<ul><ul><li>Biology G10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 13: Heterotrophic Nutrition </li></ul></ul>
Heterotrophic Nutrition <ul><li>Autotrophic organisms can make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic organisms mu...
Heterotrophic Nutrition <ul><li>Holozoic  involves digesting food inside the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans, mammals </...
A Balanced Diet in Humans <ul><li>A balanced diet provides enough of all nutrients to maintain good health </li></ul><ul><...
Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Energy  is needed for the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth and maintenance of body...
Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Carbohydrates  are the main source of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and starchs (po...
Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Lipids  are also a source of energy and other functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess lipi...
Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Proteins  are essential for growth and repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken down into amin...
Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Water  is essential part of body fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood, aqueous chemical rea...
Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Vitamins  and  mineral ions  are required for  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></u...
The Digestive System <ul><li>The sequence of processes as food passes through the digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M...
The Alimentary Canal <ul><li>One long continuous tube from the mouth to the anus: </li></ul>
Mouth and Pharynx <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food first enters the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically g...
Mouth and Pharynx
Oesophagus <ul><li>Long, narrow, muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Peristalsis move...
Stomach <ul><li>Muscular, stretchable bag with many muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Food is mixed with enzymes and gastric juice...
Small Intestine <ul><li>Most of digestion occurs here </li></ul><ul><li>Three main parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In duodenu...
Absorption / Adaptions <ul><li>Small intestine has special adaptations to increase surface area for absorption </li></ul><...
Adaption for Absorption
Large Intestine <ul><li>Larger in diameter but much shorter (1.5 m)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose is to absorb water...
Liver <ul><li>Dark red, made of five lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Makes bile – alkaline liquid with bile salts </li></ul><ul><u...
Pancreas <ul><li>Secretes pancreatic juice through bile duct into duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes and insulin...
How is Food Digested - Mouth <ul><li>Mechanical digestions? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion is breaking food down int...
In the Stomach <ul><li>Mechanical digestion? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrochloric Acid ...
In the Stomach <ul><li>Pepsin digests proteins to polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Rennin clots/curdles milk proteins to kee...
In the Small Intestine <ul><li>Pancreatic and intestinal juices are alkaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuetralizes acid from s...
Small Intestine - Carbohydrates <ul><li>Starch digested to maltose in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic amylase digests r...
Small Intestine  - Proteins <ul><li>Undigested protein is digested by trypsin into polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Erepsin ...
Small Intestine - Fats <ul><li>Fats must first be emulsified to be digested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bile and bile salts brea...
The Absorption Process <ul><li>By the end of digestion in the ileum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All carbohydrates are monosacch...
Saprobiontic Nutrition <ul><li>Obtain nurtrients and energy from dead organic matter and organic waste (faeces)‏ </li></ul...
Saprobiontic Nutrition
Parasitic Nutrition <ul><li>Obtains nutrients from living organisms (host)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can live on or in anothe...
Parasitic Nutrition
Adaptations of Tapeworm <ul><li>Attachement structure to hold worm inside intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Living in intestine ...
Mutualistic Nutrition <ul><li>Close relationship between organisms of different species where both gain a nutritional adva...
