Enhancing The Quality Of Primary Education


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Problems confronting quality primary education

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Enhancing The Quality Of Primary Education

  2. 2. We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to our Director and faculty members of college B K Birla Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pilani for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project and also for their support in completing the project. We would like to express our gratitude towards our parents and our college mates for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped us in the completion of this project. We would like to express our special gratitude and thanks to CAG for giving us such attention, time and a platform to express our views regarding the topic. Last but not the least we would also like to thanks all the people who have willingly helped us out with their abilities. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  3. 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT We know that thousands of schools are running all over India and many students go through school systems learning a little or nothing that can make a difference in their lives. As, even so-called ‘quality education’ is often reduced to reading, writing, numeracy and uncritical and rote learning. But in reality the goal of education is to enable children learn to learn, allow them to think independently, realize their full potential, promoting creativity, incentivizing innovations and to participate meaningfully in society. In spite of increasing enrolment rates, too many children are learning far less than what they are taught about and what they ought to learn in the school. This low learning achievement is due to a inadequate learning environment inappropriate teaching methods and unmotivated teachers. When we look around the world, we see the present education system to be unsuccessful as it has not yet unable to cease social conflicts, nor it provided universal peace neither it has furnished any rational thought to the human. Enhancing the quality in primary education ,therefore, must be based on developing integrated educational system which are responsive to the multiple obstacles to children’s learning as working on the grass- root itself will thrive the tree. The fulfilment of this idea needs undifferentiated approach among students, teachers, society, community and administration. The benefits and impact of quality education contributes pricelessly in rapid economic growth, empowering the status of women, alleviating poverty, strengthening and protecting democratic socialism as a way of life. And finance, participation, long-term planning, policies, accountability, social, economic, and political challenges are influencing the quality education. We are electing this particular problem of quality education for three compelling reasons; first, it is a basic human right; second, it is crucial for the empowerment of children, young people and their communities in securing their human rights; third, it is the empirical foundation of the country. Therefore, we must seek to give our youth the best quality education so that they can dream big and take the nation to greater heights. We sincerely hope that this strategy will guide our future support to quality education, help us for child - centered community development and to give a child a better beginning to life.
  4. 4. HUMAN CAPITAL SOCIAL PROBLEMS ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEMS • Number of children do not receive an adequate diet or mental stimulation at home • Parents find difficult or impossible to give children the time, love and attention they require to develop full potential and confidence. • Lack of teachers in schools • Untrained and unmotivated teachers in many schools • Fewer children have the support of an extended family and supportive community. • Stress, disruptive behaviour, social exclusion, crime, and mental illness are on the increase • Casteism, communalism and regionalism • Child labour, child marriage, untouchability, discriminatory treatment to women and violation of human rights • More children eat contaminated food, breath polluted air and unable to experience the ‘awe and wonder’ of contact with environments rich in biodiversity • Climate change and loss of biodiversity • Education according to and with nature • Poverty, unemployment, and low rate of growth and productivity CULTURAL RECONSTRUCTION AND CRISIS OF VALUES • Persistent erosion of values in the society • Certain values need to be redefined and reinstalled • The values imparted and inculcated in schools are not generally practiced in society • The art of ensuring moral development in a secular, multi-religious and multi-ethnic society needs to be cultivated • Need to reinterpret the Indian culture in its distinct identity and composite strength OTHER PROBLEMS • Lack of Strictness & Discipline and presence of Gangsterism in Schools • Improper usage of Government funds • Teachers use to invite students for joining their tuition classes from primary classes • Unlimited admissions
