Pups are born with one coat of fur but are blind. When their eyes first open they are blue and then change to yellow at 6 months
Feed from mothers breast milk and regurgitated food
Are weaned at 2-4 months
Mate during the summer months
Only time when there is some grass on the ground
The time when there is the most food available
Have small packs that consist of…
Alpha male, Alpha female, Yearlings, and new born pups
Maximum 8 wolves to a pack
Will sometimes adopt a stray wolf as a step parent
Alpha status is automatic once a wolf has mated
An alpha male has dominance over every other wolf but an alpha female has dominance over every wolf but the male
Wolf packs behave differently when there are pups and when there are not
Wolf howls are a wolf’s communication to one
another. Their specific pitch
and tone is audible through
thick woods and high pitched
winds. It can let a hunting
party know that the rendez
vous spot has been changed
or the marking of territory
Large packs of wolfs will howl more than smaller packs this is because smaller packs have less competition for territory
Mating season is during the summer months of june, july, and august
Both male and female wolves are wanderers until they find a mate
Sexually mature at 2-3 years old
Female will birth 2-4 pups at one time
Dominance issues are rare because packs stay so small in order to have enough food for everyone.
A demonstration of social dominance is when a wolf stands
over a sitting wolf. The sitting wolf will have their ears
tucked back, and standing wolf will have ears erect and tail horizontal
A dominant stance when a couple is about to mate is the
female will lay on her side with her legs stretched out and
the male will sniff her genitals.
Submitting to the alpha male or female simply means
that they are trying to be friendly and are not showing any
type of challenge to their dominance.
Active submission is demonstrated when a younger wolf
is begging for food from either one of the alphas. They will
approach the alphas with their ears tucked back head
lowered horizontally and their tail wagging, then they will
“ lick up”.the alpha will choose to regurgitate food or not.
Licking up is when a wolf approaches an alpha in active submission and licks the mouth of the alpha like a kiss.
Passive submission is like the submission a female will do for a male before they mate. The wolf will lay on its back or side and the alpha will sniff its genitals. “Standing over” is a wolf’s way of affectionately hugging
Alpha male and female will hunt separate from the yearlings
Both will hunt for 2-3 hour intervals will rarely leave pups alone
Newly born pups will only be left in a hidden den when food is scarce
The wolves will only keep coming back to the same den for a maximum of 2 weeks so that their scent is not picked up but predators.
How do wolf packs act differently when there are pups and when there aren’t
When a wolf pack has pups the yearlings, which are the wolves that are 1-2 years old, are more independent and leave the pack to mate and make their own packs earlier.
Alpha male and alpha female do not hunt with yearlings and spend more time on providing food for the pups
Yearlings will also regurgitate food for the pups
When wolf packs do not have pups
Yearlings will stay with the pack longer
Alpha male and female will regurgitate food to them if they beg
Yearlings will hunt with alpha male and female
Yearlings will sleep in close vicinity to each other like young pups who need more warmth until their second coat grows.