Mutualistic Nutrition
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Chapter 13 Heterotrophic Nutrition 1210745399273844 9

  1. 1. <ul><ul><li>Biology G10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter 13: Heterotrophic Nutrition </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Heterotrophic Nutrition <ul><li>Autotrophic organisms can make their own food </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic organisms must take in food from enivron. </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic nutrition is the breaking down of complex organic molecules into smaller, soluble molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are absorbed to provide energy and nutrients for survival and growth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are four types of heterotrophic nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holozoic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saprobiontic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutualistic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Heterotrophic Nutrition <ul><li>Holozoic involves digesting food inside the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans, mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saprobiontic feeds on dead organic matter, digestion takes place externally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria, fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasitic obtains food from another organism by living inside it </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistic involves two way nutritional gain for two different org's </li></ul>
  4. 4. A Balanced Diet in Humans <ul><li>A balanced diet provides enough of all nutrients to maintain good health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates and lipids for energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins for growth and repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins, mineral ions and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibre for digestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not classified as nutrient because not digested and absorbed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount of each nutrient varies by age, gender, activity level and pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary reference value table used to estimate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a guideline </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Energy is needed for the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth and maintenance of body tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle action (walking, exercise)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary muscle action (heartbeat)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy balace requires comparing food energy in with energy used by these activities </li></ul><ul><li>If more food energy is brought in than is used by activities an person will gain weight as stored energy </li></ul><ul><li>If less food energy is brought in than is used a person will loose weight by using stored energy </li></ul><ul><li>By adjusting diet and activity a balance can be attained </li></ul>
  6. 6. Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Carbohydrates are the main source of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and starchs (potato, rice)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Starch and disacharride sugars are broken down into monosacharrides (mostly glucose)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is used in respiration to general energy </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose is not digested but it is the main type of fibre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibre is important for maintaining health digestion and digestive tract </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Lipids are also a source of energy and other functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess lipids are stored under the skin and around organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides energy store and thermal/mechanical insulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipids also used to make cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Essential fatty acids must be obtained from diet and cannot be synthesised in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Excess amounts of saturated fatty acids can cause heart disease and buildup in arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Replacing unsaturated fatty acids reduces this risk </li></ul>
  8. 8. Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Proteins are essential for growth and repair </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken down into amino acids which are then used to build up new tissure and repair damaged tissues (4% per day)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes and hormones must be replaced </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Body requires 20 different amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 are essential amino acids (cannot be made in the body)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If essential amino acids are missing from the diet certain enzymes cannot be synthesised properly </li></ul><ul><li>First-class proteins have many amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat, eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second-class proteins have few amino acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat, rice </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Water is essential part of body fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood, aqueous chemical reactions in cells </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Components of Human Diet <ul><li>Vitamins and mineral ions are required for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth and bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Digestive System <ul><li>The sequence of processes as food passes through the digestive system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food broken down into small particles with large surface area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes break down food molecules to be absorbed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digested materials are taken into the bodies cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbed food materials are converted to new protoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Must first understand the organs and tissues </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Alimentary Canal <ul><li>One long continuous tube from the mouth to the anus: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mouth and Pharynx <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food first enters the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanically ground smaller by teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tongue rolls food into a bolus for easy swallowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saliva lubricates and starts to digest food </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharynx </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects the mouth and oesophagus: “throat” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air and food both use this passage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larynx moves up during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway (trachea)‏ </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Mouth and Pharynx
  15. 15. Oesophagus <ul><li>Long, narrow, muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Peristalsis moves bolus quickly to stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Ends at cardiac sphincter stopping backflow from stomach </li></ul><ul><li>No villi/microvilli </li></ul>
  16. 16. Stomach <ul><li>Muscular, stretchable bag with many muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Food is mixed with enzymes and gastric juices </li></ul><ul><li>Food becomes semi-liquid “chyme” </li></ul><ul><li>The pyloric sphincter stops the food from entering the small intestine until ready (2 – 6 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>No villi/microvilli </li></ul>
