submitted to bank If one member of the group defaults, no one in the group will be allowed to ask for a new loan for the next year
  • Reconstruction Phase Need better methods to promote human development in post-disaster settings Region is challenged by natural and human-induced disasters Grass roots to top roots approach may be the best investment to improve global public health and human development in the devastated area More to come on the University of Miami’s collaborative efforts to promote community development in the rural communities of Ica, Peru.