  5. 5. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS STUDENTS COMMUNITY SCHOOLS ADMINISTRATION ENGAGE EXPAND SHARE PROJECT BASED LEARNING: Real-world issues analyzing information from multiple sources like internet and interviews with experts COOPERATIVE LEARNING: Students should learn the skills of collaborating, managing emotions, and resolving conflicts in groups COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENTS: Assessment should be expanded beyond simple test scores LEARN INTELLECTUAL & EMOTIONAL GUIDE: Teachers can spend time in areas in which students seek additional challenges. TEACHING AS APPRENTICESHIP: Teaching skills should be continually sharpened, with time (TPD) REORGANIZE INVOLVE INCLUDE INSPECTION PLANS COACH MONITORING: Monitoring and assessment by teachers that leads to further learningTEACHERS ADOPT TECHNOLOGY: Use of technology can modernize student assignments, parental connections, and administration. RESOURCES: School design that supports students and teachers collaboration, with pervasive access to technology. PARENTS: Involvement of parents in schoolwork can help students to learn more MONITOR COMMUNITY PARTNERS: Partnerships with community organizations, museums, and government agencies REGULAR VISITS: By government officials and senior people can uniquely help the teachers as well as students BUDGETARY ALLOCATION: No one should be denied of education due to economic backwardness and poverty SCHOOL TIME: Adjustment in school hours and calendars to support student learningREDESIGN SUPPORT GOVT. SUPPORT: Administrative support and leadership of governments that are supportive of education systems financially FINANCIAL PRIVATE FUNDS: Financial resources for education systems must be used properly as individual responsibility
  6. 6. PROPOSED SOLUTIONS... Inter-personal skills Building self awareness Creative thinking Decision making skills Skills for Stress management Empathy building Active listening Giving and receiving feedback Cooperation and teamwork Negotiation & conflict management. Self assessment skills. Positive thinking skills. Identifying owns strength and weakness. Values clarification skills. Info gathering skills. Analytical skills. Skills for generating alternatives. Creative pedagogy Problem solving skills. Goal-setting skills. Skills for assessing consequences. Critical pedagogy. Self controlling skills. Coping with peer. Time management skills. Help seeking skills. Skills for dealing anxiety. Attempt on unveiling the latent endowment. Implement a more holistic and participatory approach. Regular parent teacher associations. Comprehensive specifications per subject. Choosing effective behavioural strategies Promotion for the rights of all children to education without discrimination and exclusion. Communities must develop their capacities to counter gender and other forms of discrimination. Align initiatives to improve education quality with Plan’s learn without fear. Expanding Scope of Teacher Education Teachers’ Professional Development Overpowering resistivity by praising CUMULATIVE CURRICULUM IDEA A teacher needs to learn from experience what has worked and what has not worked and try to reproduce what has worked. Pedagogy, should be culture-specific Remedial Education and Computer Assisted Learning
  7. 7. IMPLEMENTATIONS STRATEGIES RELEVANT CURRICULA AND SAME COURSES COMMUNE TEACHING AGENDA • Quality courses be taught in the primary level. • Syllabus within the scope and interest be only taught rather than teaching what is not needed. • Multilingual approaches in education, in which language is recognized as an integral part of a student’s cultural identity. • Use of Positive Behaviour Intervention supports. • Safe, inclusive, learner-friendly school environments. Both the physical and psychosocial environments of learning must help learners feel confident and safe. • Emphasizes must be on real-world learning and community problem-solving, academics, health and social services, youth and community development. • Schools and communities must connect, collaborate, and create • Work with governments to ensure that curriculum contents include disasters, conflicts, disaster preparedness, disaster risk reduction and conflict resolution. • Teaching and learning process, rooted in the principles of equality, inclusion, respect and accountability. • Teachers have to understand the value of good assessment practices and learn skills to develop their own tests. SUSTAINABLE RENOVATION • Reforming existing modern institutions, to establish new post modern institutions • Requirement of laws institutions and democratic decision making processes • Democratic politics combined with global governance is the key to sustainability