  17. 17. Small Intestine <ul><li>Most of digestion occurs here </li></ul><ul><li>Three main parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In duodenum pancreas adds juices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jejunum coils for 2 meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ileum coils for 4 – 6 meters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very long to allow </li></ul><ul><li>enzymes to digest food </li></ul><ul><li>Food absorption occurs here </li></ul><ul><li>Ileum connects to large intestine </li></ul>
  18. 18. Absorption / Adaptions <ul><li>Small intestine has special adaptations to increase surface area for absorption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single layer epithelium layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner walls shaped as transverse, circular folds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along folds are finger-like villi sticking out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Along villi are microscopic microvilli on each cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Well supplied with capillaries and lymphatic capillaries (fat soluble products)‏ </li></ul>
  19. 19. Adaption for Absorption
  20. 20. Large Intestine <ul><li>Larger in diameter but much shorter (1.5 m)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose is to absorb water and mineral salts </li></ul><ul><li>No digestion occurs here </li></ul><ul><li>Faeces (undigested food) is stored in rectum before being expelled through anus </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria living here produce vitamins (K)‏ </li></ul>
  21. 21. Liver <ul><li>Dark red, made of five lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Makes bile – alkaline liquid with bile salts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps break down fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored until needed in the gall bladder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bile emptied into duodenum </li></ul>
  22. 22. Pancreas <ul><li>Secretes pancreatic juice through bile duct into duodenum </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes and insulin added </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for blood sugar regulation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. How is Food Digested - Mouth <ul><li>Mechanical digestions? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion is breaking food down into simple, soluble substances </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva in the mouth mixes with the food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mucin softens the food for rolling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amylase starts to break starch into maltose </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. In the Stomach <ul><li>Mechanical digestion? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stops amylase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kills bacteria, germs, parasites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides optimum pH for enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activates digestive enzymes so they don’t eat stomach cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsinogen -> pepsin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prorennin -> rennin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. In the Stomach <ul><li>Pepsin digests proteins to polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Rennin clots/curdles milk proteins to keep them in the stomach to be digested </li></ul>
  26. 26. In the Small Intestine <ul><li>Pancreatic and intestinal juices are alkaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuetralizes acid from stomach </li></ul></ul>Intestinal Juice Pancreatic Juice Maltase Pancreaic amylase Lactase Trypsinogen Sucrase Pancreatic lipase Erepsin Enterokinase Intestinal lipase
  27. 27. Small Intestine - Carbohydrates <ul><li>Starch digested to maltose in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreatic amylase digests remaining starch </li></ul><ul><li>Lactase and sucrase digests other carbohydrates </li></ul>
  28. 28. Small Intestine - Proteins <ul><li>Undigested protein is digested by trypsin into polypeptides </li></ul><ul><li>Erepsin breaks polypeptides into amino acids </li></ul>
  29. 29. Small Intestine - Fats <ul><li>Fats must first be emulsified to be digested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bile and bile salts break apart fats making an emulsion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lipases digest fats to fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Absorption Process <ul><li>By the end of digestion in the ileum: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All carbohydrates are monosaccharides (mostly glucose)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All proteins are amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All lipids are fatty acids and glycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glucose and amino acids absorbed through villi into cappilaires </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty acids and glycerol absorbed into lymph system </li></ul>
  31. 31. Saprobiontic Nutrition <ul><li>Obtain nurtrients and energy from dead organic matter and organic waste (faeces)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are secreated onto food to digest outside org. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extracellular digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soluble products are absorbed into organism </li></ul><ul><li>Many bacteria and fungi are saprobionts </li></ul><ul><li>Rhizopus (pin mold) grows on stored foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches called hyphae grow out of food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No divisions between cells: continuous cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small round pin heads are sporangia (spore case)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes are secreated onto the food substrate </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Saprobiontic Nutrition
  33. 33. Parasitic Nutrition <ul><li>Obtains nutrients from living organisms (host)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can live on or in another species </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tapeworm lives in pigs and transfers to humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat, ribbon-like body made up of segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head (scolex) is embedded into intestine wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs are developed and pass out in faeces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigs are infected from faeces, eggs hatch inside pig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worms live in muscle tissue of pigs which is eaten by humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long thin shape allows food to pass without major problems </li></ul>
  34. 34. Parasitic Nutrition
  35. 35. Adaptations of Tapeworm <ul><li>Attachement structure to hold worm inside intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Living in intestine provides constant supply of food </li></ul><ul><li>Protective cuticle protects it from digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Can survive in low oxygen environment </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of sense organs (lives in the dark)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Hermaphroditic can reporoduce by itself </li></ul><ul><li>Each segment produces eggs so that huge numbers of eggs are released each cycle </li></ul>
  36. 36. Mutualistic Nutrition <ul><li>Close relationship between organisms of different species where both gain a nutritional advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria live in human large intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microorganisms live in cow/sheep stomachs help digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lichens are combination of algae and fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rhizobium (bacteria) live among the roots of legumes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attracted by hormone secreated by plant roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodules develop on the roots that contain the bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria convert nitrogen into ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia is then used by plant for protein synthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria is supplied with sugars from the plant </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Mutualistic Nutrition

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