1. ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY ALIGARH (INDIA) Session 2009-2010 THE TIME TABLEMANAGEMENT SYSTEM SUBMITTED TO: MR. AASIM ZAFAR MRS. SAJIDA KHATOON SUBMITTED BY:MUHAMMAD JISHAN 08-MCA-43
2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Our first experience of project has been successfully, thanks to thesupport staff of many friends & colleagues with gratitude. We wish toacknowledge all of them. However, we wish to make special mention of thefollowing. First of all we are thankful of our project guide Mr. AASIM ZAFARunder whose guidance we were able to complete our project. We arewholeheartedly thankful to him for giving us his value able time & attention& for providing us a systematic way for completing our project in time. We must make special mention of MRS. SAJIDA KHATOON andMR. SUNIL KUMAR SHARMA, our project in charge for their co-operation & assistance in solving a technical problem. We would thank toour chairman Dr. M.U.BOKHARI & all lab maintenance staff for providingus assistance in various h/w & s/w problem encountered during course of ourproject. We are also very thankful to respective timetable in charge sir MR. A.R. FARIDI who gave us an opportunity to present this project. MUHAMMAD JISHAN
3. INDEXSERIAL PAGE NO. NO. CHAPTER NAME 1. INTRODUCTION Introduction to Project Introduction to Technology Used 2. SYSTEM ANALYSIS 3. CONSTRAINTS SOFT CONSTRAINTS HARD CONSTRAINTS 4. END USER OF SYSTEM 5. WHY DECIDED TO DEVELOP THIS SYSTEM 6. UML DIAGRAM 7. ER DIAGRAM 8. DATABASE DESIGN 9. COMPLETE SYSTEM MODULE DESCRIPTION 10. REPORT GENERATED BY THE SYSTEM 11. INSTALLATION AND USER MANUAL 12. LIMITATION AND POSSIBLE ENHANCEMENT 14. REFERENCES
4. Chapter 1INTRODUCTION
5. INTRODUCTION OF PROJECTThe problem is to design and implement an algorithm to create a semester course timetable by assigning time-slots and rooms to a given set of courses to be run that semesterunder given constraints. The constraints include avoiding clashes of time-slots androoms, assigning appropriate rooms and appropriate no. of slots and contact hours to thecourses etc Although most of the college administrative work has been computerized, the lecture-timetable scheduling is still mostly done manually due to its technical difficulties. Themanual scheduling of lecture-timetable requires considerable time and efforts. Thelecture-timetable scheduling is a constraint satisfaction problem in which we find anoptimal solution that satisfies the given set of constraints.The college lecture-timetabling problem asks us to find some time slots and classroomswhich satisfy the constraints imposed on offered courses, instructors, classrooms and soon. Therefore, the variables to be instantiated are time slots and classrooms of offeredcourses. Since the problem is a combinatorial optimization problem belonging to NP-hard class, the computation time for timetabling tends to grow exponentially as thenumber of variables increase. There have been a number of approaches made in the pastdecades to the problem of constructing timetables for colleges and schools. Timetablingproblems may be solved by different methods inherited either from operations researchsuch as graph coloring, mathematical programming, local search procedures such astabu search and simulated annealing, genetic algorithms or from backtracking-basedconstraint satisfaction manipulation.We have formulated the method for developing effective and practical timetablingalgorithm  which is capable of taking care of both hard and soft constraints usingsimplified version of iterative forward search technique  based on priority. Weprimarily focused on developing algorithm, which is easy to implement withoutcompromising on its effectiveness and performance.
6. INTRODUCTION TO TECHNOLOGY USEDFeatures of Visual Basic.NET: Visual Basic.NET is a flexible, high level, object-oriented programminglanguage. Visual Basic.NET includes certain low level features that are normallyavailable only in assembly or machine language. Visual Basic.NET is widely available, commercial interpreter are available formost personal computer, mini computers and main frames. Visual Basic.NET is largely machined independent. Programs written in VisualBasic.NET are easily ported from one computer to another. Your programs interface may include the familiar controls that window usersalready know how to operate-such as command buttons, option list, text boxes andscroll bars. With just a few mouse actions, you can add any combination of these controlsto a program. As a result design tasks that used to require many hours of detailedprogramming efforts can how be completed in minutes. The S/Ws developed in Visual Basic.NET are user friendly and good looking In Visual Basic.NET you can quickly design the visual elements of any newprogramming project.