  8. 8. POSITIVE IMPACTS AND SUSTAINABILTY ECOLOGICAL SUSTAINABILITY ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY PERSONAL SUSTAINABILITY SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY • Conserving critical ecological capital on which all life and economic production depends. • Generating wealth and well being in a continuous way without periods of ’boom and bust’. • Meeting everyone’s basic needs • Reducing inequalities in ways that promote social justice and reduce social conflict. • Drawing on culturally appropriate knowledge and promoting cultural diversity. • Promoting people’s physical and mental health • Fostering a state of well being within themselves and with the rest of the world. • Successful completion of primary school with appropriate literacy and numeracy • Prepares people to embrace and adapt to change but also to manage and influence it, • Is an indispensable element for achieving sustainable development • Aware of their rights and have opportunities to realize them • Free from exploitation and labour • Able to participate in decisions that effect their lives • Learning what they need to learn, for learning throughout life • Able to respect diversity, practice equality, build democracies & foster peaceful societies and resolve differences without violence • A more educated society may translate into higher rates of innovation, higher overall productivity and faster introduction of new technology. • Decrement in dropout rates • Enhance pupils’ self awareness and confidence • Make students of today, the best teachers of tomorrow • Integrates interactive learning across the curriculum • Learning to know, to do, to live together and to be • Practical Assessment Tools: Tools within the classroom and developing systems of education to address areas of weakness • Competency: Change in the competency level of students in primary education • Parents Teachers Association: Time to time feedback by parents teachers association • Interests: Development of orientations to participation in ways that build upon their particular interests and desires • Awareness issue: Recommended guidance on developing a global dimension suggests pupil’s awareness and understanding of global issues • Overall Development: Inspecting the overall progress in terms overall development
  9. 9. GOVERNMENTS •Standardized tests to evaluate the overall functioning of the school system •Measure regular school attendance , drop-out rates and Sociability activeness i.e. participation of children in the society •Demonstration of competencies for class 2 at the end of age 8 and for class 5 at end of age 11 •Motivation and confidence to continue secondary education •There is a need for experimentation in program design. SCHOOLS •“How many students pay a lot of attention in class?” •“How many students put a large amount of effort into understanding explanations?” •“How many students are well disciplined in the classroom?” •“How many students regularly participate in class?” •“How many students understood what is being taught in class?” FUTURE MEASURINGS •IDENTIFYING BEST PRACTICE: Comparison of evaluated projects on a comparable basis—what works best •POLICY IMPACT: Without a set best practice everyone feels justified in favoring their pet project. •PROCESS EVALUATION: In part this is a matter of making sure that the program is doing--what it was supposed to do •IMPACT EVALUATION: It is matter of making sure that the program is having an impact •IDENTIFYING BEST PRACTICE: Comparison of evaluated projects on a comparable basis—what works best
  10. 10. LOCAL SUPPORT LOCAL SUPPORT LOCAL SUPPORT STATE SUPPORT STATE SUPPORT POOR DISTRICT WEALTHY DISTRICTAVERAGE DISTRICT EQUILIZATION LEVEL HOW STATE EQUALIZATION WORKS IN THREE TYPES OF DISTRICTS SUPPORTTOSCHOOLS • Governmental agencies should collect educational funds where the money is and spend the money where the pupils are • If a man chooses to send his own children to a private school he is contributing his support to the education of all children • Although the country targeted towards devoting 6% share of the GDP towards the educational sector, the performance has fallen short of expectations • Financial assistance may be obtained from Indian and International Education foundations • Leading schools can depute trainees to learn the new methods and pay a fee of ₹ 25,000 for each person trained. 53 45 35 38 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 DROP-OUT RATES 4.1 1.4 3.7 2.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 GDP SHARE(in %) • A recent UNESCO study indicates the countries spending much less than India are getting better results. • According to the HDI report(2001), among the 143 countries listed, India listed 104th with the share of GNP spent on education.