7. Chapter 3CONSTRAINTSConstraints are divided into two parts: HARD CONSTRAINTS C1: A classroom is not assigned to more than one lecture at the same time. C2: An instructor cannot teach more than one class at the same time. C3: Courses for the same year-session students of a department cannot takeplace at the same time. C4: The classroom for a course should have enough capacity to take studentsregistered in the course. C5: The classroom should be well equipped with required facilities for theclasses SOFT CONSTRAINTS C6: The lectures are not assigned to time slots, which are in theinstructor’s forbidden time zones. C7: Instructors‟ daily lecture hours should be restricted to be within theallowed maximum hours. C8: As far as possible, classes are scheduled in the instructor’s preferredtime zones.
8. C9: A lunch/dinner break must be scheduled. C10: The theory courses are scheduled on Monday and Tuesday, and thepractical courses are scheduled on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. C11: If possible, the lecture hours for a course should be scheduledconsecutively. C12: As far as possible, classes should be scheduled in their correspondingdepartments exclusive-use classrooms. C13: The classrooms should be allocated in a manner to minimize thedistances between adjacent classes‟ classrooms. It is desirable for timetables to satisfy all hard and soft constraints.However, it is usually difficult to meet all these constraints. Any hard constraintmust not be violated in any case, but some soft constraints can be sacrificed tofind feasible timetables.
9. Chapter 4 END USER OF SYSTEMOur System is developed keeping in mind that the following end users canuse it in easy manner. 1. ADMINISTRATOR 2. INSTRUCTORS PROFESSOR READER LECTURER 3. STUDENT INTERNAL EXTERNAL
10. Chapter 5 WHY DECIDED TO DEVELOP THIS SYSTEMThe broad objective that I set myself was to develop a generic timetable evaluator,which would allow the user in the simplest way possible to define both the situation thatthe timetable had been developed for, and the characteristics of a good timetable. Suchan evaluator could have a number of possible uses: automatically determine the quality of and to give feedback on timetables Togenerated by an automatic solver or otherwise. integrate any number of timetables. To develop applications for the manual building of timetables that can give feedback Toand make suggestions to the user as the timetable is built. potentially be used as part of an automatic solver. ToAs demonstrated in the previous section, any timetabling problem of real worldProportions are likely to have considerable complexity.For this reason, creating a reliable automatic solver which requires no manualIntervention is a very difficult problem, and most organizations do not have such asolution.Instead, most timetables are created manually by expert administrators who have deepknowledge of the requirements of all parties involved.I believe that a primary use of an evaluator for such timetable would be to giveassistance to the manual creating and modifying of timetables. The human makes everydecision, but can be guided as to what s/he can and cannot do, and can be givensuggestions as to what is the better thing to do.
13. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM(ADD TEACHER)ADMINISTRATOR FRONT END DATABASE REQUEST ADD FUNCTION DISPLAY ADD FUNCTION INFORMATION FILLED SENDS FIELDS DATA VALIDATION SUCCESSFULL MESSAGE (DATA IS SAVED) UNSUCCESSFULL ERROR MESSAGE
14. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM(DELETE TEACHER)ADMINISTRATOR FRONT END DATABASE REQUEST DELETE FUNCTION DISPLAY DELETE FUNCTION ENTER ID OR NAME SENDS FIELDS DATA VALIDATION SUCCESSFULL MESSAGE (DATA IS DELETED) UNSUCCESSFULL ERROR MESSAGE
15. SEQUENCE DIAGRAM(ADD TIMETABLE)ADMINISTRATOR FRONT END DATABASE SELECT COURSE SELECT SLOT ENTER TEACHER,ROOM AND COURSE SENDS FIELDS DATA VALIDATION SUCCESSFULL MESSAGE (DATA IS DELETED) UNSUCCESSFULL ERROR MESSAGE
16. Chapter 7 ER DIAGRAM SID MID COURSE TIME TABLE 1 ROOM INSTRUCTOR ASSIGN TO NAMEID CCODE 1 DE TEACHER NAME N 1 COURSELECT/ TYPE CIDWEAK INTAKE N ROOM N ID LOC. CAPACITY
17. Chapter 8 DATABSE DESIGN All the tables used in the system are normalized.TIMETABLESID MID TEACHER COURSE ROOMTIMETABLE1SID MID TEACHERTIMETABLE2SID MID ROOMCOURSECCODE NAME CID LEC/WEEKINSTRUCTORID NAME QUALIFICATION TYPE LEC/WEEKROOMID LOCATION INTAKE
18. Chapter 9COMPLETE SYSTEM MODULE DESCRIPTION
19. Chapter 10REPORT GENERATED BY THE SYSTEM
20. Chapter 11INSTALLATION AND USER MANUAL1. Insert the Timetable CD-ROM into the CD-ROM drive.2. Open the folder named set up3. Double click the script file named “main” 4. Give your oracle user id and password.5. Follow the instructions of the installation program, which will automaticallystart on your computer.3. The first thing you can choose is the language. Select one of the offeredoptions and click on Next.4. The installation program will then welcome you with the following start-upscreen
21. The installation program will ask you for a few necessary details. Every time itwill offer a default option. If you want to change it for any reason, you can dothat in the respective installation step.There are control buttons at the bottom of the dialog box:Back: Returns to the previous step. Use it when you want to change existingdata.Next: Moves to the next step.Cancel: Cancels the installation. If you interrupt the installation for any reason,you can run it again as described.Default options are suitable for most computers.
22. The installation program will offer C:TTMS as the default directory. If you wantto change it, click on Browse… and find the required folder. When you haveselected the folder, click on Next.6. The installation program will then ask for the program folder name and it willoffer TTMS. Program folders are used for starting programs. They areaccessible through Start/Programs. If you want to enter a different name, typeit in or select an already existing folder from the list. If you are satisfied with thename, click on Next.7. Wait until the program files are copied on the disk and program groups arecreated.8. Finish the installation by clicking on Finish.9. After a successful installation, the program will create the folder TTMS andwill place into it a shortcut for starting the program. It will also place TTMS iconon the desktop.SYSTEM REQUIREMENT: PENTIUM IV processor or above. Min. 256 mb of RAM ORACLE should be installed. Microsoft’s .NET framework shoud be installed. Operating System: windows 2000 or above.
23. Limitation Of The SystemTimetable Management System was created for the use of FCSIT. All the basicRequirements of a timetable such as timetable for student and lecturers, mastertimetable for lecturers, enquiry for free classes and booking for the free classes areavailable. The main limitation with Timetable Management System is that it is notlinking to the current student database. This is because if the system connects to thecurrent database the requirement for the hardware and software is higher.Besides that, another limitation is that the FCSIT must have a permanent administratorto maintain the database in the system. Administrator has to key in the data and lecturerfor the first time registration.Conclusions and Future WorkOur approach of developing timetabling system was proved successful andpractical as well as it demonstrated its suitability for solving colleges’lecture-course timetabling problem. We have also shown that how we can fitour timetabling system as Rich Internet Application. From this timetablingsystem, we are able to obtain useful information for future work. Furtherdevelopment includes expanding algorithm for solving timetabling problemof more that one department at same time. Also improving problemmodeling and search technique, reducing execution time and enhancinggraphical user interface. More research is needed to complete our interactive,automatic timetabling system. The method, techniques and conceptsdeveloped will be tested on more datasets and application.ReferencesThe Timetable Management System can be further enhanced by adding the following:-_ Linking to the ISIS database. So that, the University has one reference database._ with the linking to ISIS database, the task for the administrator is less. This is Because the student data is taken from the ISIS database.
24. Chapter 14 REFERENCES1. PL/SQL IVAN BAYROSS2. VB.NET COMPLETE REFERENCE SHAPIRO3. BLACK BOOK VB.NET4. INTERNET RESOURCESyour comments and regards are welcome! Happy timetabling!!! Muhammad Zeeshan