  11. 11. SOCIAL CHALLENGES • Rising concern over compulsory learning at an early age is prompting many educators to advocate dramatic steps to counter the obsession with premature and forced teaching practices. • Parents may not allow children to live in a all day open commune. • Need of an adequate comparison group to compare independently the success of different programs CAPITAL CHALLENGES • Limited resources for teaching the formal curriculum to a vast population • No automatic way of knowing whether anything useful is being delivered. Hence there is no guarantee that the money is well-spent • For implementation of Quality education and Time to time Teachers professionals development would need high fiscal. FUTURE CHALLENGES • What will happen to secondary education?  As the number of primary school graduates increases (and hopefully their competency level), the next frontier will be secondary school.  Providing quality secondary school education to a large number of students will be very expensive  Every man’s property and income must be taxed to educate every man’s child  It is essential to think proactively and develop now the programs we will need in a few years: Either experiment within large programs (SSA) or start more nimble and try new things until it has been shown they work  Experimental approach: The program is randomly assigned within a given group, creating strictly comparable treatment and comparison groups  Private funding sources can help in financing schools in exchange of free Teachers Professional Development training to their teachers in their new or existing schools.
  12. 12. QUALITY OUTCOMES • Strengthen democratic socialism as a way of life • Aware of their rights and have opportunities to realize them • Free from exploitation and labour • Able to participate in decisions that effect their lives • Learning what they need to learn, for learning throughout life • Able to respect diversity, practice equality and resolve differences without violence • Alleviate poverty and rapid increase in economic growth . ENVIRONMENT Physical elements • Access to quality school facilities including drinking water and sanitation • Low class sizes • Freedom to choose teachers • Freedom to teachers to teach things they are passionate about Psychological elements • Peaceful and safe environment, especially for girls • Creative, supportive, dominance free inclusive environment Social elements • Provision of health services • Meal facility CONTENT AND CURRICULUM • Interpersonal skills • Life skills and peace education including literacy and numeracy • Creative and critical thinking skills • Decision making skills • Skill for building self awareness • Decision making skills • Time management skills • Coping and stress management skills • Comprehensible gender sensitive skills • Standards and targets for student learning • Non discriminatory and student centered • Youth and community development and community problem-solving techniques STUDENT • Engage: Project-Based Learning • Connect: Integrated Studies • Share: Cooperative Learning • Expand: Comprehensive Assessment • Language: Access to language used at school • Participation: Student centered methods leading to active participation • Availability: Intervention and assistance when needed TEACHERS & SCHOOLS • Coach: Intellectual and Emotional Guide • Learn: Teaching as Apprenticeship • Adopt: Technology decrease disparities • Reorganize: Resources of time, money, and facilities must be restructured • Feedback: Mechanisms that target learning needs • Monitoring: Monitoring and assessment by teachers that leads to further learning • Relationship: Positive and gender-sensitive teacher /student relationships SUPERVISION OF PARENTS AND ADMINISTRATION • Involve: Parents active participation in the classroom makes students to learn more • Redesign: Adjustment in school hours and calendars to support student learning • Renovation: School design that supports students and teachers collaborating in teams • Govt. support: Administrative support and leadership of governments that are supportive of education systems • Financial: Financial resources for education systems • Include: Community organizations, museums, and government agencies PRE-SCHOOL DUTIES • Pre-school health and cognitive programs • Early detection of learning disabilities • Learner confidence and self-esteem are parents responsibility • Parental education and positive early childhood experiences OVERVIEW
  13. 13. 1. Measuring Progress toward Universal Primary Education: An Examination of Indicators By Ray Langsten 2. The Effect of Pre-Primary Education on Primary School Performance By: Samuel Berlinski, Sebastian Galiani and Paul Gertler 3. Indian Education System By Karthik Murlidharan 4. The Role Of Government Of India In Education By J.P. Naik 5. Children Out Of School: Measuring Exclusion From Primary Education by UNESCO 6. Education In India By Venita Kaul And Deepa Shankar 7. Defining Quality in Education By UNICEF June 2000 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_India#Workforce_quality.2C_funding_and_infrastructure 9. http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/agra_poster.php 10. http://john.huckle.org.uk